Update: 2018-09-21 03:28 PM -0400

TIL

Burma to Central Asia

Paradigms.htm   

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top
BEPS-indx.htm

Contents of this page

Introduction
Mon paradigm vs. Pyu paradigm
Burma paradigm
Long lost history of Talang Tuwo language

 

Contents of this page

Introduction

- UKT 180913

UKT refutation on Brahmadesh : Skt-Dev is an Abugida-Akshara script just like Bur-Myan. Just because a Bur-Myan word can be transliterated in Sanskrit does not mean that the Burmese word is derived from Sanskrit. Quoting the name of a distinguished person does not lend credit to it. - My message to the Myanmar historians.

Google gives: " Burma is the Burmese name, used at the beginning of the 12th century, but its origin is still unclear, but historians of Myanmar agreed that, the name derived from Brahmadesh in Sanskrit, which means land of Brahma Hindu god of all things." .
My question: Which "historians of Myanmar"? Was the first one Taw Sein Ko?
  My observation: historians are not scientists - newer ones quoting older ones!
My question: What about archaeologists writing history?
  My observation: Relying on stone inscriptions - which may be just as unreliable as those by modern historians - can be just hearsay. As an example, see Sacred Geography of Dawei, by E. H. Moore, 2013 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- EHMoore-SacredGeogrDawei<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180813)

On (p3/34), E. Moore writes: "The paper opens by recounting the beginnings of Buddhism in Dawei as preserved in local chronicles and sustained in stupas marking the episodes of the chronicle narrative. (UKT )

The chronicles start with a visit of the Buddha whose arrival triggers a series of events bringing together pre-existing tutelary figures, weiza, a hermit and offspring born of a golden fish, culminating in the establishment of the first Buddhist kingdom ca. the 8 - 10 century CE. The enshrinement of sacred hairs gifted by the Buddha also includes patronage by a king of the Suvaṇṇabhūmi {u.wN~Na.Bu-mi.} lineage. (UKT ).

Associated with the monks Sona and Uttara from Sri Lanka sent by King Asokas son Mahinda, Suvaṇṇabhūmi {u.wN~Na.Bu-mi.} literally can refer to the archaeology of Thaton, a walled site in the present day Mon State, or, as is the case here, more widely to the missionary tradition associated with Asoka (Sao Saimong Mengrai 1976). The third story in the establishment of the Buddhist king at Thagara is the longest of the chronicle, the tale of a royal hunter who failed to capture a golden peacock for the queen. The hunter became a hermit living by a pond with a golden fish and as he urinated in the pond, two children were born from the fish. (UKT )

The boy becomes the first Buddhist king of Thagara, 11 km north of Dawei, where artefacts from survey and excavation confirm the chronology of the chronicle, with the closest archaeological parallels found not at the ancient sites of the Mon State, but to the first millennium CE Buddhist Pyu heritage of Upper Myanmar which is notably absent in the chronicle compilation."

 

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Mon Paradigm vs. Pyu Paradigm

UKT 180829: "Mon Paradigm vs. Pyu Paradigm" has been moved under: - BEPS-indx.htm

Mon Paradigm - Culture in form of written script had spread from Lower Burma to Upper Burma
Pyu Paradigm - The opposite of the above.

Let's see: 
- DGDenovanEtAl-PyuLandscape<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180816)

UKT 180817: The English transcriptions below have been changed so much that even I have difficulty in changing to Bur-Myan.

"The Ayeyarwady Basin {-ra-wa.ti mric-whm:} occupies the depressional portion of a geological unit called the West Burma Plate. It is clearly demarcated by Arakan Yoma {ra.hkan ro:ma.} on the west (an accretionary plism caused by collision of the Indian Plate to the West Burma Plate) [UKT ]

UKT 180819: accretionary plism - noun, Geology . a mass of sedimentary material scraped off a region of oceanic crust during subduction and piled up at the edge of a continental crustal plate. - Google

See Section 08 Geology -- geol-indx > Geology of Myanmarpr - myan-geol.htm - update 2018Feb  
which on Geology of Myanmarpr in which you will see why we, descendants of Pyus are so rich, in spite of ourselves.

and the Shan Plateau {shm:koan:prn-mrn.} on the east (the boundary is the Sagain-Namyin strike-slip fault). The basin, mostly covered with Tertiary sediment, is divided into two parts, the western trough (interdeep) and the eastern trough (backdeep), by the now extinct Bago (Pegu) Yoma volcanic arc running north-south through the Jade Mine, Wuntho, Mt. Popa {poap-pa:tan}, and the Bago Yoma {p:hku: ro:ma.}. The western trough is further subdivided into the Upper Chindwinn (Chindwin), the Central (or Ma-gway (Magwe)), and the Lower Ayeyarwady Basins. The Central and Lower Ayeyarwady Basins are separated by the Tayetmyo (Thayetmyo) Syntaxis. The eastern trough
consists of the Monywa-Shwebo Alluvial Plain, (p119end-p120begin) the Sittaung (Sittang) Depression, and the Bago Alluvial Area.

"The Ayeyarwady River flows down southward within the eastern trough until its makes an abrupt turn at Sagain toward the southwest. After crossing the volcanic arc around Pakkoku into the western trough, it flows down southward to the delta. Most probably, the Ayeyarwady used to flow straight to the south from Mandaley to the Mottama (Martaban) Bay through the Sittaung Depression. This depression becomes a narrow corridor (a few tens of km wide) between the Shan Plateau {shm:koan:prn-mrn.} and the Bago Yoma {p:hku: ro:ma.}. Presently the corridor is drained to the north to the Ayeyarwady {-ra-wa.ti mric} and to the south to the Sittaung River {sic~tan: mric}. The divide is somewhere between Pyawbwe {pyau-Bw mro.} and Yamethin {ra.m:n: mro.}.

"Thus, the Upper Ayeyarwady has two access routes to the sea; the one along the Ayeyarwady directly to the sea, and the other through the corridor to Mottama. The former actually is part of the great distant route to Yunnan via Bhamo, and navigable most of it. The part downstream of Pyay {pr mro.} along this route must have been only sparsely settled until the mid-19th century [UKT: the date mid-19th does not make sense.]. The latter is mostly an overland route and passes through the fertile lowlands apparently densely populated since the early times. Kyaukse, Meiktila (Meikthila), and Toungoo are all located along the corridor, with Bago at the southern exit."

UKT note: The paper gives the Pyu sites within the above area. Now, where are the Mon sites?

Contents of this page

Burma Paradigm

- A possible direct link between central Asia and Myanmarpr
that did not involve mainland India and Asokan script

UKT 180813: I beginning to get fond of the word Paradigm, after coming across Mon Paradigm and Pyu Paradigm !
paradigm - n. . An example that serves as pattern or model. - AHTD

Scripts are the only reliable way to look for a connection. As for Speech, the analysis based on grammar (with tenses, gender and number) the picture is simply confusion, because some like Bur-Myan do not have tenses, genders and numbers. I keep myself insane only because of the Sonority scale.

It is interesting to note that the circularly rounded forms in scripts are not only unique to Myanmarpr. They are also found in the country of Georgia. With the background knowledge that King Asoka's Buddhist missionaries went even to Rome in Europe, I suggest that among them might have been monks from the Kingdom of Tagaung {ta.kan:pr} of northern Burma. And the Myanmar script might have traveled with them to Central Asia. I base my conjecture on the presence of the circularly rounded script in Georgia, bordered by Russia in the north, and Turkey in the south. In the Georgian letters, there are definitely two from the Myanmar script:

UKT 170526, 180723, 180808:

თ (U10D7: consonant "Tan"), ი (U10D8: vowel "In") and /a/ inherent vowel ა (U10D0: vowel "An")(equiv. to {a.}. You can check on the pronunciations from: http://ilanguages.org/georgian_vocabulary.php 150220, 180723.
 e.g. (number)  Ten: ათი  [ati] ati<))

The name of the capital of Georgia - the country - is spelt the Bur-Myan თ {ta.}. Then the bombshell: why hadn't the Asokan Brahmi consonant, which has the shape of a bola 'the triangular cross' went along?

It suggests that Bur-Myan script is older than the Asokan Brahmi !

Or, it can also mean that Myanmar script is an improvement on Asokan Brahmi.

Or, it can mean that Myanmar script is descended from an unknown script which uses the logical idea of using a single shape - the circle , just as the Canadian Abugida, and Cuniform (central Asia) are based of the shape of triangle (note: the chevron is an open triangle, and a line is a remnant of the chevron). Whatever the case maybe Asokan, Pyu, and Myanmar are closely related.

Another connection between Myanmarpr and central Asia, is the use of Metonic cycles - discovered by Babylonian astronomers before the Greeks - in Burmese calendar calculations. It is not found in India. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_calendar 180813

So far, (up to 170526, 180806), scholars in Myanmarpr including those from Myanmar Historical Commission and Myanmar Language Commission, have failed to address my above problems. I continue to search for an answer to them. A possible source is in Greco-Buddhism - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greco-Buddhism 170526
"... is the cultural syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism, which developed between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD in Bactria and the Indian subcontinent, ..." . I will now look into Empires of the Silk Road by C. I. Beckwith, 2009, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries: - CIBeckwith-EmpiresSilkRd<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180806)

What C. I. Beckwith has written on is history of central Eurasia from the Bronze age to the present. My interest is on Bronze age centered in Georgia: Ten: ათი  [ati] ati<)) : sounds {a-ti} to me which could be {a.ti.} 'exactly full'.

A possible connection between Burma (Myanmarpr) and Georgia is through the Scythian languages, in particular the Saka language:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scythian_languages 180814
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saka_language 180814
"(Eastern) Saka or Sakan is a variety of Eastern Iranian languages, attested from the ancient Buddhist kingdoms of Khotan, Kashgar and Tumshuq in the Tarim Basin, in what is now southern Xinjiang, China. "

Now that there is mention of Pyus (original peoples of Burma) having their homeland in China, I must mention an article:
- http://factsanddetails.com/southeast-asia/Myanmar/sub5_5a/entry-2996.html#chapter-1 180814
"Based on limited archaeological evidence, it is inferred that the earliest cultures existed in Burma as early as 11,000 B.C. [11 Ka ago, cf. Buddha lifetime 2.5 Ka ago], mainly in the central dry zone close to the Irrawaddy. Circa 2nd century B.C., the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu began to enter the Irrawaddy valley from present-day Yunnan via Tapain and Shweli rivers. The original home of the Pyu is reconstructed to be Kokonor Lake in present-day Qinghai and Gansu provinces. [UKT ]

UKT 180823: Qinghai Lake or Kokonor is Chinas largest inland lake and saline lake [I presume it is the remnant of the ancient Tethys sea during the last tectonic change in Permian geologic period (299 - 251 Ma ago] with enchanting natural beauty and uncountable species of birds.
- from https://www.chinadiscovery.com/qinghai/xining/qinghai-lake.html 180823
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology_of_the_Himalaya 180823
See also Section 8: Geology for Permian Period (299 - 251 Ma ago): Formation of the land of Myanmarpr
- geol-indx > permian.htm (link chk 180820)
   sublink: - permian-2.htm (link chk 180820)

The Pyu, the earliest inhabitants of Burma of whom records are extant, went on to found settlements throughout the plains region centered around the confluence of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers that has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age. The Pyu realm was longer than wide, stretching from Sri Ksetra in the south to Halin in the north, Binnaka and Maingmaw to the east and probably Ayadawkye to the west. [Source: Wikipedia +] "

Contents of this page

Long lost history of Talang Tuwo language

For Talang Tuwo Inscription, see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srivijaya 180829
For location of the long lost empire, Sri Vijaya, see Palembang as Sri Vijaya by B. Bronson and J. Wisseman, 1975,
in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- BBronsonJWisseman-PalembangSrivijaya<)) / Bkp<)) (link chk 180829)
"Srivijaya is the best-described and most securely historical of the early statelike polities that can be more or less definitely located in Malesia. Wolters (1967: 220-21) has suggested that Srivijaya had predecessor states near its later location, and Wheatley (1961: 41-60) and Coedes (1968: 50-55, 77-80) have placed other "states" with citylike capitals elsewhere in the South at about the same time that Srivijaya was beginning its rise to power. But as far as the earlier sources go, Srivijaya is the most solidly authenticated 1st millennium state between Indochina and India. It was actually visited for an extended period in the 680s by the famous Buddhist pilgrim, I Ch'ing (Chavannes 1894; Takakusu 1896)."

Contents of this page

End of TIL file