Update: 2018-09-21 07:27 PM -0400


BEPS and Romabama


by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

My salutation to our teacher Gautama Buddha:

ye dhamma hetu pabhavd
tesan hetu tathagato
dha tesancha nirodho
evan vddi mahd samano.

'Whatever laws are produced from cause,
the cause of these Tathagata
has told; and the extinction of these,
has the great Samana in like manner declared.'

Copied from F. Mason, Toangoo, August 1871 :
- FMason-PaliBurView<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180805)

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

See also Language and Religion, entanglement of BEPS with various religions - traditional as well as esoteric:
- lang-relig-indx.htm (update 2015Dec : link chk 180813)


  The Curse of Babel and Shibboleth

BEPS and Romabama - BEPS-indx.htm - update 2018Sep
See also: - RBM-intro-indx.htm (link chk 180916)

Dominance of Script over Speech in communication - ScriptSpeech.htm - update 2018Sep

Transcription systems: Abugida-Akshara & Alphabet-Letter - AbugidaAlphabet.htm - update 2018Sep

  Travels of Ta თ /t/ from Burma to Georgia - Paradigms.htm - update 2018Sep 

  Sonority of BEPS aksharas - SonoBEPS.htm - update 2018Sep

BEPS vowels - Vowel.htm - update 2018Sep  
   Vowel lengths : Hrasva, Dīrgha and Pluta - measured in time to blink your eye
   The Shudras and Kiratas - the Bronze Age peoples

BEPS approximants - Approx.htm - update 2018Sep 
UKT 180915: It is unwise to complete this section until I've gone through
Section 07: Sanskrit dictionaries and grammars

BEPS nasals - Nasal.htm - update 2018Sep 
  Nasals-consonants as onset
  Nasal-consonants as coda 
  Nasal Endings and respective bookmarks

BEPS consonants - Conson.htm - update 2018Sep   
  Differentiate the Abugida-Akshara system from Alphabet-Letter system
  Esoteric nature of consonants : the search for Ka'minor {ka.gn}, companion of Ka'major {ka.kri:}
  BEPS new glyphs : , , , , super-tha'we'hto


Building words from consonants and vowels

See also:
Language and Religion - lang-relig-indx.htm - update 2015Dec
Language problem of primitive Buddhism,  lang-probl.htm - update 2015Nov

This section includes:
Paleolithic Age and human settlements
Homo Erectus in Asia

General info on above subsections

Pix: The oldest inscriptions found on the Indian Sub-continent are of King Asoka of Magadha Kingdom.

#1. Though there are some human societies which are believed to use language with speech alone without any form of script, is it fair to believe that they have no forms of representation to record speech? Is it possible to have a modern society which uses computers instead of script? Is it fair to believe that an ancient society such as Indus-Saraswati society have only speech without any other forms of representation to record speech? In other words, can an advanced society being illiterate?

#2. See also Language and Religion - lang-relig-indx.htm - update 2015Dec
The present day Burmese language has to deal with four spoken languages belonging to two language groups {sa.ka:oap-su.} - Indo-European (IE) and Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur). To cover all 4 languages, I have to invent an umbrella language which I am calling BEPS {ba.n~pa-ak}. It is the acronym for BURMESE, ENGLISH, PALI, SANSKRIT  LANGUAGES or speeches {sa.ka:} in four scripts {sa}: Myanmar, IPA-Latin, Pali-Myan, and Devanagari.

#3. There is a possible direct link between Myanmarpr and Central Asia, which I'll call the Burma Paradigm . I've formed this paradigm, after coming across Mon Paradigm of Professor Michael Aung Thwin, and Pyu Paradigm of those who question him.

#4. Google gives: " Burma is the Burmese name, used at the beginning of the 12th century, but its origin is still unclear, but historians of Myanmar agreed that, the name derived from Brahmadesh in Sanskrit, which means land of Brahma Hindu god of all things." .
- My question: Which "historians of Myanmar"? Was the first one Taw Sein Ko?
    My observation: historians are not scientists - newer ones quoting older ones!
- My question: What about archeologists writing history?
    My observation: Relying on stone inscriptions - which may be just as unreliable as those by modern historians - can be just hearsay. As an example, see Sacred Geography of Dawei, by E. H. Moore, 2013 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- EHMoore-SacredGeogrDawei<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180813)

#5. Going through the dictionaries of 2 Myanmar languages, Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan, the first thing that strikes the reader's attention is the difference in arrangement of TOC. The TOC of all Bur-Myar dictionaries begins with the consonants, and the vowels come later. Whereas TOCs of the Pal-Myan dictionaries begins with vowels, and then come the consonants. I now believe there is a reason behind it, that depends on the sonority of the aksharas.

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Dialects of Sanskrit written in Devanagari script

There is strong link between Asokan script and Myanmar script - stronger than Devanagari script. I base my view on the circularly rounded shape of the individual glyph. There is about 33% similarity between the two. Rev. F. Mason (Taungoo, 1867), went further. Of course, there are scripts with rounded shapes - but theirs is not circular.

It is now accepted that the oldest speech {sa.ka:} is Vedic, most probably of the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman language) group, and not of the Classical Sanskrit of Panini. Sanskrit belongs to IE (Indo-European) group. It was also used by speakers of Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) group such as the Tamils. Tamils using Tamil-Brahmi is similar to Mon-Myan using the basic Myanmar script.

UKT 171208, 180326, 180403, 180802: I've modified the postulate of Shin Kic'si {shin kic~s}, who has been praised by the Gautama Buddha, as the greatest "grammarian" as shown on the right. 

The writing system, script {sa}, of King Asoka {a.au:ka. mn:}, should be called Asokan (now erroneously dubbed Brahmi). This has led many to believe it is the script of Ponnar {poaN~Na:} - the language of Hinduism, the Atta {t~ta.} religion. Emperor Asoka {a.au:ka. mn:} was Buddhist. He was never a Hindu. Before his conversion to Buddhism - the scientific philosophy based on the Anatta {a.nt~ta.} doctrine, he was a Jain - a religion similar to Buddhism.  Anatta {a.nt~ta.} is the antithesis of Atta {t~ta.} and the two can never be reconciled.

There are at least two major kinds of Ponnar {poaN~Na:} 'bramin': the Braahmana Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} (the northern kind who speak one kind of dialect of Sanskrit), and the Shaivite Ponnar {i-wa. poaN~Na:} (the southern kind who speak a different dialect). Their faith is the Atta {t~ta.} faith the antithesis of Buddhism. To dubbed the Asokan as the Brahmi script is the greatest disservice done to comparative study of language. I usually differentiate the two Ponnar {poaN~Na:}, by how they pronounce the close-vowels. The northern {poaN~Na:} use /i/, whereas the southern ones use /u/.

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richa  170126, 171122, 180822
"Rucha or Richa , Skt-Dev ऋचा ... In Marathi or in Kannada [modern south Indian languages], it is pronounced as Rucha. In Hindi [modern north Indian language], it is pronounced as Richa ... The pronunciation of the given name 'Richa' varies based on the geography and native language of the speakers. Hindi speaking populace would pronounce the Sanskrit word as "richa" as opposed to Marathi or Kannada speaking populace. Both the 'ru' and 'ri' pronunciations of the given name are correct and are regional variants. "

This has given rise to at least two varieties of Brahmi script: Asokan-Brahmi and Tamil-Brahmi.
See the following Wikipedia articles:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmi_script 180802
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Indian_epigraphy 180802


Asokan script is a phonetic script and could transcribe many speeches of various linguistic groups of India: Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur), Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) and Indo-European (IE). It predates the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) by thousands of years. However, "the early Asokan variant of Brahmi lacks many conjuncts and vocalic letters."
- http://www.virtualvinodh.com/wp/asokan-brahmi/ -180711

Yet, Asokan may not be the precursor of Pal-Myan, because of the possible absence of Pali vertical conjuncts, {paaHT-hsn.}. I'll have to look into A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {shn kic~s:} in Bur-Myan)  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1867. See TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - FMason-KicsiPaliGram<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)
  - FMasonMazard-KicsiPali<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)

Read also An Introduction to Kachchyana's Grammar of Palilanguage, by James d'Alwis, 1863,
- JAlwis-KachchayanaPaliGram<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180730)


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UKT notes :
Doggie's Tale : copy and paste

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UKT 180801:

I owe a lot to my teachers who had taught me Bur-Myan {sa} and {sa.ka.}, the first being my father U Tun Pe and mother Daw Hla May. I remember my old teachers in Kyaithtaw Saya Kyw's village-school. There I'd my first taste of reciting the Mora (Peacock) Paritta in Saya Kyw's school. Listen to recitations:

Mora (Peacock) Paritta by Mingun Sayadaw - bk-cndl-Mingun<))
and its equivalent the Gayatri Mantra by Anuradha Paudwal - bk-cndl-gayatri<))

I remember my teachers in Kungyangon schools: headmaster U Hpo Hlaing and his son U Nyunt Shw.

Then in East Rangoon, the d'Silva sisters & Daw Khin Myint Gyi (who I came to regard as my elder sister). And again in East Rangoon, Saya U Chit Tun (a Christian who hailed from Bassein) at Saya Solomon's Tutorial Classes.

At the university level, I remember U Kyaw Yin, U Hla Maung and U Hla Shw. Because of my respect for the university teachers who came to head the Myanmar Language Commission (MLC) at one time or another, I will always have high regards for MLC.

I shall always remember my good friend U (Dr.) Tun Tint, with whom I still argue. He is so close to me that he would not hesitate to call me a Man-on-the-street {lm:pau-ka.lu} implying a rustic fellow, and I return call him the Learned-on-ivory-tower Pyin'nyashi {p~a shi.} on an Ivory tower. Therefore my work is not to find fault with the MLC, but to come up with a unifying language which I am calling BEPS (Burmese, English, Pali, Sanskrit speeches in Myanmar, IPA-Latin, & Devanagari scripts.

In the course of my work, I have to come up with many innovations: one-to-one definitions, and new "what on earth" aksharas, such as Super-Thwehto.

I've to write the vowel // written as Tha'we'hto or Thwehto {a.w-hto:}, placed on the left of the consonant being modified to be easily read by non-native Bur-Myan peoples who have not gone to school in Myanmarpr. For them the Bur-Myan transliterated into Engl-Lat is simply not understandable and misleading. The most problematic are the conjuncts - both vertical {paaT~hsn.} and horizontal {paaT~tw:}. The word {paaT~tw:} is a word coined by me for the Tha'gyi {~a.} conjunct which is mute.

I've solved the problem of left-handed vowels found in Bur-Myan and Bangla-Bengali - the simplest being {} - using such innovations as Super Thwehto. It results in a new form of of the motto of Shin Kic'si {shin-kic~s:}, the Buddhist monk who was praised as the foremost Grammarian by the Gautama Buddha himself. Note: Super Thwehto is to be used when it is found placed between two consonants, e.g. it is only used in {t~htau:}, not in {tau:}.

UKT 180609: English j /ja/ {ja.} (derived from medial-conjunct {gya.}), and IPA j /ya/ {ya.} are different. My test for a conjunct is to find its durability when placed under a Virama {a.t.}. Thus Eng-Lat j /ja/ {ja.}/ {j}, and Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.}/ {} are basic aksharas and not conjuncts. Using {ja.}/ { j} will be avoided unless absolutely necessary.

I hope my Bur-Myan sayas, who taught me the Bur-Myan - both script and speech - would forgive me for muddying their beloved language.

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UKT 180801

My aim is to find the relation between Bur-Myan, English-Latin, Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev. Because of this aim, words should be carefully spelled out taking care of the glyphs.

One of the main obstacles in my task is the non-phonetic nature of the everyday English language with which I have to convey my ideas via speech, and writing. English as a language is notoriously non-phonetic and its script is an Alphabet-Letter. There is no one-to-one correspondence between sound and glyphs. A possible solution is to use the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). However, IPA, which was primarily used as an intermediary between English and French, is deficient when used for Abugida-Akshara languages.

UKT 180812: The word Indo-Aryan, which was commonly used before the Second World War, has fallen into disfavour thanks to the Third Reich of Adolph Hitler. So has the Swastika {sak~ra} 'the spinning cross', the sacred religious symbol of the Buddhist and Hindus, discovered in the ruins Indus-Sarasvati civilization . It is thoroughly misunderstood in North America. In trying to analyze the Folk Elements in Buddhism, by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung, I have to keep myself reminded that I am a Scientist and a Theravada Buddhist. See:
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch05-magus.htm (link chk 180412) 
Read also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occultism_in_Nazism , 180802

I hope those, lay-men and Theravada Buddhist monks, who have introduced me to the subject of their interest - the Bur-Myan occult, such the construction of Yantras {n:}, such as the Four-rounded Yantra {sa.ma.l:lon: n:} "Instrument of Perfection" would forgive me for bringing in the subject of Nazi-occultism. Remember there were and still are those, inside and outside Germany, who had supported the German Fhrer. Both the Right-Hand Swastika and the Left-Hand Swastika of East 'instruments of power' are lying on their side, but what Hitler had worn is the one standing on one of its tips - an ineffectual one.

UKT 180803: The Bur-Myan word Yantra {yn~ta.ra:} (MED2006-387c1 of Skt-Dev origin) aka { n:}, being an important Instrument of Myanmar-occultism had spread to Cambodia and Thailand during the days of the Bayinnaung's Empire, is the source of Thai-word Yan . For Bayinnaung - the emperor without an empire - who is still loved by peoples who had been his subjects including the Thais. See
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayinnaung 180803
"He is considered one of the three greatest kings of Burma, along with Anawrahta and Alaungpaya. Some of the most prominent places in modern Myanmar are named after him. He is also well known in Thailand as Phra Chao Chana Sip Thit (พระเจ้าชนะสิบทิศ, "Victor of the Ten Directions")".

What is not well-known is about a king who was also a Master of Yan {n: waiz~za}, King Dhamazedi of Peguan Kingdom, and his mother-in-law Sovereign-Queen Shinsawbu. See:
lang-relig-indx.htm > dhamazedi.htm

The Yantra {yn~ta.ra:} 'spinning cross' is actually a weapon which can be thrown over great distances. There are two kinds of throwing weapons: one based on square-shape with 4 arms, and another based on triangular-shape with 3 arms. Both are present in Asokan script. The consonant r1c1 the square-cross is the equivalent of Myanmar {ka.}, and r4c1 {ta.} of Myanmar script.

What went into Georgian script is the Myanmar {ta.} , თ (U 10D7) letter 'Tan', and not the Asokan r4c1. Why?

So far the IPA developed for the Western European languages has proven to be unsatisfactory for my work, especially in Bur-Myan which has a full set of 5 nasals, compared to 2 of Eng-Lat and 3 of Skt-Dev.

Giving only English transcription has hindered my understanding of Languages. I'm confining myself to the study of four languages at present -  speech and script - checked by languages which use the same script such as Mon-Myan which uses the same basic Myanmar akshara. I've two principles, or mottos perhaps: Script unifies and Speech divides, and the motto of Shin Kic'si Meaning is known by Script. I hope it will free us from the shackles of the Curse of Babel.

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The Curse of Babel and Shibboleth

When speaking English, a Bur-Myan speaker should learn to imitate the English phonology. It is because of the notoriously confusing nature of English spelling: learn to think of English pronunciation in terms of phonemes rather than letters [{graphemes}] of the alphabet.
See: Section 2: English phonetics
- Eng-phon-indx.htm (link chk 180915)

UKT 180813:

Why peoples of different language groups speak different mutually non-understandable speeches, has been explained in two ways:
#1 the religionist explanation, and,
#2 the scientific explanation.

A religionist explanation:

From Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_of_Babel 180331

"The Tower of Babel (Hebrew: מִגְדַּל בָּבֶל‬‎, Migdal Bāḇēl) as told in Genesis 11:1-9 is an origin myth meant to explain [and frighten the people with an image of the wrathful God, to bring them into submission to the priests] why the world's peoples speaking different languages. [1] [2] [3] [4] "

From: http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Words/shibboleth.html 180401

"A shibboleth is one specific phenomenon involving observing use of language of "out-group" people. It is a linguistic marker that is characteristic of members of a group, which is used by another group to identify members of the first group. Such identification typically has bad consequences for the members thus identified.

UKT 180914: The Eng-Lat <shibboleth> on transforming into BEPS-Myan by use of Romabama is {shib~bol le}.

The story behind the word is recorded in the biblical Book of Judges. The word shibboleth in ancient Hebrew dialects meant 'ear of grain' (or, some say, 'stream'). [UKT ]

Some groups [not necessarily of the same language group] pronounced it with a sh sound [ श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ], but speakers of related dialects [may be belonging to a different language group] pronounced it with an s  [ ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/ ].

UKT 180401: This fricative-sibilant husher श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ phoneme is known in BEPS Bur-Myan as {sha.}/ {sh}, but the fricative-sibilant hisser ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/ {Sa.}/ {S} is not known. It's place is taken by fricative-thibilant {a.}/ {} /θ/.  Fricative-thibilantunknown is Skt-Dev. To understand this note of mine you have to know the BEPS consonants. My BEPS and Romabama (my invention as a intermediate ASCII language) is yet to be accepted by MLC (Myanmar Language Commission).]

UKT 180401: We find a parallel to the two ethnic-groups mentioned in the Bible in two ethnic groups in Myanmarpr: the Burmese and Karens. As far as I know shibboleth has not been used to oppress the Karens by the Burmese majority

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karenic_languages#Manson_(2011) 180401
Burmese speech belongs to Tib-Bur language group, whereas "Karen or Karenic languages ... spoken by some seven million Karen people. They are of unclear affiliation within the Sino-Tibetan languages. [3] The Karen languages are written using the Myanmar Burmese script [It's a pity that most writers do not know that Burmese is speech written in circularly rounded Myanmar script. [4] The three main branches are Sgaw {S-kau:}, Pwo {pwo:}, and Pa'o {pa.ow.}.

Karenni *(ak Kayah or Red Karen) and Kayan (also known as Padaung) are related to the Sgaw branch. They are unusual among the Sino-Tibetan languages in having a SVO (subjectverbobject word) order;"

*UKT 180806: The word "Karenni" was an older name for the "Kayah". It was C. I. Beckwith, the author of The Empires of the Silk Road, 2009, who was cited by Wikipedia:
Read CIBeckwith-EmpiresSilkRd<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180806)
I couldn't find the word Karenni in the above book.

When I ask my Karen cook to slice {lhi:} me some unions, she will bring {li:} 'penis' onions. I could never made her pronounced the Ha'hto {ha. hto:} sounds.

In the story, two Semitic tribes, the Ephraimites and the Gileadites, have a great battle. The Gileadites defeat the Ephraimites, and set up a blockade across the Jordan River to catch the fleeing Ephraimites who were trying to get back to their territory. The sentries asked each person who wanted to cross the river to say the word shibboleth. The Ephraimites, who had no sh sound in their language, pronounced the word with an s and were thereby unmasked as the enemy and slaughtered.

UKT 180404: Two Semitic tribes, one which could pronounce the Ha'hto sound in the word shibboleth, and the other which couldn't, cannot be of the same language group as in the case of Burmese and Karens.

Note the word Semites: which  includes Arabs, Arameans, Babylonians, Carthaginians, Ethiopians, Hebrews, and Phoenians. (AHTD). It is a coined word of 1770s derived from Christian concept of ancient peoples as descendants of the three sons of Noah of the Flood story: Sem (Shem), Iafeth (Japheth) and Cham (Ham), which I as a skeptical chemist, and a Theravada Buddhist cannot accept outright. Just think of them as two different warring groups one of which could pronounce the {ha.hto:}-sounds, and one which couldn't. I'm giving the Wikipedia links.

Here is the relevant excerpt from the King James Bible,   Book of Judges. The full account is in Chapter 12, verses 1-15.
From: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Judges+12&version=KJV 180404

" 5  And the Gileadites took the passages of Jordan before the Ephraimites: and it was so, that when those Ephraimites which were escaped said, Let me go over; that the men of Gilead said unto him, Art thou an Ephraimite? If he said, Nay;
" 6  Then said they unto him, Say now Shibboleth: and he said Sibboleth: for he could not frame to pronounce it right. Then they took him, and slew him at the passages of Jordan: and there fell at that time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand."
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_James_Version 180404

Personal note: I dip into the King James Bible (KJV) (Christian Bible for Church of England written during 1604 to 1611), from time to time to see how English as a language has been changing. It was the Bible my mother Daw Hla May (Theravada Buddhist) was exposed to, when she went to Diocesan Girl School in Rangoon at the turn of 19th to 20th century under the name of Mary.

In British-Burma, children going to Christian schools had to take up English Christian names even though they came from Buddhist families. My name was Harry. The colonialists were trying to make us Macaulays Children - Burmese only in ethnicity, but British in outlook and religion. An education policy set by Baron Macaulay which backfired in India and Myanmarpr.

Scientific explanation of the Babel

The confusion between languages can be explained scientifically as the result of speakers of a particular language group using a particular set of vocal muscles, and another using a different set. We lay aside what has been explained as the nefarious work the Christian God.

My Christian friends always love their God as a merciful and understanding God. It is unthinkable for them to see their God to be so mean. He surely would not play such dirty tricks on the very people whom he had created. His aim would not be to make them subservient, but to love and understand each other. The King in Heaven is not a cruel despot like some on Earth.

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UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:  
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher and hisser, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā ă ấ  Ē ē ĕ ế  Ī ī ĭ  Ō ō ŏ  Ū ū ŭ ː
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ ɴ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Book marks: * star, dagger (alt0134), double dagger (alt0135).
Bur-Myan: for {gna.}-onset use c ċ (U010B) - unfortunately ċ is non-ASCII
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Repha spelling: exemplified by
  dharma: ध र ् म --> धर्म 
  spota: ष ् प र ् श ा ः --> ष्पर
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: भ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ
  च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev Row #3: ट ठ ड ढ ण ; conjunct ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
IAST Dev: Repha & Viram-position, e.g. तर्ज tarj [ targ ] = त र ् ज
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa क ् ष = क्ष
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Using ZWNJ (ZeroWidthNonJoiner), e.g. , क्‌ष (code: क्&zwnj;ष)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-width_non-joiner 150630
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ɲ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::tn}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols:
 ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /ʰ/ /ʳ/ /ː/
  <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) 
  <kick> /kɪc/ (DJPD16-299 gives /kik/) and <kiss> /kɪs/ (DJPD16-301)
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ
Subscripts: ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ : CO₂

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

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