Update: 2018-10-03 05:12 AM -0400


Literary translation

Continuation from Translation from one Script into another


- based on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation 181001

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UKT 181002: The original Wikipedia article is too long for my interest, and I've divided it into two.
The second part begins with 06. Literary translation is in next file.


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UKT 181002: This is the second part of the Wikipedia article.

06. Literary translation
06.1. History
06.2. Modern translation
06.3. Poetry
06.4. Book titles
06.5. Plays
06.6. Chinese literature
06.7. Sung texts : for singing in another language
06.8. Religious texts

07. Technical translation

08. See also

09. Wiki Notes

10. Bibliography


UKT notes



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06. Literary translation 

Translation of literary works (novels, short stories, plays, poems, etc.) is considered a literary pursuit in its own right. Notable in Canadian literature specifically as translators are figures such as Sheila Fischman, Robert Dickson, and Linda Gaboriau; and the Canadian Governor General's Awards annually present prizes for the best English-to-French and French-to-English literary translations.

Other writers, among many who have made a name for themselves as literary translators, include Lydia Davis, Vasily Zhukovsky, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Vladimir Nabokov, Jorge Luis Borges, Jhumpa Lahiri, Robert Stiller, and Haruki Murakami.

In the 2010s a substantial gender imbalance was noted in literary translation into English[78], with far more male writers being translated than women writers. In 2014 Meytal Radzinski launched the Women in Translation campaign to address this.[79][80][81]

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06.1. History

The first important translation in the West was that of the Septuagint, a collection of Jewish Scriptures translated into early Koine Greek in Alexandria between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE. The dispersed Jews had forgotten their ancestral language and needed Greek versions (translations) of their Scriptures.[82]

Throughout the Middle Ages, Latin was the lingua franca of the western learned world. The 9th-century Alfred the Great, king of Wessex in England, was far ahead of his time in commissioning vernacular Anglo-Saxon translations of Bede's Ecclesiastical History and Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy. Meanwhile, the Christian Church frowned on even partial adaptations of St. Jerome's Vulgate of c. 384 CE,[83] the standard Latin Bible.

In Asia, the spread of Buddhism led to large-scale ongoing translation efforts spanning well over a thousand years. The Tangut Empire was especially efficient in such efforts; exploiting the then newly invented block printing, and with the full support of the government (contemporary sources describe the Emperor and his mother personally contributing to the translation effort, alongside sages of various nationalities), the Tanguts took mere decades to translate volumes that had taken the Chinese centuries to render.[citation needed]

The Arabs undertook large-scale efforts at translation. Having conquered the Greek world, they made Arabic versions of its philosophical and scientific works. During the Middle Ages, translations of some of these Arabic versions were made into Latin, chiefly at Córdoba in Spain.[84] King Alfonso X el Sabio (Alphonse the Wise) of Castille in the 13th century promoted this effort by founding a Schola Traductorum (School of Translation) in Toledo. There Arabic texts, Hebrew texts, and Latin texts were translated into the other tongues by Muslim, Jewish and Christian scholars, who also argued the merits of their respective religions. Latin translations of Greek and original Arab works of scholarship and science helped advance European Scholasticism, and thus European science and culture

The broad historic trends in Western translation practice may be illustrated on the example of translation into the English language

The first fine translations into English were made in the 14th century by Geoffrey Chaucer, who adapted from the Italian of Giovanni Boccaccio in his own Knight's Tale and Troilus and Criseyde; began a translation of the French-language Roman de la Rose; and completed a translation of Boethius from the Latin. Chaucer founded an English poetic tradition on adaptations and translations from those earlier-established literary languages.[84]

The first great English translation was the Wycliffe Bible (c. 1382), which showed the weaknesses of an underdeveloped English prose. Only at the end of the 15th century did the great age of English prose translation begin with Thomas Malory's Le Morte Darthur—an adaptation of Arthurian romances so free that it can, in fact, hardly be called a true translation. The first great Tudor translations are, accordingly, the Tyndale New Testament (1525), which influenced the Authorized Version (1611), and Lord Berners' version of Jean Froissart's Chronicles (1523–25).[84]

Meanwhile, in Renaissance Italy, a new period in the history of translation had opened in Florence with the arrival, at the court of Cosimo de' Medici, of the Byzantine scholar Georgius Gemistus Pletho shortly before the fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453). A Latin translation of Plato's works was undertaken by Marsilio Ficino. This and Erasmus' Latin edition of the New Testament led to a new attitude to translation. For the first time, readers demanded rigor of rendering, as philosophical and religious beliefs depended on the exact words of Plato, Aristotle and Jesus.[84]

Non-scholarly literature, however, continued to rely on adaptation. France's Pléiade, England's Tudor poets, and the Elizabethan translators adapted themes by Horace, Ovid, Petrarch and modern Latin writers, forming a new poetic style on those models. The English poets and translators sought to supply a new public, created by the rise of a middle class and the development of printing, with works such as the original authors would have written, had they been writing in England in that day.[84]

The Elizabethan period of translation saw considerable progress beyond mere paraphrase toward an ideal of stylistic equivalence, but even to the end of this period, which actually reached to the middle of the 17th century, there was no concern for verbal accuracy.[85

In the second half of the 17th century, the poet John Dryden sought to make Virgil speak "in words such as he would probably have written if he were living and an Englishman". As great as Dryden's poem is, however, one is reading Dryden, and not experiencing the Roman poet's concision. Similarly, Homer arguably suffers from Alexander Pope's endeavor to reduce the Greek poet's "wild paradise" to order. Both works live on as worthy English epics, more than as a point of access to the Latin or Greek.[85]

Throughout the 18th century, the watchword of translators was ease of reading. Whatever they did not understand in a text, or thought might bore readers, they omitted. They cheerfully assumed that their own style of expression was the best, and that texts should be made to conform to it in translation. For scholarship they cared no more than had their predecessors, and they did not shrink from making translations from translations in third languages, or from languages that they hardly knew, or—as in the case of James Macpherson's "translations" of Ossian—from texts that were actually of the "translator's" own composition.[85]

The 19th century brought new standards of accuracy and style. In regard to accuracy, observes J.M. Cohen, the policy became "the text, the whole text, and nothing but the text", except for any bawdy passages and the addition of copious explanatory footnotes.[86] In regard to style, the Victorians' aim, achieved through far-reaching metaphrase (literality) or pseudo-metaphrase, was to constantly remind readers that they were reading a foreign classic. An exception was the outstanding translation in this period, Edward FitzGerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (1859), which achieved its Oriental flavor largely by using Persian names and discreet Biblical echoes and actually drew little of its material from the Persian original.[85]

In advance of the 20th century, a new pattern was set in 1871 by Benjamin Jowett, who translated Plato into simple, straightforward language. Jowett's example was not followed, however, until well into the new century, when accuracy rather than style became the principal criterion. [85]

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06.2. Modern translation

As a language evolves, texts in an earlier version of the language -- original texts, or old translations -- may become difficult for modern readers to understand. Such a text may therefore be translated into more modern language, producing a "modern translation" (e.g., a "modern English translation" or "modernized translation").

Such modern rendering is applied either to literature from classical languages such as Latin or Greek, notably to the Bible (see "Modern English Bible translations"), or to literature from an earlier stage of the same language, as with the works of William Shakespeare (which are largely understandable by a modern audience, though with some difficulty) or with Geoffrey Chaucer's Middle English Canterbury Tales (which is understandable to most modern readers only through heavy dependence on footnotes).

Modern translation is applicable to any language with a long literary history. For example, in Japanese the 11th-century Tale of Genji is generally read in modern translation (see "Genji: modern readership").

Modern translation often involves literary scholarship and textual revision, as there is frequently not one single canonical text. This is particularly noteworthy in the case of the Bible and Shakespeare, where modern scholarship can result in substantive textual changes

Modern translation meets with opposition from some traditionalists. In English, some readers prefer the Authorized King James Version of the Bible to modern translations, and Shakespeare in the original of c. 1600 to modern translations

An opposite process involves translating modern literature into classical languages, for the purpose of extensive reading (for examples, see "List of Latin translations of modern literature").

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06.3. Poetry

Views on the possibility of satisfactorily translating poetry show a broad spectrum, depending largely on the degree of latitude to be granted the translator in regard to a poem's formal features (rhythm, rhyme, verse form, etc.).

Douglas Hofstadter, in his 1997 book, Le Ton beau de Marot, argued that a good translation of a poem must convey as much as possible not only of its literal meaning but also of its form and structure (meter, rhyme or alliteration scheme, etc.).[87]

The Russian-born linguist and semiotician Roman Jakobson, however, had in his 1959 paper "On Linguistic Aspects of Translation", declared that "poetry by definition [is] untranslatable".

Vladimir Nabokov, another Russian-born author, took a view similar to Jakobson's. He considered rhymed, metrical, versed poetry to be in principle untranslatable and therefore rendered his 1964 English translation of Alexander Pushkin's Eugene Onegin in prose

Hofstadter, in Le Ton beau de Marot, criticized Nabokov's attitude toward verse translation. In 1999 Hofstadter published his own translation of Eugene Onegin, in verse form

Gregory Hays, in the course of discussing Roman adapted translations of ancient Greek literature, makes approving reference to some views on the translating of poetry expressed by David Bellos, an accomplished French-to-English translator. Hays writes:

Among the idées reçues [received ideas] skewered by David Bellos is the old saw that "poetry is what gets lost in translation." The saying is often attributed to Robert Frost, but as Bellos notes, the attribution is as dubious as the idea itself. A translation is an assemblage of words, and as such it can contain as much or as little poetry as any other such assemblage. The Japanese even have a word (chōyaku, roughly "hypertranslation") to designate a version that deliberately improves on the original.[88]


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06.4. Book titles

Book-title translations can be either descriptive or symbolic. Descriptive book titles, for example Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's Le Petit Prince (The Little Prince), are meant to be informative, and can name the protagonist, and indicate the theme of the book. An example of a symbolic book title is Stieg Larsson's The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, whose original Swedish title is Män som hatar kvinnor (Men Who Hate Women). Such symbolic book titles usually indicate the theme, issues, or atmosphere of the work.

When translators are working with long book titles, the translated titles are often shorter and indicate the theme of the book.[89]

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06.5. Plays

The translation of plays poses many problems such as the added element of actors, speech duration, translation literalness, and the relationship between the arts of drama and acting. Successful play translators are able to create language that allows the actor and the playwright to work together effectively.[90] Play translators must also take into account several other aspects: the final performance, varying theatrical and acting traditions, characters' speaking styles, modern theatrical discourse, and even the acoustics of the auditorium, i.e., whether certain words will have the same effect on the new audience as they had on the original audience.[91]

Audiences in Shakespeare's time were more accustomed than modern playgoers to actors having longer stage time.[92] Modern translators tend to simplify the sentence structures of earlier dramas, which included compound sentences with intricate hierarchies of subordinate clauses.[93][94]

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06.6. Chinese literature

In translating Chinese literature, translators struggle to find true fidelity in translating into the target language. In The Poem Behind the Poem, Barnstone argues that poetry "can't be made to sing through a mathematics that doesn't factor in the creativity of the translator".[95

A notable piece of work translated into English is the Wen Xuan, an anthology representative of major works of Chinese literature. Translating this work requires a high knowledge of the genres presented in the book, such as poetic forms, various prose types including memorials, letters, proclamations, praise poems, edicts, and historical, philosophical and political disquisitions, threnodies and laments for the dead, and examination essays. Thus the literary translator must be familiar with the writings, lives, and thought of a large number of its 130 authors, making the Wen Xuan one of the most difficult literary works to translate.[96]

Translation generally, much as with Kurt Gödel's conception of mathematics, requires, to varying extents, more information than appears in the page of text being translated.

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06.7. Sung texts : for singing in another language

Translation of a text that is sung in vocal music for the purpose of singing in another language—sometimes called "singing translation"—is closely linked to translation of poetry because most vocal music, at least in the Western tradition, is set to verse, especially verse in regular patterns with rhyme. (Since the late 19th century, musical setting of prose and free verse has also been practiced in some art music, though popular music tends to remain conservative in its retention of stanzaic forms with or without refrains.) A rudimentary example of translating poetry for singing is church hymns, such as the German chorales translated into English by Catherine Winkworth.[97]

Translation of sung texts is generally much more restrictive than translation of poetry, because in the former there is little or no freedom to choose between a versified translation and a translation that dispenses with verse structure. One might modify or omit rhyme in a singing translation, but the assignment of syllables to specific notes in the original musical setting places great challenges on the translator. There is the option in prose sung texts, less so in verse, of adding or deleting a syllable here and there by subdividing or combining notes, respectively, but even with prose the process is almost like strict verse translation because of the need to stick as closely as possible to the original prosody of the sung melodic line.

Other considerations in writing a singing translation include repetition of words and phrases, the placement of rests and/or punctuation, the quality of vowels sung on high notes, and rhythmic features of the vocal line that may be more natural to the original language than to the target language. A sung translation may be considerably or completely different from the original, thus resulting in a contrafactum.

Translations of sung texts—whether of the above type meant to be sung or of a more or less literal type meant to be read—are also used as aids to audiences, singers and conductors, when a work is being sung in a language not known to them. The most familiar types are translations presented as subtitles or surtitles projected during opera performances, those inserted into concert programs, and those that accompany commercial audio CDs of vocal music. In addition, professional and amateur singers often sing works in languages they do not know (or do not know well), and translations are then used to enable them to understand the meaning of the words they are singing.

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06.8. Religious texts

An important role in history has been played by translation of religious texts. Such translations may be influenced by tension between the text and the religious values the translators wish to convey. For example, Buddhist monks who translated the Indian sutras into Chinese occasionally adjusted their translations to better reflect China's distinct culture, emphasizing notions such as filial piety.

One of the first recorded instances of translation in the West was the rendering of the Old Testament into Greek in the 3rd century BCE. The translation is known as the "Septuagint", a name that refers to the supposedly seventy translators (seventy-two, in some versions) who were commissioned to translate the Bible at Alexandria, Egypt. According to legend, each translator worked in solitary confinement in his own cell, and, according to legend, all seventy versions proved identical. The Septuagint became the source text for later translations into many languages, including Latin, Coptic, Armenian and Georgian.

Still considered one of the greatest translators in history, for having rendered the Bible into Latin, is Jerome of Stridon, the patron saint of translators. For centuries the Roman Catholic Church used his translation (known as the Vulgate), though even this translation at first stirred controversy.

The periods preceding and contemporary with the Protestant Reformation saw translations of the Bible into vernacular (local) European languages—a development that contributed to Western Christianity's split into Roman Catholicism and Protestantism due to disparities between Catholic and Protestant versions of crucial words and passages (though the Protestant movement was largely based on other things, such as a perceived need to reform the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate corruption). Lasting effects on the religions, cultures, and languages of their respective countries were exerted by such Bible translations as Martin Luther's into German, Jakub Wujek's into Polish, and William Tyndale's and later the King James Bible's translators' into English.

Efforts to translate the Bible into English had their martyrs. William Tyndale (c. 1494–1536) was convicted of heresy at Antwerp, was strangled to death while tied at the stake, and then his dead body was burned.[98] Earlier, John Wycliffe (c. mid-1320s – 1384) had managed to die a natural death, but 30 years later the Council of Constance in 1415 declared him a heretic and decreed that his works and earthly remains should be burned; the order, confirmed by Pope Martin V, was carried out in 1428, and Wycliffe's corpse was exhumed and burned and the ashes cast into the River Swift. Debate and religious schism over different translations of religious texts continue, as demonstrated by, for example, the King James Only movement.

One famous mistranslation of a Biblical text is the rendering of the Hebrew word קֶרֶן‎ (keren), which has several meanings, as "horn" in a context where it more plausibly means "beam of light": as a result, for centuries artists, including sculptor Michelangelo, have rendered Moses the Lawgiver with horns growing from his forehead.

Such fallibility of the translation process has contributed to the Islamic world's ambivalence about translating the Quran (also spelled Koran) out of the original Arabic, as received by the prophet Muhammad from Allah (God) through the angel Gabriel. During prayers, the Quran, as the miraculous and inimitable word of Allah, is recited only in Arabic. However, as of 1936, it had been translated into at least 102 languages.[99]

A fundamental difficulty in translating the Quran accurately stems from the fact that an Arabic word, like a Hebrew or Aramaic word, may have a range of meanings, depending on context. This is said to be a linguistic feature, particularly of all Semitic languages, that adds to the usual similar difficulties encountered in translating between any two languages.[99] There is always an element of human judgment—of interpretation—involved in understanding and translating a text. Muslims regard any translation of the Quran as but one possible interpretation of the Quranic (Classical) Arabic text, and not as a full equivalent of that divinely communicated original. Hence such a translation is often called an "interpretation" rather than a translation.[100]

To complicate matters further, as with other languages, the meanings and usages of some expressions have changed over time, between the Classical Arabic of the Quran, and modern Arabic. Thus a modern Arabic speaker may misinterpret the meaning of a word or passage in the Quran. Moreover, the interpretation of a Quranic passage will also depend on the historic context of Muhammad's life and of his early community. Properly researching that context requires a detailed knowledge of hadith and sirah, which are themselves vast and complex texts. Hence, analogously to the translating of Chinese literature, an attempt at an accurate translation of the Quran requires a knowledge not only of the Arabic language and of the target language, including their respective evolutions, but also a deep understanding of the two cultures involved.

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07. Technical translation

Technical translation renders documents such as manuals, instruction sheets, internal memos, minutes, financial reports, and other documents for a limited audience (who are directly affected by the document) and whose useful life is often limited. Thus, a user guide for a particular model of refrigerator is useful only for the owner of the refrigerator, and will remain useful only as long as that refrigerator model is in use. Similarly, software documentation generally pertains to a particular software, whose applications are used only by a certain class of users.[101]

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09. Wiki Notes

001. Jump up ^ The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Namit Bhatia, ed., 1992, pp. 1,051–54.
002. Jump up ^ Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", The Polish Review, vol. XXVIII, no. 2, 1983, pp. 84-87.
003. Jump up ^ W.J. Hutchins, Early Years in Machine Translation: Memoirs and Biographies of Pioneers, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 2000.
004. Jump up ^ M. Snell-Hornby, The Turns of Translation Studies: New Paradigms or Shifting Viewpoints?, Philadelphia, John Benjamins, 2006, p. 133.
005. Jump up ^ "Rosetta Stone", The Columbia Encyclopedia, 5th ed., 1994, p. 2,361.
006. Jump up ^ Vélez, Fabio. Antes de Babel. pp. 3–21.
007. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", p. 83.
008. Jump up ^ Except in the case of the modern Dutch equivalent, "vertaling"—a "re-language-ing": ver + talen = "to change the language". The earlier Dutch overzetting (noun) and overzetten (verb) in the sense of "translation" and "to translate", respectively, are considered archaic. While omzetting may still be found in early modern literary works, it has been replaced entirely in modern Dutch by vertaling. See "overzetting" in Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal, IvdNT.
009. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", p. 84.

010. Jump up ^ "Ideal concepts" are useful as well in other fields, such as physics and chemistry, which include the concepts of perfectly solid bodies, perfectly rigid bodies, perfectly plastic bodies, perfectly black bodies, perfect crystals, perfect fluids, and perfect gases. Władysław Tatarkiewicz, On Perfection (first published in Polish in 1976 as O doskonałości); English translation by Christopher Kasparek subsequently serialized in 1979–1981 in Dialectics and Humanism: The Polish Philosophical Quarterly, and reprinted in Władysław Tatarkiewicz, On Perfection, Warsaw University Press, 1992.
011. Jump up ^ Typically, analytic languages.
012. Jump up ^ Typically, synthetic languages.
013. Jump up ^ Some examples of this are described in the article, "Translating the 17th of May into English and other horror stories", retrieved 2010-04-15.
014. ^ Jump up to: a b c Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", p. 85.
015. Jump up ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", pp. 85-86.
016. Jump up ^ L.G. Kelly, cited in Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", p. 86.
017. ^ Jump up to: a b Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", p. 86.
018. Jump up ^ Cited by Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", p. 87, from Ignacy Krasicki, "O tłumaczeniu ksiąg" ("On Translating Books"), in Dzieła wierszem i prozą (Works in Verse and Prose), 1803, reprinted in Edward Balcerzan, ed., Pisarze polscy o sztuce przekładu, 1440–1974: Antologia (Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, 1440–1974: an Anthology), p. 79.
019. Jump up ^ J.M. Cohen, "Translation", Encyclopedia Americana, 1986, vol. 27, p. 12.

020. Jump up ^ Perry Link, "A Magician of Chinese Poetry" (review of Eliot Weinberger, with an afterword by Octavio Paz, 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei (with More Ways), New Directions; and Eliot Weinberger, The Ghosts of Birds, New Directions), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIII, no. 18 (November 24, 2016), pp. 49–50.
021. ^ Jump up to: a b Perry Link, "A Magician of Chinese Poetry", The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIII, no. 18 (November 24, 2016), p. 49.
022. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Perry Link, "A Magician of Chinese Poetry", The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIII, no. 18 (November 24, 2016), p. 50.
023. ^ Jump up to: a b Christopher de Bellaigue, "Dreams of Islamic Liberalism" (review of Marwa Elshakry, Reading Darwin in Arabic, 1860–1950, University of Chicago Press), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), p. 77.
024. Jump up ^ Malise Ruthven, "The Islamic Road to the Modern World" (review of Christopher de Bellaigue, The Islamic Enlightenment: The Struggle between Faith and Reason, 1798 to Modern Times, Liveright; and Wael Abu-'Uksa, Freedom in the Arab World: Concepts and Ideologies in Arabic Thought in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 11 (22 June 2017), p. 22.
025. Jump up ^ Malise Ruthven, "The Islamic Road to the Modern World" (review of Christopher de Bellaigue, The Islamic Enlightenment: The Struggle between Faith and Reason, 1798 to Modern Times, Liveright; and Wael Abu-'Uksa, Freedom in the Arab World: Concepts and Ideologies in Arabic Thought in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 11 (22 June 2017), p. 24.
026. Jump up ^ Christopher de Bellaigue, "Dreams of Islamic Liberalism" (review of Marwa Elshakry, Reading Darwin in Arabic, 1860–1950), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), p. 77–78.
027. Jump up ^ Christopher de Bellaigue, "Dreams of Islamic Liberalism" (review of Marwa Elshakry, Reading Darwin in Arabic, 1860–1950), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), p. 78.
028. Jump up ^ French philosopher and writer Gilles Ménage (1613-92) commented on translations by humanist Perrot Nicolas d'Ablancourt (1606-64): "Elles me rappellent une femme que j'ai beaucoup aimé à Tours, et qui était belle mais infidèle." ("They remind me of a woman whom I greatly loved in Tours, who was beautiful but unfaithful.") Quoted in Amparo Hurtado Albir, La notion de fidélité en traduction, (The Idea of Fidelity in Translation), Paris, Didier Érudition, 1990, p. 231.
029. Jump up ^ Dryden, John. "Preface to Sylvae". Bartelby.com. Retrieved 27 April 2015.

030. Jump up ^ Antoine Berman, L'épreuve de l'étranger, 1984.
031. Jump up ^ Lawrence Venuti, "Call to Action", in The Translator's Invisibility, 1994.
032. Jump up ^ Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", pp. 83-87.
033. Jump up ^ "How to Overcome These 5 Challenges of English to Spanish Translation". Jr Language. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
034. Jump up ^ Crystal, Scott. "Back Translation: Same questions – different continent" (PDF). Communicate (Winter 2004): 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-05-20. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
035. Jump up ^ "Back Translation for Quality Control of Informed Consent Forms" (PDF). Journal of Clinical Research Best Practices. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2006. Retrieved 1 February 2006.
036. Jump up ^ Mark Twain, The Jumping Frog: In English, Then in French, and Then Clawed Back into a Civilized Language Once More by Patient, Unremunerated Toil, illustrated by F. Strothman, New York and London, Harper & Brothers, Publishers, MCMIII [1903].
037. Jump up ^ Czesław Miłosz, The History of Polish Literature, pp. 193–94.
038. Jump up ^ Gilman, E. Ward (ed.). 1989. "A Brief History of English Usage", Webster's Dictionary of English Usage. Springfield (Mass.): Merriam-Webster, pp. 7a-11a, Archived 2008-12-01 at the Wayback Machine.
039. Jump up ^ Greene, Robert Lane. "Three Books for the Grammar Lover in Your Life : NPR". NPR. Retrieved 18 May 2011.

040. Jump up ^ Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, 2002, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, p. 627f.
041. Jump up ^ Stamper, Kory (2017-01-01). Word by Word: The Secret Life of Dictionaries. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 47. ISBN 9781101870945.
042. Jump up ^ Cf. a supposed comment by Winston Churchill: "This is the type of pedantry up with which I will not put."
043. Jump up ^ *Christopher Kasparek, "Prus' Pharaoh and Curtin's Translation," The Polish Review, vol. XXXI, nos. 2–3 (1986), p. 135.
044. Jump up ^ Mario Pei, The Story of Language, p. 424.
045. Jump up ^ Stephen Greenblatt, "Can We Ever Master King Lear?", The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 3 (February 23, 2017), p. 36.
046. Jump up ^ "Interpretation" in this sense is to be distinguished from the function of an ""interpreter" who translates orally or by the use of sign language.
047. Jump up ^ Zdzisław Najder, Joseph Conrad: A Life, 2007, p. IX.
048. Jump up ^ Zdzisław Najder, Joseph Conrad: A Life, 2007, p. 524.
049. Jump up ^ Zdzisław Najder, Joseph Conrad: A Life, 2007, p. 332.

050. Jump up ^ Walter Kaiser, "A Hero of Translation" (a review of Jean Findlay, Chasing Lost Time: The Life of C.K. Scott Moncrieff: Soldier, Spy, and Translator), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), p. 55.
051. Jump up ^ See "Poetry", below, for a similar observation concerning the occasional superiority of the translation over the original.
052. Jump up ^ Emily Wilson writes that "translation always involves interpretation, and [requires] every translator... to think as deeply as humanly possible about each verbal, poetic, and interpretative choice." Emily Wilson, "A Doggish Translation" (review of The Poems of Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, and The Shield of Herakles, translated from the Greek by Barry B. Powell, University of California Press, 2017, 184 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 1 (18 January 2018), p. 36.
053. Jump up ^ Gary Marcus, "Am I Human?: Researchers need new ways to distinguish artificial intelligence from the natural kind", Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 3 (March 2017), p. 63.
054. Jump up ^ Gary Marcus, "Am I Human?: Researchers need new ways to distinguish artificial intelligence from the natural kind", Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 3 (March 2017), p. 61.
055. Jump up ^ David Bromwich, "In Praise of Ambiguity" (a review of Michael Wood, On Empson, Princeton University Press, 2017), The New York Review of Books), vol. LXIV, no. 16 (26 October 2017), pp. 50–52.
056. Jump up ^ Billiani, Francesca (2001)
057. Jump up ^ Anka Muhlstein, "Painters and Writers: When Something New Happens", The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 1 (January 19, 2017), p. 35.
058. Jump up ^ W.S. Merwin: To Plant a Tree: one-hour documentary shown on PBS. Elsewhere Merwin recalls Pound saying: "[A]t your age you don't have anything to write about. You may think you do, but you don't. So get to work translating. The Provençal is the real source...." Ange Mlinko, "Whole Earth Troubador" (review of The Essential W.S. Merlin, edited by Michael Wiegers, Copper Canyon, 338 pp., 2017), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 19 (7 December 2017), p. 45.
059. Jump up ^ Merwin's introduction to his 2013 Selected Translations, quoted by Ange Mlinko, "Whole Earth Troubador" (review of The Essential W.S. Merlin, edited by Michael Wiegers, Copper Canyon, 338 pp., 2017), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 19 (7 December 2017), p. 45.

060. Jump up ^ For example, in Polish, a "translation" is "przekład" or "tłumaczenie." Both "translator" and "interpreter" are "tłumacz." For a time in the 18th century, however, for "translator," some writers used a word, "przekładowca," that is no longer in use. Edward Balcerzan, Pisarze polscy o sztuce przekładu, 1440–1974: Antologia (Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, 1440–1974: an Anthology), 1977, passim.
061. Jump up ^ Hugh Thomas, Conquest: Montezuma, Cortes and the Fall of Old Mexico, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1993, pp. 171-72.
062. Jump up ^ "Sacagawea", The Encyclopedia Americana, 1986, volume 24, p. 72.
063. Jump up ^ "Translation, Please: Hand-Held Device Bridges Language Gap". NPR. Retrieved 2014-10-09.
064. Jump up ^ "The many voices of the web". The Economist. 2010-03-04.
065. Jump up ^ Graham, Paul. "How Ackuna wants to fix language translation by crowdsourcing it | Wired UK". Wired.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-05-17. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
066. Jump up ^ "Translation Services USA's Crowdsourcing Translator, Ackuna.com, Raises the Bar for More Accurate Machine Translations". Benzinga. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
067. Jump up ^ "Translation Cloud Application for Facebook Releases Version 2.0". Digital Journal. 2011-06-24. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
068. Jump up ^ Boutin, Paul (26 March 2010). "Speaklike offers human-powered translation for blogs". VentureBeat.
069. Jump up ^ Toto, Serkan (2010-01-11). "MyGengo Is Mechanical Turk For Translations". The Washington Post.

070. Jump up ^ "Language tools to solve url translation".
071. ^ Jump up to: a b See the annually performed NIST tests since 2001 and Bilingual Evaluation Understudy
072. Jump up ^ Vashee, Kirti (2007). "Statistical machine translation and translation memory: An integration made in heaven!". ClientSide News Magazine. 7 (6): 18–20. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.
073. Jump up ^ Choquette, Brandon (January 2016). "Why Professional Translators Are More Beneficial Than Google Translate". Interpreter and Translators, Inc.
074. Jump up ^ J.M. Cohen observes (p.14): "Scientific translation is the aim of an age that would reduce all activities to techniques. It is impossible however to imagine a literary-translation machine less complex than the human brain itself, with all its knowledge, reading, and discrimination."
075. Jump up ^ Claude Piron, Le défi des langues (The Language Challenge), Paris, L'Harmattan, 1994.
076. Jump up ^ Gary Marcus, "Am I Human?: Researchers need new ways to distinguish artificial intelligence from the natural kind", Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 3 (March 2017), pp. 58–63.
077. Jump up ^ Wilson, Emily, "The Pleasures of Translation" (review of Mark Polizzotti, Sympathy for the Traitor: A Translation Manifesto, MIT Press, 2018, 182 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 9 (24 May 2018), p. 47.
078. Jump up ^ Anderson, Alison (May 14, 2013). "Where Are the Women in Translation?". Words Without Borders. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
079. Jump up ^ "Women in Translation: An Interview with Meytal Radzinski". 25 July 2016.

080. Jump up ^ "Meytal Radzinski - The Bookseller". www.thebookseller.com.
081. Jump up ^ Radzinski, Meytal (3 July 2018). "Biblibio: Exclusion is a choice - Bias in "Best of" lists".
082. Jump up ^ J.M. Cohen, p. 12.
083. Jump up ^ J.M Cohen, pp. 12-13.
|084. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e J.M. Cohen, p. 13.
085. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e J.M. Cohen, p. 14.
086. Jump up ^ For instance, Henry Benedict Mackey's translation of St. Francis de Sales's "Treatise on the Love of God" consistently omits the saint's analogies comparing God to a nursing mother, references to Bible stories such as the rape of Tamar, and so forth.
087. Jump up ^ A discussion of Hofstadter's otherwise latitudinarian views on translation is found in Tony Dokoupil, "Translation: Pardon My French: You Suck at This," Newsweek, May 18, 2009, p. 10.
088. Jump up ^ Gregory Hays, "Found in Translation" (review of Denis Feeney, Beyond Greek: The Beginnings of Latin Literature, Harvard University Press), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 11 (22 June 2017), p. 58.
089. Jump up ^ Jiří Levý, The Art of Translation, Philadelphia, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, p. 122.

090. Jump up ^ Harry G. Carlson, "Problems in Play Translation", Educational Theatre Journal 16, no. 1 (1964), pp. 55-58. doi:10.2307/3204378, p. 55.
091. Jump up ^ Jiří Levý, The Art of Translation, Philadelphia, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, pp. 129-39.
092. Jump up ^ Harry G. Carlson, "Problems in Play Translation", Educational Theatre Journal 16, no. 1 (1964), pp. 55-58. doi:10.2307/3204378, p. 56.
093. Jump up ^ Jiří Levý, The Art of Translation, Philadelphia, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, p. 129.
094. Jump up ^ Loren Kruger, "Keywords and Contexts: Translating Theatre Theory", Theatre Journal 59, no. 3 (2007), pp. 355-58. JSTOR 25070054
095. Jump up ^ Frank Stewart, The Poem Behind the Poem, Washington, Copper Canyon Press, 2004.
096. Jump up ^ Eugene Eoyang and Lin Yao-fu, Translating Chinese Literature, Indiana University Press, 1995, pp. 42–43.
097. Jump up ^ For another example of poetry translation, including translation of sung texts, see Rhymes from Russia.
098. Jump up ^ Farris, Michael (2007), From Tyndale to Madison, p. 37.
099. ^ Jump up to: a b Fatani, Afnan (2006). "Translation and the Qur'an". In Leaman, Oliver. The Qur'an: An Encyclopaedia. Routledge. pp. 657–669. ISBN 978-0415775298.

100. Jump up ^ Malise Ruthven, Islam in the World, Granta, 2006, p. 90, ISBN 978-1-86207-906-9.
101. Jump up ^ Byrne, Jody (2006). Technical Translation: Usability Strategies for Translating Technical Documentation. Dordrecht: Springer.


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