Update: 2019-02-26 08:24 PM -0500


Vowel Aksharas


by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

  Vowel Letters, Vowel Signs, misnomers and undefined

Inherent vowel and Nuclear vowel
  Specifically the terms are from Abugida-Akshara System: Inherent vowel of the Akshara and the Nuclear vowel of the Syllable . In the Alphabet-Letter System, the basic unit is the mute Letter which has no Inherent vowel. Only the Nuclear vowel of the Syllable matters.

Basic vowels
  Richa-Rucha problem in Sanskrit. Translated into Bur-Myan, it is {i.} - {u.} problem.
  Dialects of Sanskrit , each belonging to a separate religious belief in Hinduism - the religion.



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- UKT 180815, 180912, 190205

In English (Eng-Lat) Vowels and Consonants are all that matters.
See Section 2: Human Voice and Languages
- English phonetics - Eng-phon-indx.htm (link chk 180919)
and its nested files:
short vowels - short-vow.htm / long vowels - long-vow.htm /
diphthongs and triphthongs - diphth.htm

Though there are just 26 letters (made up of vowels and consonants) in Eng-Lat language there are approximately 44 phonemes, and so English has to use digraphs and trigraphs to approximate the phonemes. The 44 sounds help distinguish one word or meaning from another. Remember, the number 44 is just an approximation because of accents, dialects and the evolution of language itself.

The most troublesome in Eng-Lat speech is the stress (marked with ' ). Listen to the stress in the following words: .
- stress on the first syllable: English <)), second <)), photo <)), upper <))
- differentiation of noun & verb: 'produce <)) (n) / produce <)) (v) ; 'subject <)) (n) / subject <)) (v) ; 'object <)) (n) / object <)) (v).
- native words and those derived from Greek or Latin:
- love <)), lovely <)), lovable <)), loveliness <)), lovableness <)), (native - constant on the first syllable).
- photograph <)), photography <)), photographic <)) (derived)
- 'equal <)), equality <)), equalization <)), equilitarian <)) (derived),
we find the stress shifting from one syllable to another as the word gets longer.

However, in Burmese (Bur-Myan), we have to take care of two more of aksharas: Approximants and Nasals.

In Bur-Myan, stress is not all important. You can easily differentiate a Bur-Myan person born and raised outside Myanmarpr, from those Bur-Myan born and raised outside. My grandsons, and their parents speak the same Bur-Myan language in different ways, whereas I who have taken pains to learn North-American pronunciation speak similar to a Canadian anglophone. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allophone_(Canada) (180919)

To encompass the languages in BEPS, we will need more subdivisions, such as Liquids, Sibilants & Thibilants, and what I'm calling Deep-H (under Approximants), and Semi-nasals and True-nasals. If you fine tune your need for one-to-one transcription of you may need more, but for BEPS we will have to draw a line.

In Alphabet-Letter system what are important are the vowels and consonants. The Rhymes or endings are not important. Eng-Lat and most of the European languages have only two nasals {na.} (1 eye-blnk) and {ma.} (1 blnk), which I am calling the True Nasals. Eng-Lat does not the Semi-Nasals, {gna.}/ {ng}, {a.}/ (}, and {Na.}/ {N}.

Don't forget that in BEPS: Nya'gyi aka Nya-major is a basic consonant. It is an approximant similar to Ya, and both Nya'gyi {a.} and Ya {ya.} can be under Virama aka A'thuk {a.t} as {} , {}.

- UKT 180822: Whenever we speak of the vowels {a.ra.} in BEPS , remember there are two kinds of vowels in Abugida-Akshara system: the inherent vowel of the consonantal-akshara and the nuclear vowel of the syllable. However, in Alphabet-Letter system, the Letter is mute because it does not have an inherent vowel. The way to change the Abugida-Akshara system into Alphabet-Letter is to used the Virama {a.t} to kill the inherent vowel of the Akshara.

To mitigate the problem of widely different pronunciations between the three major language groups - the Tib-Bur, IE, and Aus-Asi, I have to increase the number of BEPS vowels to 16. Bringing in Rhoticity exemplified by BEPS Ra'ric notation, helps to bridge between Bur-Myan (non-rhotic) and Skt-Dev (highly rhotic especially in the southern dialect of Tamil & Telugu speakers).

The most unfamiliar vowel to the Bur-Myan speakers is the highly rhotic Sanskrit vowel is {iRRi.} ऋ .
It is probable that to avoid this vowel the ancient Bur-Myan phoneticians has used {} in our common words, such as:

{.} - guest - MED2010-625

The most unfamiliar vowel to the Classical Skt-Dev speakers is the highly lateral Vdic vowel is {iLLi.} ऌ . I have not included this vowel in my table of BEPS vowels because of its rarity in Skt-Dev. You should note that ऌ is pronounced in two ways depending on the dialect: either as {li.} or {lu.} without any /r/ sound.

Now listen to a short sound clip on Sanskrit vowels: bkcnd-Skt<))
"I said there are 9 vowels in Sanskrit. They are अ इ ऊ ऋ ऌ ए ऐ ओ औ ... Of these, the first five अ इ ऊ ऋ ऌ are simple vowels, while ए ऐ ओ औ are called Diphthongs. They are combination of two vowels each. ... one special feature of the language ... ऌ ... no /r/ sound. ... Vedic language ... Classical language ... "

Those at the TIL Research station can watch the same clip : L103Skt<>

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Vowel Letters, Vowel Signs, misnomers and undefined

I view Diphthongs in Bur-Myan as a misnomer. They are pronounced as monophthongs: they are Digraphs derived from two simple vowels.

The Vowels Letters are such as {I.} इ (1 eye-blnk) and {I} ई (2 blnk) in Bur-Myan. They are stand alone glyphs. In Bur-Myan there is another called Akshara-I {ak~hka.ra i.} which I will simply call "undefined". It is more commonly used in my younger days at the end of sentences. In a way it is commonly used as the word Period in English - no more arguments.

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Inherent vowel of the Akshara and Nuclear vowel of the Syllable

See: Chapter 9: South-Asian Scripts I - UnicodeCh09<)) / Bkp<)) (link chk 180918)
"The scripts of South Asia [e.g. Devanagari] share so many common features that a side-by-side comparison of a few will often reveal structural similarities even in the modern letterforms."
Unicode failed to recognized that Myanmar script is probably (I emphasized "probably"), the predecessor  Asokan, the parent of Devanagari script. See: Travels of Ta თ /t/ from Burma to Georgia - Paradigms.htm (link chk 180919)

Unlike the European scripts used by English and French spoken languages, which uses the Alphabet-Letter system of speech-to-script transliteration, Burmese, Pali and Sanskrit spoken languages use the Abugida-Akshara system. The two systems are radically different because the basic unit of the Alphabet is the Letter, such as k and t . Both are mute - not pronounceable, and IPA marked them as /k/ and /t/ respectively.

On the other hand, the basic unit of the Abugida is the Syllable - which is pronounceable. I need to define, unequivocally, by what I mean by Syllable, and the rule governing it known as Syntax.

The Alphabet-Letter system is used mainly in the West in the European languages, whereas the Abugida-Akshara system is used mainly in the East (but not Far East) in the Asokan-linked languages. Based on the shapes of the glyphs, I'm beginning to form the opinion that Myanmar Script may be the predecessor of Asokan Script, and I'm beginning to use the term Asokan-linked instead of Asokan-derived . The only evidence I've so far is the shape of the r4c1 Akshara (or Letter) with the IPA pronunciation /t/, found in Georgian Script თ {t} which belongs to Alphabet-Letter System and Myanmar Script  {ta.} of the Abugida-Alphabet System:

{ta.}  +  Viram  -->  თ {t}


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Basic vowels

There are 16 basic vowels to handle all the 4 languages of BEPS.

Notice: The video and sound marks, <> & <)) , in TIL files will help you to go through BEPS languages. Some of the signs <)) will let you hear the sound whether you are on your own computer or on a TIL research computer. But the sign <> , and most <)) will only let you see the video in TIL SD-Library (Secure Digital Library) when you are on a TIL research computer. As an example, watch downloaded pdf in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- ACunningham-InscriptAsoka<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180325)
in which you will see a map of the extent of Magadha Empire ruled by King Asoka - the Great, where there are the inscriptions. It 4as now become my experience to see the links to TIL SD-Library fail many times, because of which I have now included a BkCnd-LIB (Library for the Book-Candle-Index). You'll be able to see the downloaded pdf
- ACunningham-Asoka-inscripԻ (link chk 180325)

It is now accepted that the oldest speech {sa.ka:} is Vedic, most probably of the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman language) group, and not of the Classical Sanskrit of Panini. Sanskrit belongs to IE (Indo-European) group. It was also used by speakers of Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) group such as the Tamils. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil-Brahmi 180325
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar_of_the_Vedic_language 180325
Tamils using Tamil-Brahmi is similar to Mon-Myan using the basic Myanmar script.

UKT 171208, 180326: The postulate of Shin Kic'si {shin kic~s}: "The signification is known by akshara" was highly approved by the Gautama Buddha, who then declared his disciple monk as the greatest "grammarian". 
See my note on this postulate on p077F.htm (link chk 180325)
The motto is also in Mason-Mazard, p036 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries.
- FMasonMazard-KicsiPali<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)

Notice how the syllable {t} ते is written in scripts of Pali-Myan, Engl-Lat, and Skt-Dev. The order (by position) of  vowel glyph {a.w hto:} - written as , and the consonant {ta.} त is different.

Pali-Myan: vowel (left) - consonant (right): {t}
Engl-Latin: consonant (left) - vowel (right): te
Skt-Dev: vowel (above) - consonant (below): ते

In BEPS-Myan, vowel glyph Tha'we'hto {a.w hto:} has been pushed up as in the case of Skt-Dev and Mon-Myan. A pushed-up Tha'we'hto or Super-Tha'we'hto is found in Mon words. See the logo on An Introduction to Mon language by M. Jenny, 2001.

Downloaded paper in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- MJenny-IntroMonLang<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180403)

The writing system, script {sa}, of King Asoka  {a-au:ka. mn:kri:}, should be called Asokan (now erroneously dubbed Brahmi). This has led many to believe that is the script of Ponnar {poaN~Na:} - the language of Hinduism, the Atta {t~ta.} religion. Emperor Asoka {a-au:ka. mn:} was Buddhist. He was never a Hindu. Before his conversion to Buddhism - the scientific philosophy based on the Anatta {a.nt~ta.} doctrine, he was a Jain - a religion similar to Buddhism.  Anatta {a.nt~ta.} is the antithesis of Atta {t~ta.} and the two can never be reconciled.

There are at least two major kinds of Ponnar {poaN~Na:} 'bramin': the Braahmana Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}, and the Shaivite Ponnar {i-wa. poaN~Na:}. These speak different dialects of Skt-Dev. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richa

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Problem of Richa (front vowel) and Rucha (back vowel) in Skt-Dev

- UKT 180822:

Refer to Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richa 171209

UKT 171209, 180102, 190226: The problem of Richa (front vowel) and Rucha (back vowel); I base my view on the fact that Vedic and Sanskrit (the latter with two dialects) are two different languages. Vedic is Tib-Bur, whereas Sanskrit-Hindi is IE, and Sanskrit-Kannada is Aus-Asi. Vedic like Bur-Myan is almost non-rhotic, whereas Sanskrit is highly rhotic. The highly rhotic Sanskrit vowel ऋ was not originally present in Vedic. It was the Poannars {poaN~Na:} (both Vaishnavite as well as Shaivite) who introduced it into Vedic.

I had noticed the Ri-Ru problem a long time ago when I was doing the vowels. See p057-1.htm on words referring to 'season (meteorology), menses (physiology): BPali: {U.tu.} (back vowel) --> Skt: ऋतु ṛtu (front vowel). For a serious work on 'seasons', read Kalidasa's Ṛtusaṃhāra ऋतुसंहार = ऋतु ṛtu 'season' + संहार saṃhāra 'compilation'.

" Rucha , ऋचा [Vedic pronunciation - unknown; Hindi (northern India - IE): richa; Marathi or Kannada (southern India - Aus-Asi) rucha]  refers to a shloka (couplet) or mantra, usually two to four sentences long, found in the Sanskrit Vedic religious scriptures, the Vedas [UKT maintains that Veda were originally Tib-Bur which is not rhotic] [UKT ]

UKT 171209: I've inserted the /richa and /ric into the following paragraph. The Wikipedia article is biased towards southern India.

"The etymological origin of rucha/richa is the Sanskrit Vedic word, ruc (ऋच्), which means to praise. [1] Rucha/richa, is therefore, one ruc/ric after the other. Other meanings of ruc/ric are splendour, worship, a hymn. [2] Rucha/richa can also refer to a verbal composition of celestial sounds called "shrutis"; the Gayatri Mantra is a rucha/richa as well. Rucha/richa means "aphorism of Rig Veda".
   " Richa is a popular given name among Hindu females." -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richa 171122

UKT 171209: See also Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaksha_Prashna 171209
"Yudhishthira, [officially the son of Pandu, the human, but in actuality the son of Yama-deva] replied, "Breath is like Mantra in the performance of rites. Mind is the performer of all rites in the course of Yajna. Only Shlokas of the Vedas, termed rucha or the richa accept oblation. The Yajna cannot surpass nor transgress the richas". UKT comment: Obviously, the Poanna (the foreign invaders into India cannot decide which pronunciation, "ric" (the front vowel) or "ruc" (the back vowel) is correct.

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Dialects of Sanskrit

Each belonging to a separate religious belief in Hinduism - the religion.

The northern kind, the Vaishnavites aka the Braahmana Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} believe in Vishnu-dva {bai~a.no: nt} (and his reincarnate King Krishna) as the Supreme Being*. These Ponnars are also known as Brahmana {braah~ma.Na.}. Their philosophy is embodied in Bhagava Gita preached by the human King Krishna before his human death and re-deification. They wrote in one kind of Brahmi - Asokan-Brahmi.

*See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Being (180401)
"Supreme Being is a term used by theologians and philosophers of many religions, including Christianity, Islam, [1] Hinduism, [2] Judaism, Sikhism, Jainism, Deism [3] and Zoroastrianism as an alternative to the term God.

deism - n. . The belief, based solely on reason, in a God who created the universe and then abandoned it, assuming no control over life, exerting no influence on natural phenomena, and giving no supernatural revelation. - AHTD

UKT 180401: The word "God" is an Eng-Lat term, and since all other religions mentioned by the Wikipedia article are written in non-English speech-script systems, the phrase at is a translation and its subtle implied meanings is sure to be misinterpreted. Because of this, I use  the term Supreme Being or Supremo for: YHVH in Judaism, God in Christianity, and Allah in Islam.

As for Hinduism, since the Supremo is a dva, the term God should not be used. In Bur-Myan, Supremo is {Bu.ra.} a term usually used for Gautama Buddha who was a human being of infinite wisdom. Thus {Bu.ra.} can not be equated to the Christian God.

The Burmese Christians tried to get around this problem by calling their God as {hta-wa.ra. Bu.ra.} and the uninitiated misinterpret that Gautama Buddha is somehow inferior to their God. This is just proselytism, and many - uneducated and ignorant - have fallen prey to it. I'm writing this from my observation of mix marriages. Their children usually become Boadkric {boaD~hka.ric}, participating and enjoy every feast of both religions, but ignoring the basic principles of both religions. The educated among them became cynical and anti-religion. Proselytism doesn't work in the modern society.

The second major kind of Poannar is the Shaivite {i-wa. poaN~Na:} who believe in Shiva-dva {i-wa. nt} as the Supreme God and Creator. They do not accept Bhagava Gita as the word of the Supreme God. According to Dr. Rajeev Verma in his Faith & Philosophy of Hinduism 2009, their equivalent of Bhagava Gita are to be found in Upanishads, particularly Svetashvatara. They wrote in a variant of Brahmi now accepted as Tamil-Asokan or Tamil-Brahmi. This is comparable to the case of Myanmar akshara {sa} used by Burmese {sa.ka:} speakers (Tib-Bur), and Mon {sa.ka:} speakers (Aus-Asi).

"The Shvetashvatara Upanishad श्वेताश्वतरोपनिशद ś vetāśvataropaniṣad is an ancient Sanskrit text embedded in the Yajurveda. It is listed as number 14 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads. [1] The Upanishad contains 113 mantras or verses in six chapters. [2]
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shvetashvatara_Upanishad 170901

UKT 170901: श्वेता = श ् व े त ा ; श्वत = श ् व त . In Bur-Myan, श {sha.} is a rarely used phoneme, and ष {Sa.} is unknown. What we have in Bur-Myan is स {a.} which is /θ/. On the other hand, स sa is /s/ in Skt-Dev. When स sa /s/ is transformed into स {a.} /θ/ without taking the pronunciations into consideration, we ended up giving the wrong meanings and implications. Because of this, I have to be very careful in comparing Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan, and have to come up with two new glyphs {sha.}/ {sh} श/श् , and {Sa.}/ {S} ष/ष् .

The third kind of {poaN~Na:} 'bramin', which may be considered to be related to the second kind is the Shakta who believe in the primeval Mother-goddess as the supreme God (no differentiation between male and female here) is Shakti - generally known as Shaktism.

Asokan script is a phonetic script and could transcribe many speeches of various linguistic groups of India: Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur), Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) and Indo-European (IE). It predates the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) by thousands of years. However, "the early Asokan variant of Brahmi lacks many conjuncts and vocalic letters."
- http://www.virtualvinodh.com/wp/asokan-brahmi/ -180711

UKT 170224: While looking up for Dravidian languages - Telugu (75 million speakers*), Tamil (70 million), Kannada (55 million), and Malayalam (38 million) - I came upon another variant of Asokan, dubbed Tamil-Brahmi which is not the same as Asokan-Brahmi. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil-Brahmi 170224
"Tamil-Brahmi, or Tamili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language. ... Tamil Brahmi was not deciphered as a separate script until the mid-20th century. Until then it was assumed to have been Standard Brahmi writing in a Prakrit language. ..."
*See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_languages 170224

Yet, Asokan may not be the precursor of Pal-Myan, because of the possible absence of Pali vertical conjuncts, {paaHT-hsn.}. I'll have to look into A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {rhn kic~s:} in Bur-Myan)  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1867. See TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - FMason-KicsiPaliGram<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)
  - FMasonMazard-KicsiPali<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)

Read also An Introduction to Kachchyana's Grammar of Palilanguage, by James d'Alwis, 1863,
- JAlwis-KachchayanaPaliGram<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180730)


The IE speakers were concentrated in the the north-western areas of India into which they had entered from the highlands of Iran. They were the harbingers of Iron Age, and with their iron implements of war they overwhelmed the original indigenous Brass Age peoples.

The IE speakers worship male-gods, primarily Vishnu-dv {bai~a.no: nt} - the Vaishnavite-Hindus. The Tib-Burs worshipped mother-goddess {m-tau} who are anthropomorphic entities, such as {a.mi.mrn-ma} representing Myanmarpr, and Bharat-Mata aka Mother-India. It is absurd to consider such entities similar to human-females who could have sex with male entities such as Vishnu-dva {bai~a.no: nt} and Shiva-dva {i-wa. nt}. Yet, the Brahmins {poaN~Na:} did exactly that.

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Vowel lengths

- UKT 180821: We are always under the impression that there are only short, and long vowels in English and Sanskrit. It is not so in Skt-Dev, but more specific in Vdic. Skt-Dev actually has three: hrasva, deergha, and pluta. We need to know more about the three registers of Skt-Dev to compare to our Bur-Myan three.

Now, those at the Research station can watch: L104Skt<>

From: The Concepts of Hrasva, Dīrgha and Pluta in Vedic and Sanskrit Grammars, by Chandra Barthkuria, 1990
- CBarthkuria-PlutaVedicSktGrammVol25No1<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180822)
"The technical terms Hrasva, Dīrgha and Pluta representing short, long and prolated vowels (containing three mātrās or moras) appear for the first time in the Prātiśākhya literature.   The Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya of Śaunaka defines the terms as:

mātrā hrasvaḥ (1.27) / dve dīrghaḥ (1.29) / And tisraḥ pluta ucyate svaraḥ (1.30)

Just for this comparison we will reserve {a.} (1 eye-blnk) to represent the inherent vowel of the Akshara.

{aa.} (1 blnk), {aa} (2 blnk), {aa:} (3 blnk with emphasis)
{ko.} (1 blnk), {ko} (2 blnk), {ko:} (3 blnk with emphasis)

That Hrasva, Dīrgha and Pluta are more important in Vedic than in Sanskrit has convinced me that Vedic was a Tib-Bur language just as Bur-Myan is. The Tib-Bur speakers, exemplified by the Pyus of Myanmarpr, were more peaceful, using bronze-weapons, than Sanskrit speakers with iron-weapons who overcame them and made them into Shudras - slaves and servants.

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Burmese-Myanmar vowels compared to
Sanskrit-Devanagari and English-Latin vowels

-- UKT 120121, 120602, 120622, 190226

The pronunciations of languages depend on vowels. Even when a foreigner takes two vowel sounds to be the same, they are different to the native speakers. This results in mutually non-understandable languages - not due to an unkind god, but to the different sets of muscles to produce what to the foreigner as the same vowel.

The following vowels are controversial, because they are the most back and the most open. They can be pronounced with various degrees of lip rounding:

{o} to {AU} 
/ {AU:} to {AU}
Skt-Dev as ओ  o & औ au
Skt-Dev diacritics: े (E) ै (Ai), ो (O) ौ (Au) - (names according to Windows)

To get to the Bur-Myan way of writing before the British colonial-educators had to chance to meddle in it, I refer to A. W. Lonsdale:

You will note that Lonsdale did not include {o}. The 'flags', ो ौ, on the aksharas should be compared to the those on े {} ै {}.


The controversy on the varieties (tones or registers) of vowels is based on several factors:
   1. Production of vowels depends upon linguistic groups, and within a linguistic group, it varies from person to person. Since the production of vowels depends on the muscles of the hyoid complex, we can expect quite a lot of divergence.
   2. When the external facial features differs from speakers of different ethnicity, it is to be expected that the contours of the vowel space would also be different.
  3. Though we usually think in terms of a two-dimensional quadrilateral vowel diagram based on the classical diagram of Daniel-Jones, we must think in terms of at least a three-dimensional one where lip-rounding is taken into consideration. And then extend our thinking into a four-dimensional one taking into consideration the jaw positions, and of course on the length of jaw which would be dependent on the ethnicity of the speaker. 
  4. Last but not the least is the Two-three tone problem between English-Lat, the IE (Indo-European) language and Burmese-Myan, a Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) which is also a Thibilant-nasal language where the sounds of /θ/ {a.} and /ŋ/ {nga.} & /ɲ/ {a.} are quite prominent.

The controversy is also due to the absence of the series {o.}, {o}, {o:} in both Skt-Dev and Eng-Lat.

The Romabama spellings given below are tentative: they may have to be changed with deeper understanding of the problems involved. -- UKT120121

A slight revision has been made to Myanmar graphemes. & are different from very rhotic Sanskrit graphemes. The hood over the Myanmar graphemes has been has been drastically shortened whilst those for Sanskrit has been lengthened as much as possible, e.g. in ऋ . Similarly, you will find a shortening of hoods in {ra.ric}-medials.


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The Shudras and Kiratas - the Bronze Age peoples

- UKT 180911

The bronze-weapons of the Tib-Bur speakers could not stand against the iron-weapons of the intruders. The conquered people were eventually turned into Shudras 'the slaves and servants' of the conquerors and denied learning the Vedas 'the body of knowledge' which had been their own. The Bronze-Agers worshipped female Goddesses instead of male Gods.

UKT 180911: I wonder whether the Lawka Nat {lau:ka.nt} (of Bur-Myan or Pal-Myan), probably the singing-master, and Nataraj (of Aus-Asi speakers) - the dancing-master - to be subservient to the Supreme Mother-goddess Devi. Vāc 'human speech'. Vāc 'human speech' anthropomorphized as {u-ra~a.ti m-tau}. Vāc, the 'human speech' can be transliterated as {wa-kya.} 'sentence' governed by {wa-kya.s:} 'syntax'. It is {wa-kya.s:} 'syntax' that differentiate 'human speech' from the 'call of the animals'. The Veda - the body of collective Knowledge expressed in human speech is what differentiate us from the animals. Nataraj is identified only later with the Shiva-dva {i-wa. nt} by the Ponnars {poaN~Na:}.

Since there are bound to different indigenous ethnics who are mostly Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) speakers and Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) speakers, and a few IE (Indo-European) speakers, they use different sets of vocal muscles to produce the vowel sounds, and their speeches would be radically different as in the case of Bur-Myan, Karen-Myan, Mon-Myan and Shan-Myan. The only commonality is the phonetic script between them. If we are to listen to Pali words (Theravada Buddhism) spoken by those who use the common Myanmar script, the script of our mother-land the Myanmarpr - our heritage, we can understand them to a large extent.
Remember: Myanmar script is the unifying force of our motherland.
Refer to the Curse of Babel: Script unites/ Speech divides .

Listen to how Mon-Myan speakers sing their vowels:
- row#1vow<)) : note the diacritic "super-circle with an inner circle for {ii}"
- row#2vow<))
To remind you that Mon-Myan phonology is quite different from that of Bur-Myan, listen to a Mon Akshara song: BkCdn-Mon-Aks<))
With this little song, I honour my great-grandmother Daw Mma, a Peguan-Mon speaker of Manyan village (of Kungyangon township now incorporated into Greater Yangon). Her dialect is now extinct. I was born in Kungyangon town. None of my Mon relatives even know the akshara {ak~hka.ra}. Mon speech uses the basic Myanmar script, just like French speech using the basic Latin script. French speech {prnic sa.ka:} uses special diacritics such as , so does Mon such as {ii}. Remember French speech uses French phonology and English speech uses English phonology even though both uses the basic Latin script. If you were to pronounce a French word in English phonology, you could be misunderstood. In a similar way, Burmese speech uses Burmese phonology and Mon speech uses Mon phonology, and you cannot pronounce Mon words using Burmese phonology. Remember the whole world is under the Curse of Babel leading to strife and disorder.

It is only through script -- the pronounceable Akshara {ak~hka.ra} in Abugida system of writing, and mute Letter in Alphabet writing system -- that we can come to an understanding. Romabama is based on Burmese phonology and you cannot use it for Mon speech. But if you are speaking about Theravada Buddhism in Pali speech, you can catch some words. So says Shin Kic'si motto: "The signification is known by letters." No wonder the Buddha praises his monk as the unique linguist. What I am trying to do by studying the BEPS languages is to come up with a common set of vowels and consonants to unite our motherland through linguistics. Perhaps by using Pali as lingua franca we can come into understanding in the whole region of South Asia and SEAsia the area which uses the derivatives of the script of King Asoka of Magadha Mahajanapada.

The following is another song, set to modern music and sung by a Martaban-Mon speaker:
- BkCnd-da'na'ku'thol<))

The first line gives the Mon-Myan text. The second line the Bur-Myan translation by Daw Mi Htay Kyi. Of course, most of you will not catch the pronunciation: even the first word-pair {da-na. ku.o:l} is spelled the same in both languages - sounds {di-n. kauk-Swa}. Consonant-to-consonant dnk > dnkS, they are the same. It conforms my motto: speech divides, script unites. and  supports the motto of Shin Kic'si. I'm sure my great-grandmother will be pleased at my endeavor to bring back to life a dead dialect - her very own!

If you are familiar with Pali used by Theravada Buddhists in Myanmarpr you'll understand it's meaning: "Charitable donation - the act of merit". (Buddhism is the unifying force in our part of the world. )

I contend that the area just south of the Himalayas extending into Tagaung Kingdom {ta.kan:prN} in northern Burma - must be treated as included in the Magadha Mahajanapada {ma-ga.Da. ma.ha-za.na.pa.da.} 'the foothold of the Magadha culture'. Now I extend my contention as: Myanmar script must have been known to the Greeks, and in all areas which had been under the influence of the Greeks and Alexander the Great.

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