Update: 2020-06-25 09:11 PM -0400


U Hoke Sein's Pali Myanmar dictionary, English edition


A compilation from:
1. Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD), by U Hoke Sein, 1954, with English translation by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) . This dictionary in ink-on-paper form is in TIL research library at 35 Thantada St., Sanchaung, Yangon, Myanmar.
2. Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin), (UPMT-PED) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 200514)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

Basic Consonants, Approximants, and Vowels of TIL-PED as onsets (page-by-page) 
My aim of studying Pali-Myan
  Ancient Geography of Burma, scientific and from ancient Pal-Myan - AncGeog.htm

The following is the 5 x 5 matrix of the Myanmar akshara arranged according to the POA
(Point Of Articulation). The matrix is known as {wag}-akshara, the remainder
comprising the Approximants cannot be arranged likewise and are known as
{a.wag}-akshara. They are not shown below. Column 5 codas - those under Virama
{a.t} - are nasals and they form a subset. Their onsets are non-nasals.

------------------- c1 - c2, c3 -- c4 - c5
Velar, r1 ------- -- -- --- -- /
Palatal, r2 ----- -- -- --- -- /
Retroflex, r3 --  -- -- ---- -- /
Dental, r4 ----- -- - ---- -- /
Labial, r5 ------ -- -- ---- -- /

Abugida-akshara writing system is phonetic, where as Alphabet-Letter is non-phonetic.


My aim of studying Pali-Myan

UKT 200605:

I first set out to study Pali {pa-Li.} to find out what language Gautama Buddha {gau:Dm~ma. boad~Da.} spoke. I've found it not to be Pali. It is Magadhi {ma-ga.Di} which is now a lost language: both Speech {sa.ka:} and Script {sa}. Of course speech would have been lost long ago, but the script might not be entirely lost. It might still be left as a hidden script in entirety or in remnants .

Now, King Asoka {a-au:ka. mn:} who flourished some 250 years after the Buddha, was king of Magadha Empire {ma-ga.Da. -ka.riiz neing-gnn}. The king's language was called Magadhi {ma-ga.Di}. It was also the official language throughout the empire. The script of Magadhi of Asoka time, which should be called Asokan-script, is still left as the proclamations (inscriptions) of Asoka on stone and metal. It is important to remember that the empire was extensive, almost throughout modern India, Pakistan, and Nepal, inhabited by many tribes speaking local languages, and the script on the individual inscription would differ from each other in a few phonemes, but the basic script is the same.

Asokan-script is now erroneously called the Brahmi-script {brah~mi ak~hka.ra}. Now comes the confusion over the word Brahma {brah~ma} [the first phoneme spelled with a single a ], which can mean an Axiomatic being thought to be the Creator, or, to the human Brahmins {braah~ma.Na.} [the first phoneme spelled with aa ].

To avoid confusion, the human Brahmins should be called Poannars {poaN~Na:}. Or, just to boost their ego, lets call them Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} because these humans claim they are the chosen ones of the Creator. They are the "mouth-piece". They expect all of us, the world's peoples, worldlings, who are just "creatures" created by the Brahma, to obey the Word of the Creator - simply meaning  the "chosens", the Brahmins {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}.

However, because they could not decipher the Brahmi-script {brah~mi ak~hka.ra} when their Muslim emperor called them to do so some centuries later. If Brahmi was handed down by their Creator, Brahma, {brah~ma}, they must be able to decipher it. Yet they could not: they have no claim over the Asokan-script.

The script of the human Brahmins {braah~ma.Na.} is at present Devanagari {d-wa.na-ga.ri} नागरी which does not resemble the Brahmi {brah~mi} at all. Brahmi resembles the Myanmar akshara - nicknamed the Zero or Cipher script - used all over Myanmarpr aka Burma aka Brahmadesh {brah~ma-d-a.} ब्रह्मादेश/ ब्रह्मावर्त . See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Myanmar 200606

UKT 200616: I suspect Old Magadhi {ma-ga.Di} would be like Pali-Myan, BUT with a very simple grammar like Bur-Myan which A. W. Lonsdale, called a scientific language. See: Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm (link chk 200616)
He writes in his Preface ((p.roman03):
The Burmese language is constructed on scientific principles, and there is no reason why its grammar should not be dealt with also from a scientific standpoint. But it may be safely said that Burmese grammar as a science has not received that attention it deserves.
With regard to the grammatical treatises by native writers, it is no exaggeration to say that there is not one which can be properly called a Burmese grammar. These writers, not content with merely borrowing the grammatical nomenclature of the Pali language, also attempted to assimilate the grammatical principles of the uninflected Burmese to those of the inflected Pali; so that they produced, not Burmese grammars, but modified Pali grammars in Burmese dress.

I further suspect Old Magadhi {ma-ga.Di} would use {a.ut}, as in Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev. Conjuncts {paaHT.hsn.} [lit. conjuncts of Pali] might be present, but used sparsely. I hope to reconstruct Old Magadhi - but that could not be until I've studied Npali and Nwari. Maybe, I'll need to study Ardhamagadhi Prakrit.
"Ardhamagadhi Prakrit was a Middle Indo-Aryan language and a Dramatic Prakrit thought to have been spoken in modern-day Bihar & Eastern Uttar Pradesh and used in some early Buddhist and Jain drama." - Google search

It seems that I might also have to study Tibetan. See Classical Tibetan Language, by Stephan V. Beyer, State Univ. of New York Press, 1992, footnote 21 on p.92. Examples cited: {wak} 'pig', {la.} 'moon', {n} 'sun', {no.} 'breast', {a.hpu.} 'older brother', {a.n ?} 'fingernail'.
UKT note: It is a pain to see foreigners who are not familiar with Bur-Myan to be quoting on Bur-Myan words and making unintentional mistakes.

Pali was unknown when Gautama Buddha was alive. It was invented notably in Sri Lanka with the arrival of Buddhist missionaries from Magadha {ma-ga.Da.ten:} to teach Buddhism to the southern Indians - Dravidians - who speak different languages belonging to the Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) language group. The north-eastern Indians speak languages of Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) group, and the north-western Indians speak languages of IE (Indo-European) group.

There had been an incident when a Telugu (Aus-Asi) king was chided by his queen from northern India for failing to understand Sanskrit properly and a method of teaching Sanskrit in a short time had been invented. The method was Katantra belonging to the Aindra School of Grammar. Since Panini {pa-Ni.ni. hsa.ra.} - the father of Classical Sanskrit - mentioned it, it must have been before time of Panini, belonging to the early Vedic period {v-da. hkt}.
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aindra_School_of_Grammar 200605

I believe that it was during the translations from one language group to another, some consonant-phonemes or graphemes had been lost, particularly, the first two "nasals", {gna.}/ {ng} and {a.}/ {}. In order to help me in my quest I study many likely sources, such as the medicinal plants which are of the same families being native to the foot-hills of the Himalayas extending into northern Myanmarpr. It is to be noted that Lanka and southern India differs considerably from northern India (including northern Myanmarpr) in Geography, and in flora as well as fauna.

UKT 190901: UHS generally gives meanings conforming to UPMT, however there are instances when the meanings do not agree. This is to be expected when UHS is based on Magadhi derived from north-eastern India, and UPMT is based on SriLankan Pali. Whatever the case may be, at present I'm concerned with the diacritics and structure of the Myanmar glyph. I'll come to the meanings after consulting other dictionaries such as those on Nwari and Npali which are directly related to the speech in which Gautama Buddha preached. Because of the above, I'm paying more attention to UHS, and the page numbers are from UHS.

UKT 200515: #1. UHS has more entries that UPMT. Still, there are UPMT entries not given by UHS. For such entries I have given Pal-Myan (BP) equivalents from Pal-Latin (IP).
#2. UHS usually includes the names of many trees and plants, because of which I have to refer to entries (MPara) from:
Section 9: Para-Medicine {pa.ra.hs:} - MP-Para-indx.htm > - Agri2000-indx.htm (link chk 200516)
- Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, by Agri Dept (Planning), Govt of Union of Myanmar, 2000.

UKT 200605: Though I've translated UHS meanings from Bur-Myan to Eng-Lat to the best of my ability, I'm unsure as to its accuracy. I feel I need to study Pali Grammar from one who is familiar with Burma, and I've chosen Charles Duroiselle. I'll be referring to his Pali Grammar, and to his Ancient Geography of Burma. You'll find 2 editions of his grammar in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- CDuroiselle-PaliGramm1997<> / Bkp<>  (link chk 200605)
- CDuroiselleMazard-PaliGramm2008<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200605)
- CDuroiselle-AncGeogBurma<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200605)
UKT200607: C.Duroiselle searches for the country of Sunāparanta {u.na-pa.pn~ta.} of Punnovāda-sutta of the Samyutta-nikāya, in Pali and Sanskrit versions of the Sutta. He brings in the legend of Buddha's footprint of Minbu region / {shw-sak-tau} {a.men:} and other {a.men:} to complete the connection to Sanskrit version of the Sutta, and opines that there are reasons to believe than Sanskrit was known in Burma before Pali. [note: I must re-read Duroiselle to check my facts.]


UKT notes
Doggie's Tale : copy and paste

Contents of this page

Basic Consonants, Approximants, and Vowels of TIL-PED as onsets (page-by-page)

UKT 200325: I'm now using only one index page to cover all the entries of PED-TIL combined dictionary where U Hoke Sein's dictionary (BP) is the primary dictionary and U Pe Maung Tin's dictionary (IP) is the secondary. The TOC of PED-TIL dictionary will be presented with page numbers of U Hoke Sein's dictionary. There are more entries in UHS than in UPMT, and my method of collection is to enter UHS entries first, and only when I feel that I have enough, go back and enter the appropriate UPMT entry below UHS. However, there are cases when UHS does not give equivalents for the UPMT entry. I will enter them with the remark: "not given in UHS". On the other hand, many entries in UHS do not have equivalents in UPMT. Out of these some will be marked "not given in UPMT".


/ UHS275.htm / UHS276.htm / UHS277.htm 
  material from 190901 ed to kesava UHS278.htm

   UHS352-2.htm  UHS353.htm  UHS354.htm

/ UHS378-2.htm  UHS379.htm / UHS380.htm  UHS381.htm

UHS399.htm   UHS400.htm  UHS401.htm

  UHS405.htm   UHS406.htm  UHS407.htm

  UHS420.htm  UHS421.htm


UHS424.htm  UHS425-1.htm 

UHS425-2.htm  UHS426-1.htm 


UHS426-3.htm   UHS427.htm  UHS428.htm

UHS452.htm  UHS453.htm  UHS454.htm

 UHS456-2.htm  UHS457.htm  UHS458.htm


UHS555.htm  UHS556.htm  UHS557.htm

UHS0803-2.htm  UHS0804.htm UHS0805.htm




/ UHS0790-2 UHS0791  UHS0792




UKT200519: Because akshara {a.} has consonantal properties, it is included the list of consonants in Bur-Myan.

/ UHS0001  UHS0002  UHS0003

UHS0011  UHS0012  UHS0013


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613 : Frequently used diacritics: ā ī ū ṁ ṇ ṛ ś ṣ ṭ

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:  
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher and hisser, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!


Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following: 
Ā ā ă ấ  Ē ē ĕ ế  Ī ī ĭ  Ō ō ŏ  Ū ū ŭ ː
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ ɴ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Book marks: * star, dagger (alt0134), double dagger (alt0135).
Bur-Myan: for {gna.}-onset use c ċ (U010B) - unfortunately ċ is non-ASCII

Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe '
Repha spelling: exemplified by
  dharma: ध र ् म --> धर्म 
  spota: ष ् प र ् श ा ः --> ष्पर
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: भ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ
  च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev Row #3: ट ठ ड ढ ण ; conjunct ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
Skt-Dev numbers, 0-9:  ०  १  २  ३  ४  ५  ६  ७  ८  ९ 
IAST Dev: Repha & Viram-position, e.g. तर्ज tarj [ targ ] = त र ् ज
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa क ् ष = क्ष
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Using ZWNJ (ZeroWidthNonJoiner), e.g. , क्‌ष (code: क्&zwnj;ष)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-width_non-joiner 150630
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ɲ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::tn}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols:
 ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ħ ʔ /ˌ / /ʰ/ /ʳ/ /ː/
  <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) 
  <kick> /kɪc/ (DJPD16-299 gives /kik/) and <kiss> /kɪs/ (DJPD16-301)
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ
Subscripts: ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ : CO₂

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End of TIL file