Update: 2018-09-21 02:45 PM -0400


Dominance of Script over Speech
in communication


by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

  Missing link between Asokan and Myanmar script
  Deficiency of graphemes compared to phonemes in BEPS languages
  Dialects of Sanskrit written in Devanagari script
  Innovations for unifying BEPS languages  

In search of long lost consonant Nya-major
  Esoteric nature of Myanmar akshara : Akshara-major and Akshara-minor

Esoteric Buddhism
  King Dhammazedi - a Master of Yan
  Mon Paradigm vs. Pyu Paradigm
  Pyu script


Contents of this page


- UKT 180912

Which is more important to pass on information from one human being to another, script or correct pronunciation in speech? Does a Bur-Myan speaker has to speak an American (General American - GA), or British (BBC pronunciation)? In other words, do we have to speak like a native speaker of English?

Now, who is a native speaker? Now that we have recognized that there are many dialects of English, such as Australian or Canadian, can an American or a Britisher claim that they are the only native speakers. When I was young, before WWII, we in Burma are trained to speak in BBC pronunciation. Now that announcers on BBC radio and television programs are speaking with various accents, I do not know what is the BBC-English.

Now, I speak with a Canadian English with some French phonology thrown in. My aim is not be correct pronunciation: it should be understandable pronunciation.

To mitigate the problem of widely different pronunciations between the three major language groups {sa.ka: oap-su.}, I have to increase the number of BEPS vowels to 16. Bringing in Rhoticity exemplified by BEPS Ra'ric notation, helps to bridge between Bur-Myan (non-rhotic) and Skt-Dev (highly rhotic especially in the southern dialect of Tamil & Telugu speakers).
See: Section 7: MCc1pp-indx.htm > p072R.htm and p088-1.htm (link chk 180916)

The most unfamiliar vowel for Bur-Myan speakers is the highly rhotic Sanskrit vowel is {iRRi.}.

It is probable that to avoid this vowel the ancient Bur-Myan phoneticians has used {} in our common words, such as:

{.} - guest - MED2010-625 

Similarly, the most unfamiliar vowel for Hindi-Dev speakers, and possibly for Skt-Dev speakers is the highly lateral Sanskrit vowel is {iLLi}.
Listen to Sanskrit Lesson103: L103<))
"I said there are 9 vowels in Sanskrit. ... [one of them is] ऌ ... there is no R sound when you pronounce ..." 
Those at TIL Research station can watch Sanskrit Lesson103: L103<>
- Sanskrit lessons are by Dr. Pankaja Rajagopal , Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature:
- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL-ZRhg4pEMrNHVgVUKqpqKJ2FWBbusosK 170520

Now let's back track to King Asoka edict and Rev. F. Mason's A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano published in Toungoo (Brit. Burma) in 1867. If we were to go along with Rev. Mason's argument - which I've summarized as "Myanmar script is the modern form of Asokan script" - then, what we are using in Myanmarpr is NOT "Pali" (which is an artificial language invented in Sri Lanka aka Ceylon centuries after the time of the Gautama Buddha), but the old "Magadhi" - the language used by the Gautama Buddha and the Buddhist Emperor Asoka {a-au:ka. mn:} - the speech and its dialects of Magadha Mahazanapada {ma-ga.Da ma.ha-za.na.pa.da.].  

I therefore venture to write Mag-Myan (Magadhi speech in Myanmar script) whenever appropriate instead of Pal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script).

UKT 180805: I remember reading many years ago that "Ticul" was the word used by the Arab traders for "Pyu". Only now, I see it mentioned in Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyu_language_(Burma) 180805 

UKT 180825: Pyu language had flourished in Pyu settlements in Burma, the most prominent being Sri Ksetra (near modern city of Prome). Just as important for the Myanmar script as Sri Ksetra, is Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon). I have now come across another place with the prefix Sri. It is Sri Vijaya in Indonesia [Skt: श्रीविजय ], where the long lost Talang Tuwo language had flourished. There is the word Talang {ta.leing:} which probably does not have any connection to the Mons of Burma.
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srivijaya 180828
"Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 8th to the 12th century".

We must remember that the Pyu script was deciphered only in the early 1910s, whereas F. Mason's work was published in British-Burma (southern Burma) at Toungoo in 1868. Therefore Mason could not have known about the Pyu aka Ticul (from Arabic) script. If only Dr. Mason had known, he would have said that Pyu script is halfway between Asokan and Myanmar.

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The Missing link between Asokan and Myanmar script

The oldest script found in the Indian subcontinent extending into Myanmarpr is not Devanagari nor its immediate predecessor - the Nagari. It is Asokan the script of Magadha Mahajanapada. Magadha Kingdom was just a part of the Mahajanapadha -- boundaries of which had changed from time to time: now it has totally disappeared. On the other hand the Mahajapadha is largely defined by the culture and not by race or religion. To me, kingdom is a political unit, but janapadha is linguistic and culturally defined.

The word janapadha is the ancestor of Bur-Myan word {za.na.poad} which the MLC MED2006 defined as:

{za.na.poad} - n. hamlet, a small village - MED2009-148c1

However, it is to me a place inhabited by peoples of same or similar culture such as Bamah and Mon defined by language (primarily the same consonants and verbs), the same or similar diet, the same or similar music, exposure to the same or similar diseases, exposure to the same or similar weather conditions, the same or similar dress, etc. An example is the word {da.na.ku.ol}. When I listened to the Mon song, I heard it as {di-n.kauk-Swa}. Note that the consonants d, n, k, /S, are the same. Even the verbs are of similar front-back positions. This shows that the Bamahs and Mons are the same culturally - I hope this would be music to my Bamah and Mon ancestors who had quarrelled throughout centuries. Now, listen:
- bkcnd-danakuthol<))

Deeper down in BEPS, we see six spoken languages belonging to three language groups - the additional being Mon-Myan belonging to Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) language group.

UKT 180812: The three language groups are:
- {n-do U.rau:pa.}, {ti.bak ba.ma}, {au-a-si} which is more commonly known as {mwun hka.ma}.

The oldest writing system {sa} found in the Indian subcontinent is that on Asoka inscriptions, primarily found throughout the Magadha Empire of the Indian subcontinent. Its direct descendant, according to Rev. F. Mason, is the circularly rounded Myanmar script still used for writing Pali-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar akshara). See:
A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {shn kic~s:} in Bur-Myan)  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1867 - PEG-indx.htm - (link chk 160911) 
  - (on line) http://archive.org/details/apaligrammar... 130517
  See downloaded pdf in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - FMason-KicsiPaliGram<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)
  - FMasonMazard-KicsiPali<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)

UKT 180808: I would like to have more evidence, even flimsy ones, to support Mason's assertion, when I came across the Pyu script {pyu-sa} of Myanmarpr which is extinct. As for speech it is possible that some dialects, such as Yaw and Mindon, might be the ones surviving.
See The Yaw dialect of Burmese, by John Okell, 1989, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- JOkell-YawDialect<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180814)

UKT 180815: With Pyu in between as the missing link we can see a close relationship between Asokan and Myanmar-script (both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan.

The question remains, where is the relationship between Asokan and Devanagari. As a possible solution, I tried to find a missing link without a horizontal line on top. I've proposed using the Gujarati script, which does not have the horizontal line, and which is said to be very similar to Devanagari.

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Deficiency of graphemes compared to phonemes in BEPS languages

UKT: 170208, 120222, 140223, 171208, 180827: 

Long time ago, as I was starting on Romabama, I realized that to transcribe Eng-Lat (English-Latin) into Bur-Myan and for the reverse process, I need dedicated graphemes for hissing sibilants, /ʃ/ and /s/. Then I noted that Skt-Dev has dedicated graphemes: श for /ʃ/ and ष for /s/. The problem is not only in Eng-Lat and Skt-Dev, but also in Bur-Myan.

Problem in Eng-Lat: Not only Eng-Lat is notoriously non-phonetic, it is sorely in need of both phonemes and graphemes. For example, Eng-Lat has only 2 nasals /n/ (dental) and /ma/ (labial), whereas Bur-Myan has 3 more: /ŋ/ (velar), ɲ (palatal), and ɳ (retroflex). Moreover, Eng-Lat has no tenuis sounds.

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenuis_consonant 180827
"In linguistics, a tenuis consonant (/ˈ tɛn.juɪs/) [2] [1] is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.     In other words, it has the "plain" phonation of /p/, /t/, /ts/, /tʃ/, /k/ with a voice onset time close to zero (a zero-VOT consonant), as Spanish p, t, ch, k or English p, t, k after s (spy, sty, sky)."

UKT 180828: It is instructive to look into the IPA rendering of the word tenuis /ˈ tɛn.juɪs/
/'/ primary stress; /t/ 't' in <tie>;
/ɛ/ 'e' in <dress>: /n/ 'n' in <nigh>;
/./ syllable break
/j/ 'y' in <yes>; /u/ 'u' in <influence>;
/ɪ/ 'i' in <kit>; /s/ 's' in <sigh>


Problem in Linguistics: Whenever we talk of tenuis consonants, we run into fortis-lenis consonants: the IPA provides no specific means for representation of a fortislenis contrast.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortis_and_lenis 180827
"In linguistics, fortis and lenis (/ˈfɔːrtɪs ˈliːnɪs/ "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with tense and lax, are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy. [UKT ]

English has fortis consonants, such as the p in <pat> , with a corresponding lenis consonant, such as the b in <bat>. Fortis and lenis consonants may be distinguished by tenseness or other characteristics, such as voicing, aspiration, glottalization, velarization, length, and length of nearby vowels. [UKT ]

UKT 180828: Transcription of p in <pat> and b in <bat> is a problem in BEPS, unless we put in 2 killed consonants in the coda: {pkt} and {bkt}. To analyse such problems, I have to consider PTK both as onset and coda.

Now the trouble for BEPS. English has no tenuis consonants. Therefore it has no PTK consonants from the point of a Bur-Myan speaker. It has only PʰTʰKʰ consonants. This point may not be important for the English speaker, but for a Burmese it is of prime importance. Thus the terms lenis/fortis is a no-no in BEPS, and I'll only use voiceless/voiced. It is for this reason, I've to group the consonants by columns:

At present only the coda: (note the nuclear vowel of the syllable)

{pp} /ʌ/; {pt} /ʌ/; {pak} /a/
{pkt} // - note: the regular English word is <pact>.
In English it is usual to substitute k with c .

BEPS has to accept 2 killed consonants in the coda, which is not permitted in regular Bur-Myan.

Fortis and lenis were coined for languages where the contrast between sounds such as p and b does not involve voicing (vibration of the vocal folds cords). [1]

Problem in Skt-Dev: However, it is unfortunate that Skt-Dev does not have any non-hissing thibilant, and has listed Bur-Myan {a.} as a hissing sibilant. IAST reflecting the phonemics of Sanskrit proceeds to give transliterations that do not agree with IPA. It should be noted that Eng-Lat has the non-hissing thibilant in words like <thin> /θɪn/ - DJPD16-535. Moreover, in Skt-Dev, there is a mix-up of /b/ {ba.}, and /w/ {wa.}.

Problem in Bur-Myan: In Bur-Myan /ʃ/ is mostly as {rha.}, ands sometimes represented by {hya.}. Being conjuncts, they break down when placed under a Virama {a.t}. This is not suitable for BEPS.

I then realized that for BEPS as a group, I have no choice but to come up with my own dedicated graphemes, which are not conjunct-medials, and other innovations.

Contents of this page

Dialects of Sanskrit written in Devanagari script

There is strong link between Asokan script and Myanmar script - stronger than Devanagari script. I base my view on the circularly rounded shape of the individual glyph. There is about 33% similarity between the two. Rev. F. Mason (Taungoo, 1867), went further. Of course, there are scripts with rounded shapes - but theirs is not circular.

It is now accepted that the oldest speech {sa.ka:} is Vedic, most probably of the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman language) group, and not of the Classical Sanskrit of Panini. Sanskrit belongs to IE (Indo-European) group. It was also used by speakers of Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) group such as the Tamils. Tamils using Tamil-Brahmi is similar to Mon-Myan using the basic Myanmar script.

UKT 171208, 180326, 180403, 180802: I've modified the postulate of Shin Kic'si {shin kic~s}, who has been praised by the Gautama Buddha, as the greatest "grammarian" as shown on the right. 

The writing system, script {sa}, of King Asoka {a.au:ka. mn:}, should be called Asokan (now erroneously dubbed Brahmi). This has led many to believe it is the script of Ponnar {poaN~Na:} - the language of Hinduism, the Atta {t~ta.} religion. Emperor Asoka {a.au:ka. mn:} was Buddhist. He was never a Hindu. Before his conversion to Buddhism - the scientific philosophy based on the Anatta {a.nt~ta.} doctrine, he was a Jain - a religion similar to Buddhism.  Anatta {a.nt~ta.} is the antithesis of Atta {t~ta.} and the two can never be reconciled.

There are at least two major kinds of Ponnar {poaN~Na:} 'bramin': the Braahmana Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} (the northern kind who speak one kind of dialect of Sanskrit), and the Shaivite Ponnar {i-wa. poaN~Na:} (the southern kind who speak a different dialect). Their faith is the Atta {t~ta.} faith the antithesis of Buddhism. To dubbed the Asokan as the Brahmi script is the greatest disservice done to comparative study of language. I usually differentiate the two Ponnar {poaN~Na:}, by how they pronounce the close-vowels. The northern {poaN~Na:} use /i/, whereas the southern ones use /u/.

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richa  170126, 171122, 180822
"Rucha or Richa , Skt-Dev ऋचा ... In Marathi or in Kannada [modern south Indian languages], it is pronounced as Rucha. In Hindi [modern north Indian language], it is pronounced as Richa ... The pronunciation of the given name 'Richa' varies based on the geography and native language of the speakers. Hindi speaking populace would pronounce the Sanskrit word as "richa" as opposed to Marathi or Kannada speaking populace. Both the 'ru' and 'ri' pronunciations of the given name are correct and are regional variants. "

This has given rise to at least two varieties of Brahmi script: Asokan-Brahmi and Tamil-Brahmi.
See the following Wikipedia articles:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmi_script 180802
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Indian_epigraphy 180802


Asokan script is a phonetic script and could transcribe many speeches of various linguistic groups of India: Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur), Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) and Indo-European (IE). It predates the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) by thousands of years. However, "the early Asokan variant of Brahmi lacks many conjuncts and vocalic letters."
- http://www.virtualvinodh.com/wp/asokan-brahmi/ -180711

Yet, Asokan may not be the precursor of Pal-Myan, because of the possible absence of Pali vertical conjuncts, {paaHT-hsn.}. I'll have to look into A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {shn kic~s:} in Bur-Myan)  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1867. See TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - FMason-KicsiPaliGram<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)
  - FMasonMazard-KicsiPali<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)

Read also An Introduction to Kachchyana's Grammar of Palilanguage, by James d'Alwis, 1863,
- JAlwis-KachchayanaPaliGram<> / Bkp<Hgt; (link chk 180730)

Contents of this page

Innovations for unifying BEPS languages

UKT 180915: English transcription of Bur-Myan words have created unnecessary confusion. An example is Nya'gyi . The correct Bur-Myan should have been Nya'kri which the majority of Bamah speakers would not accept because it sounded Rakhine dialect. I have no choice but to drop the "gyi" and use the correct English term "major".

UKT: 180827

In the course of my work, I've to come up with innovations, coining new glyphs such as BEPS basic akshara {S~hpa.} ष्थ , and even one-to-one definitions, such as Syllable, Word, Sentence, and Syntax.

TIL HTML editor 180630: For BEPS coined aksharas such as  BHS bookmarks, the following convention is used:
1. m - usual m; [m] - ṃ
2. s  - usual s;   [s]  - ṣ  ;  [s] - ś :- e.g. aṃśa - [amsa] 

UKT 180511: What does the glyph {a.} represent? In Eng-Lat script, a represents the vowel /a/ without specifying the vowel-duration. It could be either {a.} of duration 1 blnk (eye-blink), or {a} 2 blnk. It could also be the negation of something. However, the negation in Bur-Myan is not {a.}, but {ma.}. Bringing in {a.} as negation in Pal-Myan is a problem in Bur-Myan. For example, {a.} is used as negation in {da-na.} - {ada-na.}. Notice the use of "mid-dot".

A simple example of "mid-dot" is in the combination of {a.} and {ma.}. The combination can give rise to two different speech-sounds: {a.ma.} and {ama.} differentiated by the use of central vowel schwa /ə/.

Dedicated glyph for schwa /ə/: TIL uses 'mid-dot' as symbol for /ə/ Alt0183 {}. We have a problem in pronunciation of Bur-Myan {a.ma.} which can be "female animal" and "elder sister" {ama.} - with a 'mid-dot'. Not to get confused, the official spelling for "elder sister" is {ic-ma.}. 

As an example where {hya.} stands for /ʃ/ see MLC MED2006-610 for Bur-Myan name for Bael fruit {U.hic}. Therefore, I am representing the three basic aksharas and their killed counterparts as:

/ʃ/ with {sha.} श , and  {sh} श् 
/s/ with {Sa.} ष ,  and {S} ष्
/θ/ with {a.} स , and {} स् 
/?/ with {a.} ? , and {} 
Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.} is a basic consonant which can be under viram, whereas
Pal-Myan Nya'gyi  {a.} is a horizontal conjunct which breaks down into Nya'l:
  --> ~ {~a.}.
Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.} is pronounceable, whereas that of Pal-Myan is mute. It must have a preceding basic consonant to have a pronunciation, e.g., {pi~a} 'education' which is usually written as {pa~a} in both Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan.

Hindi and other Indic speakers should not forget the virama ् at the end of the syllables, e.g. the word pronounced in Hindi as "Ram" is spelled "Rama" राम {ra-ma.mn:}/ {ra-ma. nt}. Only when you put a virama to kill the inherent vowel of म, can you pronounce this word as "Ram" {raam} /raːm/. (Notice the IPA triangular colon.) That is why I always pronounce it in the Pali way as "Rama". (I thank my Deep River friend Hashad Patil for this remark.)

Skt-Dev (IE) was deficient in graphemes compared to Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur). And moreover English missed two whole columns, c2 & c4 of Akshara matrix:

Skt-Dev (IE) had to borrow what it lacked from Myanmar (Tib-Bur) script changing the pronunciation as well. We can also have the reverse where Myanmar (Tib-Bur) has to borrow from Skt-Dev. We note the following cases:


Case#1: Skt-Dev has no <wa> /w/ (rounded bilabial): it has only <va> /v/ (labio-dental)

A parallel case: Eng-Lat <wa> /o/ --> Eng-Lat <va> /v/

UKT: 170211: Remember this note is on language, both speech {sa.ka:} and script {sa}, and not on esoteric beliefs of Old Britain. However, since language and religion are interrelated, I will have to look into the religion as well. I will have to look into the achievements of the Anglo-Saxon king, Alfred the Great, who was repelling another wave of intruders from the North - the Danes.

For religion, I will have to look further to a time before Roman invasion which came about because of the Britain being rich in copper (Cu) {kr:ni} and tin (Sn) two minerals needed to make the alloy bronze {kr:o} to make implements of war. Note what Myanmarpr was noted for is brass {kr:wa}, a softer alloy of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Brass is not fit for making war implements and was considered to be a metal of peace.

In fact the ancients Jews forbid the use of bronze and iron in constructing their fire-altar, and allowed only brass to be used. Bronze and iron, were not allowed on or near it, because these metals were used as implements of war. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altar_(Bible)   170211
"... The altar could not be carved using utensils made of iron or of bronze (Exodus 20:25), nor were any allowed on or near it, because iron and bronze were used for implements of war. ..."

Remember the hardness scale: 
   (soft) copper (Cu) {kr:ni} > brass {kr:wa} > bronze {kr:o} > iron {n} (hard)
Note: By hardness scale is meant the ability to scratch to make a mark. Thus, an iron needle can be used to scratch a bronze plate, whilst a brass needle can scratch copper. Thus we use an iron stylus to write on palm leaves, copper and its alloys, and silver & gold substrates. See Hardness scale for scratching:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohs_scale_of_mineral_hardness (180918)
"The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material."

The English language of Old Britain (before the Viking invasion), known as Old English the language of Alfred the Great (849 -  899)

From Wikipedia on timeline in Myanmarpr:
638 (March) AD - Pyu of Sri Ksetra launched a new calendar
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Myanmar 180726
832 AD - Pyu city-states destroyed by Nanzhao raids; and
  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Burmese_history 170211
849 AD - King Pyinbya founded Pagan (Bagan)
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Burmese_history 170211

For esoteric beliefs (religion) I will have to go into a time before the Roman general (later Emperor) Julius Caesar (100-44 BC) invasion of the British Isles, and the time of his invasion of Britain in (55-54 BC), and to the time of Caradoc, chief of the Catuvellauni (called Caractacus by the Romans) and the Celtic war-chieftainess Boudicca aka Boadicea. See Religion of Ancient Celts by J A Macculloch, 1911, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- JAMacculloch-ReligionAnciCelts<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171209)

The Celtic beliefs have many similarities to those of Myanmarpr. I found the Burmese-Celtic parallels from my study the esoteric beliefs in the legends of King Arthur and Wizard Merlin. Caveat : My study of esoteric beliefs are from "shady" sources, who do not want to reveal themselves in public and must be taken only as hear-say.

From Wikipedia on timeline in Myanmarpr: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Burmese_history 170211.
1500s BC - Earliest evidence of copper and bronze works, rice growing, domesticating chickens and pigs in Irrawaddy valley;
1500 BC - Iron-working settlements south of present-day Mandalay;
180 BC - Beikthano city fortified by Pyu people who had entered the Irrawaddy valley from north and beginning of Pyu city-states; and
70 AD - Pyu city of Halin in existence. 

UKT 170211: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Arthur 170211
" King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries AD. [Timeline Myanmarpr - The Pyu of Sri Ksetra Kingdom launch the Burmese calendar with the start date of 22 March 638. King Arthur would have lived at a time of Pyu period.] The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians. [2]

UKT 170210: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merlin 170210
"Merlin (Welsh: Myrddin) is a legendary figure best known as the wizard featured in Arthurian legend and medieval Welsh poetry. The standard depiction of the character first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written c. 1136, and is based on an amalgamation of previous historical and legendary figures. ... Merlin's traditional biography casts him as a cambion: born of a mortal woman, sired by an incubus (f. succubus), the non-human from whom he inherits his supernatural powers and abilities. [2]"

The greatest achievement for a wizard to attain is the ability to make a dead body animate by introducing a soul Ka (Egypt) aka Bardo (Tibet) from a dead person - usually an evil entity. See :
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_the_Dead 170208
- Note: It was The Ka of Gifford Hillary, by Dennis Wheatley, 1956, which led me to the Egyptian Book of the Dead .
#1. Egyptian Book of the Dead by E A Wallis-Budge, 1898 in TIL PDF libraries:
- EAWallisBudge-EgyptBkDead<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171209)
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian_concept_of_the_soul 170208
#2. Tibetan Book of the Dead by W Y Evans-Wentz, 1st ed 1917, 3rd ed 1957
- WYEvansWentz-TibetBkDead<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171209)
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bardo_Thodol 170208

The wizard (f. witch) has to attain Rank#12 to do this. This is the same in Myanmar belief. Rank#12 is known as one who can wear 12 strings: {hs.nhic kro:tt}. He or she is known as a {ka.w} and the esoteric science is known as {mhau p~a}. If you would like to know more about {ka.w} and {mhau p~a}, in Tibetan religion, read about Milarepa - the sorcerer who became a Buddhist Buddha.
#3. The Life of Milarepa by Tsangyn Heruka, transl. by A Quintman, Peguin series, 2010
- AQuintman-PeguinMilarepa<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171210)
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milarepa 170208

Those who want to know more about, occult, black magic and similar topics should read the works of Dennis Wheatley (1897 - 1977)
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Wheatley 170210
"... During the Second World War, Wheatley was a member of the London Controlling Section, which secretly coordinated strategic military deception and cover plans. His literary talents led to his working with planning staffs for the War Office. He wrote numerous papers for them, including suggestions for dealing with a possible Nazi invasion of Britain (recounted in his works Stranger than Fiction and The Deception Planners). The most famous of his submissions to the Joint Planning Staff of the war cabinet was on "Total War". ..."

Bur-Myan: {wa.} (Tib-Bur) (bilabial-rounded) --> {ba.} (Tib-Myan) (bilabial)
Skt-Dev:   व va (IE) (labio-dental) + diagonal -->  ब ba (IE) (bilabial)


Case#2: Skt-Dev in need of dental-fricative hisser ष has to borrow प by adding a vertical line.


Case#3 : The MLC-approved Bur-Myan graphemes {hya.}, and worse {rha.} for phoneme /ʃ/ are unsatisfactory in Romabama. The problem is  due to Bur-Myan lacking the necessary dental-frication hisser grapheme. What we have is only the palatal-plosive stop. Since to adopt a new grapheme would play havoc in the usual transcription between Burmese and English, I have the adopt the following scheme:

Palatal-plosive stop: {sa.}/ {c}
Dental-fricative hisser: {Sa.} ष/ {S} ष्
Dental-fricative husher: {sha.} श / {sh} श्

Palatal-approximant Nya'gyi : {a.}/ {} - unique to Bur-Myan
Palatal-plosive stop Nya'l ;    {a.}/ {} - present in both Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan

Note: Pal-Myan made a mess of Nya'gyi : {a.} by making it into a horizontal-conjunct which breaks up under Virama: ~ . To show this break up, I usually write as in the Bur-Myan word for 'education' {pn~a} or in color-scheme .


Case#4 : In BEPS as a group, to meet the one-to-one grapheme to phoneme, it is imperative to get rid of all the "digraphs", and to get rid of ideas of "aspiration", "allophones" and "glottal stop /ʔ/". Note: the glottal stop /ʔ/ is presented as / ' / by MLC. We have to introduce the idea of tenuis letters in Eng-Lat.

Another reason for getting rid of the digraph is because of its mix-up with diphthong. Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan has no diphthongs. I presume it is also the case with Mon-Myan. What the western phoneticians thought to be diphthongs are really monothongs written in two English letters, such as <th> for /θ/. The English <th> is transliterated in IAST for [tʰ]. As for the absence of coda sounds in Bur-Myan as promoted by the MLC (Myanmar Language Commission), I would have to say that it is only true for the Mandalay and Yangon (Irrawaddy valley) Burmese accents.

There are at least 3 digraphs (consonants) to get rid of in Myanmar script, and their replacements in BEPS which are all ASCII compatible.

In fact by Myanmar language we mean the languages of all indigenous ethnics who write in the Myanmar script, e.g. Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan are different languages. Bur-Myan is the dialect of the Irrawaddy valley, but the so-called Rakhine and Tavoyan are dialects of Bur-Myan. Yet they are all Myanmar languages because they use the Myanmar script (except Chin and Kachin which write in Latin script.).

Contents of this page

In search of long lost consonant Nya-major

- UKT 180803, 180915

There are two contenders for r2c5 cell of the Myanmar akshara matrix. In both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan tables the occupier of r2c5 cell is Nya-major {a.}, but in Pal-Myan table the occupier is Nya-minor {a.}.

I'm using MLC Burmese Orthography, 1st ed 1986, ed. U Tun Tint (in Bur-Myan) as my reference. On p090-p095, I find entries with Onset for Nya'gyi to be 45 and for Nya'l as 6 only, showing that the Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.} was the rightful occupier of r2c5. However, for BEPS, I've no option except to move Nya'gyi out - maybe into Kingdom-come.

It was also probable (I said "probable" and write my conjecture in a hilarious manner) done also by ancient Bur-Myan phoneticians when Pali from Sri Lanka appeared on the scene in the days of Anawrahta's religious reformation when the Bur-Myan language of the Burmese monks - Ari aka Arigyi ("gyi" to show their "primitive nature" and who are be "feared" if not "hated".) had a setback.

The Arigyis were replaced by the Theravada monks from Thaton - Mon-Myan speakers who could not understand the speech of Bamah speakers of Northern Burma with capitals in Pagan and Taguang.

Nya-major in the Onset, was to some extent replaced by {gnra.} probably derived from Mon-Myan r1c5 {gn~ra.}. Nya-major in the Onset, has been equated to {gnra.} by U Tha Myat in his Burmese Orthography, 1961, p.085, available in TIL Research Library in ink-on-paper book. What I have is the original book which has deteriorate somewhat.

UKT 180804: Tagaung was the first kingdom established by King Abiraza who had fled from Magadha Janapada when defeated by the Vdic speakers the new arrivals from the Persian (Iranian) plateau in the Battle of the Ten kings aka dāśarāj (c. 14th century BCE). His subjects in Tagaung were indigenous Pyus who later became merged with Bamah - the fast horse riders {mrm~ma} from the further north.

The episode is described in a jingle: {mrm~ma a. sa./ ta.kan: ka.//)

The episode is not a conquest by the horse riders over the Pyus. It is the result of the invasion of Pyu territory by the kingdom of Nanchao, now a part of China. Nanchao was expanding and it needed more soldiers. It raided the Pyus and carried off a large number, 3,000, of able-bodied males. The Pyus females probably without much objection accepted the horse riders as husbands, and so the merger is not war but a large scale wedding!

Those at the TIL Research station can watch a video on one Myanmar-horseman who became one of my paternal tutelary Ma'nes, MyinByuShin Nat {mrn:hpru-shn nt}. He was a fast horse rider who prided his horsemanship and his favourite white horse. He betted his life against the onrush of water along the bed of a wide dry river in  Upper Burma - the area of my father's ancestors. MyinByuShin had almost crossed the river-bed through which water would rush along as soon as dark clouds start to cover the hills above. It is said, the onrush of water caught just the hind leg of the horse, and carried away both the horse and rider to become a horse-riding Nat. There was no sword-fights and no drinking: the dance was that of a brave man - the perfect husband for a Pyu bride!
- MyinHpruShin<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180805)
The boisterous Myanmar orchestra is set to the music of a galloping horse. According to my paternal grandmother Daw Choak, when her father U Yan Shin's (himself a fast horse rider) family fortune was about to rise, she as child of ten, could hear the jingling bells of a fast horse galloping around their house throughout the whole night.

Read Battle of the Ten kings: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Ten_Kings 180804.

UKT 180804: I've written on the Battle of Ten Kings in my TIL Pali-English Dictionary of 2012-10-31, quoting an account mentioned in the Glass Palace Chronicles  and translation by U Pe Maung Tin.

Actually, I cannot let Nya-major {a.}/ {} just die (into the Kingdom-come). I've moved it down to Approximant row, and let Nya-minor {a.}/ {} stay in r2c5.

However, in IPA table Palatal-approximant cell is occupied by {ya.} and its killed-form {}. Since Bur-Myan speakers tend to finish the word endings with emphasis, I can easily move the {ya.}/ {} to the neighbouring velar cell, and place {a.}/ {} in the Palatal-approximant cell.

Now, I must look for entries with Coda for killed-Nya'gyi {} with three registers:
- {.} (1 eye-blink), - {} (2 blnk), and - {:} (2 blnk with emphasis).

For plosive-stops checked by {.}
r2   {sa.}:  e.g. ---- , {s}, {s:}
--- {hsa.}: e.g. ---- , {hs}, {hs:}

For medial-conjunctions checked by killed- {.}
r1 {kya.}, {kra.}: e.g. , , ; , ,
--- {hkya.}, {hkra.}: e.g. ---, ,

to be continued

Contents of this page

Esoteric nature of Myanmar akshara : Akshara-major and Akshara-minor

UKT 180327, 180919: Whether we like it or not, we Bur-Myan speakers as a group are immersed in Esotericism. Perhaps, as the legend goes the most prominent Master of Myanmar Esotericism is BoBoAung {pa.hta.mn Bo:Bo:an}.
See Section 5: Myanmar language and culture, and Myanmar religions : organized and folk.
Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm > 05. Cult of Magus - ch05-magus.htm / Cult of Runes (part of ch05-magus.htm)
Masters of the Buddhist Occult: the Burmese Weikzas - weikza.htm
(UKT: Though this work is full of mistakes, I am including it, to show how a scholarly article can be misleading.)
I am preparing an article "Weikzas of the Right-hand Path and Kaw of the Left-hand Path", from:
Soans and Bilus , see: MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htm > p072R.htm
"Soans are still supposed to be present in Yaw, the area of Pondaung-Ponnya range."

As I go into this section, which can be misinterpreted as biased (opinionated maybe: but not biased), I must make myself clear. I have never proselytized anyone. I have no wish to belittle any religion - ancient or modern. I do not wish to offend anyone: just as I honour my parents, grandparents and their fore-parents, I view what they have believed to be worshipful - whether these gods and goddesses are axiomatic or not. It was the position of my late father U Tun Pe, who had advised me: "you may or may not believe in a god or nt; but never offend it. Leave it alone." He gave an example - of his friend U Hpo Zan and our family friend - who made a point to offend U Shin Gyi Nt the guardian of waterways of the Delta. It is believed U Hpo Zan, a Methodist-Christian, met a tragic end.


The search for Ka'minor {ka.gn}, companion of Ka'major {ka.kri:}

UKT 180403, 180911:

I've been trying to find out what a Bur-Myan speaker would understand by the terms esoteric and esotericism. First how do we understand it in English. The meanings given in AHTD does not convey much:

esoteric - adj. . a. Intended for or understood by only a particular group: an esoteric cult. See note at mysterious . b. Of or relating to that which is known by a restricted number of people. . a. Confined to a small group: esoteric interests. b. Not publicly disclosed; confidential. - AHTD

esotericism - n. . Esoteric teachings or practices. . The quality or condition of being esoteric.

Looking back into Bur-Myan usage, I remember by what is meant by Paritta {pa.rait ta.ra:} well-known to Myanmar-Buddhists, by U Sao Htun Hmat Win, Dept. of Religious Affairs, Rangoon, Burma, 1981, in:
- Section 4 Paritta and Truth - ParittaTruth.htm (link chk 180911).

"- Protection from danger by exoteric power.
(p003) . In the daily life of a Burman Buddhist, critically speaking, the outlook is very much religious as in other great world religions.  The following statements may reveal how much Burmese Buddhism is religious.   . Buddhi is an Ideological System. It is a religion of Explicit Salvation and hence is to be called Nibbanic Buddhism.   . Again it is a religion of Proximate Salvation and can therefore can be classified  as Kammatic Buddhism.   . It may even be typified as a religion of chiliastic Expectations, for imminent and immanent salvation, the enjoyment of better world as an event which occurs within history, to be known as Esoteric Buddhism."


Contents of this page

Esoteric Buddhism

UKT 180915:

Scientific Buddhism: If you were to confine yourself to the Four Non-axiomatic Principles (commonly known as Four Noble Truths), and the Postulate of Non-axiom (commonly known as {ant~ta. lak~hka.Na oat}), and perhaps also to the psychological underlying Basis of Actions (Mental actions leading to Verbal and Physical actions - commonly known as {nhic hs l: pic~s:}, you could arrive at a system which has nothing to do with any religions. I've explained this system to Christians, Hindus, Muslims, Wiccans, Agnostics, Scientists and Engineers many times in Deep River, Ontario, Canada, and so far none have said they could not agree with it. As a scientist and pragmatist, I hold this view, and I salute our great teacher Gautama Buddha who was not a God, a Son of the God, or a Prophet:

ye dhamma hetu pabhavd
tesan hetu tathagato
dha tesancha nirodho
evan vddi mahd samano.

'Whatever laws are produced from Cause [of Mental Sufferings],
the Cause of These , Tathagata
has told; and the Extinction of These [note the word Extinction - not Salvation],
has the Great Samana like manner [human in every respect] declared.'


Contents of this page

King Dhammazedi - a Master of Yan

- UKT 180823 : King Dhammazedi (c. 14091492) is a historical figure, unlike BoBoAung who may or may not have been.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhammazedi 180915

The { n:} ["Yan" or "Yant" in Thai] meaning an instrument  {yn~ta.ra:} to control Nature , inanimate as well as animate (such as people, animals, and even unseen 'spirits'. King Dhammazedi {Dm~ma.s-di mn:} was an accomplished Master of Yan {n: waiz~za} 'a master occultist'. The following is what he wrote on his inscriptions known as Kalyani inscription of King Dhammazedi (14701492).

"... in the Kalyani inscription of King Dhammazedi (14701492) in Pegu , but it was later included, with many embellishments, in the major Burmese chronicles. For example, Anawrahta is said to have proceeded from Thaton with the thirty sets of the Piṭakas on the kings thirty-two white elephants, together with Mon skilled in carving, turning, and painting. ..."

See Kalyani inscription of King Dhammazedi , by Taw Sein Ko, 1892, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- TawSeinKo-KalyaniInscript<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180813)
See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalyani_Ordination_Hall 180814
"Kalyāṇī Ordination Hall {ka.lya-Ni aim} Pali kalyāṇī sīmā is a Buddhist ordination hall located in Pegu, Myanmarpr. The ordination hall is a major pilgrimage site, [1] and houses the Kalyani Inscriptions, a set of 10 sandstone pillars inscribed in Pali-Myan and Mon-Myan in 1480. [2] [3] The inscriptions are important records of Theravada Buddhist history and of that era. [3] "

The Kalyani Inscriptions are a set of 10 sandstone pillars inscribed in Pali and Mon in 1480. [2] [3] The inscriptions are important records of Theravada Buddhist history and of that era.

For more on this subject, see King Dhammazedi {Dm~ma.s-di mn:} who was a Master of Yan {n: waiz~za} 'a master occultist'.
Section 04 - lang-relig-indx.htm > dhamazedi.htm (link chk 180813)

King Dhammazedi even while he was a Theravada Buddhist monk was an occultist - a Master of the Yan { n:waiz~za}. He was loved and probably feared by his Mon-subjects who believed the magical power of the Yan { n:} and there was peace in his kingdom during his reign. I would have to note that the power of the Yan might be just psychological - but was enough to maintain peace. It is well known that people in authority, such as kings and present-day political leaders dabble in occult employing occultists, but King Dhammazedi was special a proven master occultist. See Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics, by G Houtman, 1999
- GHoutman-MentalCultBurPoliti<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180813)

It should be noted that what are described as Yans in Thailand are different in spirit (idea) from their ancestors the Burmese-Yans even though the characters used in writing still have Myanmar script.

To my query "Who is the god of the Thai Yants", Google answers:
"THAI TATTOO SAK YANT MEANING 5. Hanuman was a mythical monkey God in the time of Rama and according to legend, Hanuman is invincible and has powers far greater than humans, including the ability to fly. The ancient Thai epic story Of Ramakian depicts Hanuman, the monkey god, who was said to be Rama's strongest warrior." - Google 180823

Myanmar Theravada Buddhists do not worship any entity except the Supreme Teacher, Gautama Buddha. They look down on any who worship Brahmas, Devas, Nats, Nagas, etc. And so worshippers of any entity has to acknowledge the Supremacy of the Buddha in Knowledge. Any Theravada monk engage in occultism could be severely sanctioned even to the extent of disrobing and expulsion from the Order.

Contents of this page

Mon Paradigm vs. Pyu Paradigm

UKT 180829: "Mon Paradigm vs. Pyu Paradigm" will be moved under: - BEPS-indx.htm

Mon Paradigm - Culture in form of written script had spread from Lower Burma to Upper Burma
Pyu Paradigm - The opposite of the above.

Then comes along Michael Aung Thwin and his Mon Paradigm which states (and which Prof. Aung Thwin would not accept) that Mon in southern or Lower Burma, is the civilizing factor of culture of Bamah aka Burmese (in northern Upper Burma). See The Mists of Ramaa, by M. Aung-Thwin, 2005,  in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- MAungThwin-MistRamanna<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180817)

See Introduction, p9.
"Thus there is no evidence to support:
  a) the presence of a Mon (or any other) kingdom in Lower Burma prior to the rise and development of Pagn,
  b) the conquest of Thatn by Aniruddha, or
  c) the civilizing of Upper Burma [Pyus] by Lower Burma [Mons].
In fact, the primary evidence suggests just the reverse: it was the kingdom of Pagn that was responsible for the demographic, cultural, and infrastructural development of Lower Burma, providing it with the wherewithal that turned a sparsely populated frontier region into an independent polity for the first time only in the late thirteenth century. In short, it was Upper Burma that was responsible for the civilizing of Lower Burma."

I must now mention one of his critics, D. M. Stadtner, 2008, and his fellow critics coin another word the Pyu Paradigm
- DMStadtner-MonLowerBurma<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180808)

Prof. Stadtner states:
"The Mon presence at Pagan, according to later Burmese chronicles, was triggered by the conquest of Thaton in Lower Burma by the ruler Aniruddha, or Anawrahta (c. 1044 c.1077). (fn.1) [UKT ]

fn.1: The most influential chronicle for the Mon Paradigm was the Hmannan Mahayazawin-daw-gyi, [aka Hmannan Yazwin {mhn-nn: ra-za.wn}] a portion of which was translated into English and is known by the title of The Glass Palace Chronicle (Pe Maung Tin and G.H. Luce 1923). Other histories treated the events in slightly different ways. See the Vaṃsadīpanī, translated and discussed by Patrick Pranke (Pranke 2004, 145146).

"The purpose of capturing Thaton was the seizure of the Pali canon, which became the basis of the introduction of Theravada Buddhism upon the return to Pagan by [King] Anawrahta. A simple version of this event was recorded first in the Kalyani inscription [aka Kalyani Sima {ka.lya-Ni aiM}] of King Dhammazedi (14701492) in Pegu, but it was later included, with many embellishments, in the major Burmese chronicles. For example, Anawrahta is said to have proceeded from [City of] Thaton with the thirty sets of the [Theravada Buddhist] Piṭakas on the kings thirty-two white elephants, together with Mon [people who would not understand Bur-Myan speech] skilled in carving, turning, and painting.

UKT 180819: My question is how large was Thaton in the 11th century? See A History of the Far East, by A Crofts and P Buchanan, 1958
- ACroftsPBuchanan-HistFarEast<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180819)
from Book 1: Backgrounds of Far East to 1600:
"The man of the East survived through slow endurance; he was passive rather than furious, less a gladiator than a toiler. By mastering the Asian Heartland [UKT: Pyus would fit into the description than the Mons.], he became fit to thrive in every latitude of earth."

See: The Gold Coast: Suvannabhumi? Lower Myanmar Walled Sites of the First Millennium A.D., by E. Moore, and U SanWin, 2007
- EMooreSanWin-Suvannabhumi<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180820)
See also : Change in the Landscape of First Millennium AD Myanmar, by E. Moore & U WinMaung (Tampawaddy), 2006
- EMooreWinMaung-FirstMilleniumMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180820)

See the above mentioned Glass Palace Chronicle, by U Pe Maung Tin and G. H. Luce, 1921, in TIL HD-PDF and SE-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-GlassPalaceChronicle<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180814)

In Part 4, on p78, of Glass Palace Chronical, by Tin & Luce:
" [Anawrahta] placed the thirty sets of the Pitakas on the king's thirty-two white elephants and brought them away."

Prof. Stadtner continues on p194:

"If it can be shown that the Pyu occupied Lower Burma, and not the Mon, then the Mon could scarcely have contributed to Pagans civilization. That the Pyu have been vaulted into prominence at the expense of the Mon is suggested by the title of an opening chapter in Aung-Thwins book, The Pyu Millennium. In sum, a fresh Pyu Paradigm has replaced a discredited Mon Paradigm, as one reviewer, Pierre Pichard (2006: 2036), poignantly phrased his objections."

Whether, you accept the Mon Paradigm or Pyu Paradigm, I maintain that Asokan and Myanmar, both scripts of Magadha Mahajanapada (not Magadha kingdom) of the foothills of Himalayas, are northern scripts. They are directly related, and that there is no need for a southern Indic script to be involved.

Before we leave this subsection, let's see
- DGDenovanEtAl-PyuLandscape<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180816)

UKT 180817: The English transcriptions below have been changed so much that even I have difficulty in changing to Bur-Myan.

"The Ayeyarwady Basin {-ra-wa.ti mric-whm:} occupies the depressional portion of a geological unit called the West Burma Plate. It is clearly demarcated by Arakan Yoma {ra.hkan ro:ma.} on the west (an accretionary plism caused by collision of the Indian Plate to the West Burma Plate) [UKT ]

UKT 180819: Just because, a term such as accretionary plism - a term from Geology - is outside the scope of the history of Pyus, don't ignore it. It may have a bearing of importance on what you are reading.

accretionary plism - noun, Geology . a mass of sedimentary material scraped off a region of oceanic crust during subduction and piled up at the edge of a continental crustal plate. - Google

See Section 08 Geology / Geology of Myanmarpr - -- geol-indx > myan-geol.htm - update 2018Feb  
which on Geology of Myanmarpr in which you will see why we, descendants of Pyus are so rich, in spite of ourselves.

and the Shan Plateau {shm:koan:prn-mrn.} on the east (the boundary is the Sagain-Namyin strike-slip fault). The basin, mostly covered with Tertiary sediment, is divided into two parts, the western trough (interdeep) and the eastern trough (backdeep), by the now extinct Bago (Pegu) Yoma volcanic arc running north-south through the Jade Mine, Wuntho, Mt. Popa {poap-pa:tan}, and the Bago Yoma {p:hku: ro:ma.}. The western trough is further subdivided into the Upper Chindwinn (Chindwin), the Central (or Ma-gway (Magwe)), and the Lower Ayeyarwady Basins. The Central and Lower Ayeyarwady Basins are separated by the Tayetmyo (Thayetmyo) Syntaxis. The eastern trough
consists of the Monywa-Shwebo Alluvial Plain, (p119end-p120begin) the Sittaung (Sittang) Depression, and the Bago Alluvial Area.

"The Ayeyarwady River flows down southward within the eastern trough until its makes an abrupt turn at Sagain toward the southwest. After crossing the volcanic arc around Pakkoku into the western trough, it flows down southward to the delta. Most probably, the Ayeyarwady used to flow straight to the south from Mandaley to the Mottama (Martaban) Bay through the Sittaung Depression. This depression becomes a narrow corridor (a few tens of km wide) between the Shan Plateau {shm:koan:prn-mrn.} and the Bago Yoma {p:hku: ro:ma.}. Presently the corridor is drained to the north to the Ayeyarwady {-ra-wa.ti mric} and to the south to the Sittaung River {sic~tan: mric}. The divide is somewhere between Pyawbwe {pyau-Bw mro.} and Yamethin {ra.m:n: mro.}.

"Thus, the Upper Ayeyarwady has two access routes to the sea; the one along the Ayeyarwady directly to the sea, and the other through the corridor to Mottama. The former actually is part of the great distant route to Yunnan via Bhamo, and navigable most of it. The part downstream of Pyay {pr mro.} along this route must have been only sparsely settled until the mid-19th century [UKT: the date mid-19th does not make sense.]. The latter is mostly an overland route and passes through the fertile lowlands apparently densely populated since the early times. Kyaukse, Meiktila (Meikthila), and Toungoo are all located along the corridor, with Bago at the southern exit."

UKT note: The paper gives the Pyu sites within the above area. Now, where are the Mon sites?

Contents of this page

Pyu script

- UKT 180726

Just before the 2018 July update, I notice the following Wikipedia article. I do not agree with many points given in the Wikipedia article. For your  judgment I am comparing the three scripts,

Why is the Bur-Myan akshara r4c1 თ present in the Georgian alphabet? If Asokan had preceded Bur-Myan, it should have been Asokan bola, or Devanagari त !

From: Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyu_script 180726

The Pyu script is a writing system used to write the Pyu language, an extinct Sino-Tibetan language that was mainly spoken in present-day central Burma. It was based on the Brahmi-based scripts of both north and south India. The best available evidence suggests that the Pyu script gradually developed between the 2nd and 6th centuries CE. [UKT ]

The Pyu script's immediate precursor appears to be the Kadamba script of southwest India. [UKT ]

UKT 180806: See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kadamba_alphabet 180916
and judge yourself if Kadamba script, can ever be the "immediate precursor" of Pyu script. Perhaps it is the Pyu script which had given rise to Kadamba script. In any case, until I can get a reasonable explanation of Myanmar თ {ta.} in the Georgian language, I will maintain that Myanmar script is as old as Asokan, if not older!

The early period Pyu inscriptions always included interlinear Brahmi scripts. It was not until the 7th and 8th centuries that Sri Ksetra's inscriptions appeared all in the Pyu script, without any interlinear Brahmi. [1]

Many of the important inscriptions were written in Sanskrit and Pali, alongside the Pyu script. The Pyu sites have yielded a wide variety of Indian scripts from King Ashoka's edicts written in north Indian Brahmi and Tamil Sangam literature, both dated to the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, to the Gupta script and Kannada script dated to the 4th to 6th centuries CE. [1] [2]

The Pyu script is presently not in Unicode. Its inclusion was proposed in 2010, [3] and has tentative placement in the Unicode Consortium's roadmap. [4]

Contents of this page

End of TIL file