Update: 2019-05-24 07:04 PM -0400

TIL

Earth Science

earth-indx

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.C., USA), and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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earth-indx.htm

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Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. This is a branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the Earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history. Earth science encompasses four main branches of study, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_science 190508

¤ Introduction and General info about place names, and events
¤ Early Earth , the First Billion - 1x10^9 year span (4.5 to 3.5 x10^9 yr ago) - earlyearth.htm - update 2019May
¤ History of the Earth (4.54x10^9 yr ago to present) - histearth.htm - update 2019May
¤ Geologic time scale (GTS) and Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) - timescale.htm - update 2019May

Geology - {Bu-mi.bé-Da.} - geol-indx - update 2019May 
Geography {pa.hta.wi-wín} - geog-indx - update 2019May 
Paleoanthropology  {shé:ma.noaþ~þa.bé-da.} - paleoant-indx - update 2019May
  (look also into index.htm > Sect 5, subsect 5.5. MYANMAR: a collection of papers for source materials.)

 

UKT notes

 

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Introduction and General info about place names, and events

- UKT 190512:

Instead of writing an introduction myself, I've taken some from those who would know the subject better than me. The following is from:
¤ The geological history and geodynamics of the Earth, by Anatoly M. Nikishin, Lomonosov Moscow State University
- AMNikishin-GeogHistEarth<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 190512)

"Abstract: The Earth formed through a hot accretion process. Almost simultaneously, the core and the mantle were separated from each other. At the final stages of the accretion process, the outer layer approximately 2000 km thick was molten, thus representing a magma ocean. This magma ocean produced the primary crust of the Earth. Surface waters were precipitated from the atmosphere and released from the crystallizing magma ocean. The plate tectonic processes started at around 4.3 to 4 Ga BP. In the Archean, the overall tectonic mechanism was quite specific, due to substantially higher mantle temperature and thicker oceanic crust. The normal plate tectonics acted during the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic with the periodic assembly of continents, which are known as supercontinent cycles.

See also downloaded txt in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
1. History of the Earth: An Integrated and Historical Perspective, ed by C. Eyles and S. Symons
  - CEylesSSymons-HistEarth<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 190512)
"This book is the astonishing product of a group of undergraduates at McMaster University in Ontario. The students are 33 members of the
Honours Integrated Science Program. They have collectively authored and compiled a book that interconnects history, mythology, religion and anthropology with the earth sciences." - Charles C. Plummer, Ph.D., Professor of Geology, Emeritus, California State University, Sacramento. Author of introductory geology textbooks

2. The geological history and geodynamics of the Earth, Anatoly M. Nikishin, Lomonosov Moscow State University
  - AMNikishin-GeogHistEarth<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 190512)
"Abstract—The Earth formed through a hot accretion process. Almost simultaneously, the core and the mantle were separated from each other. At the final stages of the accretion process, the outer layer approximately 2000 km thick was molten, thus representing a magma ocean. This magma ocean produced the primary crust of the Earth. Surface waters were precipitated from the atmosphere and released from the crystallizing magma ocean. The plate tectonic processes started at around 4.3 to 4 Ga BP. In the Archean, the overall tectonic mechanism was quite specific, due to substantially higher mantle temperature and thicker oceanic crust. The normal plate tectonics acted during the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic with the periodic assembly of continents, which are known as supercontinent cycles."

 

¤ General info about place names, and events:

#1. A note by A Gupta in his Preface to The Physical Geography of Southeast Asia :
UKT 180912: this note is also applicable to Geology and other topics.

  "Southeast Asian place names [and personal names], and especially their spelling in English, have changed over the last few decades. For example, the city in Java which the Dutch called Batavia was subsequently known as Djakarta and then as Jakarta. [UKT ¶]

UKT 190508: The names are in native languages many of which are old established languages comprising of speech {sa.ka:} and script {sa} with a one-to-one correspondence. They all belong to Abugida-Akshara system. The Europeans, especially the English, who mis-heard the names are only used to the Alphabet-Letter system. To add to the problem, the present transcripting language, English, is the most notorious for being non-phonetic. And so you are going to have changes in English spelling of the native names, and you should expect more to come.

  "The acceptance of new names or spelling is not uniform. These days everyone, for example, calls the island ‘Sulawesi’ but the sea adjacent to it is referred to as both the Sulawesi Sea and the Celebes Sea. Then there is the question of whether it is correct to write ‘Vietnam’ or ‘Viet Nam’. ‘Laos’ is widely used, but the country is ‘Lao PDR’ (People’s Democratic Republic). [UKT ¶]

  "In this book we have followed the line of least resistance, i.e. used the name and spelling the reader is most likely to find on the ground or on a map or in a local newspaper, except in rare cases where individual idiosyncrasies have intervened. For example, we have written ‘Jakarta’ (instead of ‘Djakarta’) and ‘Johor Baru’ (instead of ‘Johore Bahru’), but ‘Sumatra’ (not ‘Sumatera’); we have also used ‘Krakatau’, and not the externally imposed irrational spelling of ‘Krakatoa’. [UKT ¶]

"The reader, however, should keep these variations in mind when consulting old maps or research publications. Certain terms have been used interchangeably depending on location, common use, etc. These are gunung or mount/mountain, gua or cave, pulau or island and sungai or river.

"Lastly, some familiarity with local languages is extremely rewarding in Southeast Asia. The new volcanic cone that is rising in the middle of the old blown-apart crater of Krakatau is ‘Anak Krakatau’, baby Krakatau or the son of Krakatau, a hint of a possible sequel to a disastrous episode."

UKT 2003Jan, 180821: The same holds true for names in Myanmarpré especially those with Nasal endings. As a possible solution to this problem, I've given the names as spelled in Bur-Myan spelling in Romabama within { }, and English words within < >. You'll need only Arial Unicode MS font to read these files. Any other Unicode font may not display the characters correctly.

#2. To place ourselves in perspective, we need to know the time of events in both Geology and Geography. Links to the following folders and indices in alphabetical order
• ARCHEAN: Archean Eon (4.0 - 2.5 Ga ago) - archean.htm (link chk 180820)
• HADEAN: Hadean Eon (4.6 - 4.0 Ga ago) - hadean.htm (link chk 180820)
• PALEOZOIC: Paleozoic Era (541 - 252 Ma ago) - paleozoic.htm (link chk 180820)
• PERMIAN: Permian Period (299 - 251 Ma ago): - permian.htm / permian-2.htm (link chk 180820)
  Formation of the land of Myanmarpré
• PHANEROZOIC: Phanerozoic Eon (541 Ma ago to present) - phanerozoic.htm (link chk 180820)
• PRECAMBRIAN: Precambrian Supereon - precambrian.htm (link chk 180820)
• PROTEROZOIC: Proterozoic Eon (2500 - 541 Ma ago) - proterozoic.htm (link chk 180820)

• REGIONAL-LAOS: Geology of Laos - geol-laos.htm (lost link 190522)
    See GeolLaos-Wiki<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 190522)
• REGIONAL-MYAN: Geology of Myanmarpré - geol-mya.htm (link chk 190522)
• REGIONAL-THAI: Geology of Thailand - geol-thai.htm (lost link 190522)
   See GeolThai-Wiki<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 190522)

 

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UKT notes

 

 

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End of TIL file