Update: 2018-05-22 06:39 PM -0400


Geology of Myanmarpré


Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | |Top

Contents of this page

Science of Geology: Geologic time scale - update 2018Mar
  UKT 180303: Geologic time scale was presented as a separate file - geol-time.htm
  It is now presented as a part of this index page.
  Geologic time scale (GTS)
    and Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS)
  Age terms : there are two systems - based on stratigraphy, and on climate change
  Size of fossils of Fauna and Flora

History of the Earth (4.54x10^9 yr ago to present) - histearth.htm - update 2018Mar
  Based on Giant Impact [by Theia] hypothesis - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Earth 180310
  and Early Earth aka Gaia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Earth 180310

The Supereons: time scale in billions of years aka Ga = 1x10^9
• Precambrian Supereon (4.6 - 0.541 Ga ago) - precambrian.htm - update 2018Apr

The Eons of Precambrian Supereon: time scale in billions of years aka Ga = 1x10^9
• Hadean Eon (4.6 - 4.0 Ga ago) - hadean.htm - update 2018Apr
• Archean Eon (4.0 - 2.5 Ga ago) - archean.htm - update 2018Apr
• Proterozoic Eon (2.50 - 0.541 Ga ago) - proterozoic.htm - update 2018Apr

The Eons of Present Supereon:
• Phanerozoic Eon (0.541 Ga ago - present) - phanerozoic.htm - update 2018May

The Eras: time scale in millions of years aka Ma = 1x10^6
• Paleozoic Era (541 - 251.902 Ma ago) - paleozoic-era.htm - update 2018May
• Mesozoic Era (
• Cenozoic Era (

• Permian geologic period - permian.htm - update 2018Feb

Geology of Myanmarpré - myan-geol.htm - update 2018Feb
Fossils -- fossil.htm - update 2018Mar

UKT 180301: I may move the following under geog-indx.htm later.

Malaria & other diseases as sentinels -- malaria.htm
Sky Islands of Myanmar -- sky-island.htm


UKT notes
My first introduction to Geology
  My note as a remembrance to Persian-Burmans: the Bajorjhee's and the Harjee's.
Terms in Geology written in Devanagari
  My note as a remembrance to my respected teacher, Mr. B. K. Menon, Lecturer in Organic Chemistry
  and to Dr. Chowdhury, Reader in Chemistry, Calcutta Univ.


Contents of this page

Introduction: Science of Geology

UkT 180216: Few including myself know what the science of Geology is. Simply put it is study of the planet called Earth, and the rocks which are the basis of the solid Earth.

For a quick journey through Geology/Geophysics, if Internet is assessable go to:
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Geophys/geophys.html#c1 180313

See downloaded VIDEOs in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries in folder GEOLOGY
1. An Introduction to Geology
IntroGeology<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 180306).
2. Continental drift
- ContinetDrift<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 180306)

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology 180206

Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, , i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse" [1] [2] is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite, (such as Mars or the Moon).

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. [ citation needed] By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth's past climates.

Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling. In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and providing insights into past climate change. Geology, a major academic discipline, also plays a role in geotechnical engineering.

Contents of this page

Geologic time scale (GTS) and Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS).

UKT 180303: Without a time scale, it is impossible to put ourselves in perspective. In a way Geology is an history of the Earth from the days when the Earth was a molten mass to the present - the Earth that we are living on. Just as any other history we need a time scale. The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.

To educate myself I have made the following collection:
¤ Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale 180215
¤ New World Encyclopedia - http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Geologic_time_scale 180302
¤ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS),
- http://www.pnas.org/content/106/1/24 180302.
See downloaded papers in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- JLPayneEtAl-TwoPhaseIncreaseMaxSize<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 180302)

As a newcomer into the field, I have to take extra care to come up with reliable information, taking care to scrutinize what I have collected as a Skeptical Chemist remembering the idol of my days of a wide-eyed university student some 60 years ago.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist 180303

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale 180211

The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time. It is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth's history. The tables of geologic time spans, presented here, agree with the nomenclature, dates and standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

UKT 180215: Myanmarpré is a part of Asia. However, my motherland and the continent of Asia have never been the same throughout geological time stretching for about 4 billion years. To appreciate the changes, see downloaded videos in the TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries, in the folder GEOLOGY:
- Geological History of the World<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 180215)
- A Brief History of Geologic Time<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 180215)


From: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Geologic_time_scale 180302

The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to map the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth.

Based on radiometric dating techniques, the Earth is estimated to be about 4.5 Ga (billion) or 4,570 Ma (million) years old. [UKT¶]

UKT 180304: Abbreviations used to express the number of years, such as bya and mya, can be confusing. At present the trend is to use the SI units (Système International d'Unités)

UKT 180521: I've been using SI units since March and found it very useful. So far I've used Ga = 10^9 years, and Ma = 10^6 years. Now, beginning with phanerozoic.htm , I'll use Ka = 10^3 . I'll capitalize Ka to be in sync with Ga and Ma.

Refer to: https://www.crowcanyon.org/index.php/what-do-different-date-abbreviations-mean 180521
"ka (kilo annum, thousand years) signifies "thousand calendar years ago," and it is used most often in geological, paleontological, and archaeological reporting to assign a general date to events that occurred a very long time ago. For example, the entry of humans into the New World during the Pleistocene (Ice Age) is thought to have occurred by about 15,000 years ago, or 15 ka (which is equivalent to approximately 13,000 B.C)."

The geological time scale is a means of mapping the history of the earth. It combines estimates of the age of geological formations as provided by radiometric dating techniques with the direct evidence of sequences and events in the rock record as assembled by geologists. In this way the geologic or deep time of Earth's past can be organized into various units according to events that took place in each period. Different spans of time on the time scale are usually delimited by major geologic or paleontologic events, such as mass extinctions. For example, the boundary between the Cretaceous period and the Palaeogene period is defined by the extinction event that marked the demise of the dinosaurs and of many marine species.

Mass extinctions: At least five major and global mass extinction events have occurred during the past 542 million years in which there have been sufficient bones, shells, and other hard parts to produce a fossil record supporting a systematic study of extinction patterns. Given the lack of a precise definition of mass extinction, some authorities argue for as many as 20 mass extinctions.
- http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Mass_extinction 180305

Geomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged, while geographic north and geographic south remain the same. The Earth's field has alternated between periods of normal polarity, in which the predominant direction of the field was the same as the present direction, and reverse polarity, in which it was the opposite. These periods are called chrons. ...
   The past record of geomagnetic reversals was first noticed by observing the magnetic stripe "anomalies" on the ocean floor. ... It has become especially useful to metamorphic and igneous geologists where index fossils are seldom available. ... Through analysis of seafloor magnetic anomalies and dating of reversal sequences on land, paleomagnetists have been developing a Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS). The current time scale contains 184 polarity intervals in the last 83 million years. [7] [8] ... Shortly after the first geomagnetic polarity time scales were produced, scientists began exploring the possibility that reversals could be linked to extinctions."
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomagnetic_reversal 180305

Eukaryote: is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes belong to the domain Eukaryota or Eukarya, and can be unicellular or multicellular organisms.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eukaryote 180305
See also prokaryote - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prokaryote 180305
"A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.[1]"

Also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria 180305
"Cyanobacteria aks Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, [4] and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen. [5] The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria. [6] [7] Cyanobacteria (which are prokaryotes) used to be called "blue-green algae". They have been renamed 'cyanobacteria' in order to avoid the term "algae", which in modern usage is restricted to eukaryotes. [8]

The earth history mapped on the geologic time scale contrasts with that mapped by young-earth creationists, which see the earth as only thousands of years old.

Geologic Time Scale: Eons, Eras and Periods
- https://www.thoughtco.com/geologic-time-scale-eons-eras-periods-1440796 180521

Eon          Era       Period        Dates (Ma)
Phanerozoic  Cenozoic  Quaternary    2.58-0
                       Neogene       23.03-2.58
                       Paleogene     66-23.03
             Mesozoic  Cretaceous    145-66
                       Jurassic      201-145
                       Trassic       252-201
             Paleozoic Permian       299-252
                       Carboniferous 359-299
                       Devonian      419-359
                       Silurian      444-419
                       Ordovician    485-444
                       Cambrian      451-482

Contents of this page


From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale 180211

The primary defined divisions of time are eons, in sequence the Hadean, the Archean, the Proterozoic and the Phanerozoic. The first three of these can be referred to collectively as the Precambrian supereon. [UKT ¶]

Eons are divided into eras, which are in turn divided into periods, epochs and ages.

UKT 180211: As a newcomer, I got confused with terminologies. Because of this, I wouldn't drop the suffixes and would write:
- Precambrian Supereon instead of Precambrian
- Hadean Eon instead of Hadean .

The following four timelines show the geologic time scale. The first shows the entire time from the formation of the Earth to the present, but this gives little space for the most recent eon.

UKT 180211: Note the negative numbers in Millions of Years:
  -4500 millions of years = 4500 Ma. aka Mya (Millions of Years Ago.). Note also that only one supereon, the Precambrian, is defined.
UKT 180307: Though the above pix shows the Hadean Eon and Archean Eon without subdivisions of periods, there are speculated to have subdivision: See: TIL Hadeon Eon (4.6x10^9 to 4.0x10^9 ago) - hadeon.htm (link chk 180307)
Pre-Nectarian, (4,533 to about 3,920 Ma ago. [4.533x10^9 to ...])
Nectarian (3,920 Ma to 3,850 Ma ago)

UKT 180312: I sometimes get mixed up using "billions".
See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billion 180312
"A billion is a number with two distinct definitions:
• 1,000,000,000, i.e. one thousand million, or 109 (ten to the ninth power [1x10^9]), as defined on the short scale. This is now generally the meaning in both British and American English. [1] [2]
• 1,000,000,000,000, i.e. one million million, or 1012 (ten to the twelfth power [ 1x10^12), as defined on the long scale. This is one thousand times larger than the short scale billion, and equivalent to the short scale trillion.

The second timeline shows an expanded view of the most recent eon. [UKT ¶]

In a similar way, the most recent era is expanded in the third timeline,

Finally, the most recent period is expanded in the fourth timeline.

UKT 180303: The most recent period needs to be presented in more detail for which I rely on:
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2007–3015, March 2007, prepared by U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Names Committee, with Randall C. Orndorff as chair. See downloaded paper in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF
- RCOrndoffEtAl-USGeolSurvey2006<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 180303)

Introduction. -- Effective communication in the geosciences requires consistent uses of stratigraphic nomenclature, especially divisions of geologic time. A geologic time scale is composed of standard stratigraphic divisions based on rock sequences and calibrated in years (Harland and others, 1982). Over the years, the development of new dating methods and refinement of previous ones have stimulated revisions to geologic time scales.

Since the mid-1990s, geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, academia, and other organizations have sought a consistent time scale to be used in communicating ages of geologic units in the United States. Many international debates have occurred over names and boundaries of units, and various time scales have been used by the geoscience community.


Age Terms

See pix on the right :
Remember, there are two sets of terms :  based on stratigraphy, and on climate change. I'll use:
-  Eon > Era > Period > Epoch > Age > Chron

The age of a stratigraphic unit or the time of a geologic event may be expressed in years before present (before A.D. 1950). The “North American Stratigraphic Code” (North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature, 2005) recommends abbreviations for ages in SI (International System of Units) prefixes coupled with “a” for annum:
- ka for kilo-annum, 10^3 = 103 years
  [UKT: For the sake of uniformity, I'll capitalize to Ka.
  Secondly, because superscripts can easily be lost, I'll use
  10^3 instead of 103 ]
- Ma for mega-annum, 10^6 years
- Ga for giga-annum, 10^9 years. [UKT ¶]

Duration of time should be expressed in millions of years (m.y.). For example, deposition began at 85 Ma and continued for 2 m.y.

Contents of this page

Size of fossils of Fauna and Flora

From: Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation and environmental opportunity, by Jonathan L. Payne, Alison G. Boyer, James H. Brown, Seth Finnegan, Michał Kowalewski, Richard A. Krause, Jr., S. Kathleen Lyonse, Craig R. McClainf, Daniel W. McSheag, Philip M. Novack-Gottshallh, Felisa A. Smithb, Jennifer A. Stempien, and Steve C. Wang, in PNAS, January 6, 2009, vol.106, no.1, 24-27. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), - http://www.pnas.org/content/106/1/24 180302.
See downloaded papers in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- JLPayneEtAl-TwoPhaseIncreaseMaxSize<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 180302)

UKT 180212: Geologic time scale is divided into Supereons, Eons, Eras, Periods, etc. depending on the size of the fossils.

Fig. 1. (See below) Sizes of the largest fossils through Earth history. Size maxima are illustrated separately for single-celled eukaryotes, animals, and vascular plants for the Ediacaran [Period] and Phanerozoic [Eon]. The solid line denotes the trend in the overall maximum for all of life. Increases in the overall maximum occurred in discrete steps approximately corresponding to increases in atmospheric oxygen levels in the mid-Paleoproterozoic and Ediacaran–Cambrian–early Ordovician. Sizes of the largest fossil prokaryotes were not compiled past 1.9 Gya. Estimates of oxygen levels from Canfield (38) and Holland (37) are expressed in percentage of PAL. Phan., Phanerozoic; Pz., Paleozoic; Mz., Mesozoic; C, Cenozoic. Red triangles, prokaryotes; yellow circles, protists; blue squares, animals; green diamonds, vascular plants; gray square, Vendobiont (probable multicellular eukaryote).

Fig. 2. (See above) Phanerozoic trends in size maxima for selected animal phyla and plant divisions. (A) Animal phyla. (B) Vascular plant divisions. Historical maxima differ by 2 orders of magnitude among phyla and divisions, although the timing of those historical maxima differs across clades.
1, Pteridophyta; 2, Lycopodiophyta; 3, Pinophyta;
4, Ginkgophyta; 5, Cycadophyta; 6, Magnoliophyta;
7, Equisetophyta; E, Ediacaran; Cm, Cambrian; O, Ordovician; S, Silurian; D, Devonian; C, Carboniferous; P, Permian; Tr, Triassic, J, Jurassic; K, Cretaceous; Pg, Paleogene; N, Neogene.


UKT 180212: One of the authors of the above, Michał Kowalewski
( http://www.deepseanews.com/2011/05/on-the-reasons-why-we-need-a-new-supereon/ 180212) wrote:
"The largest unit of defined geologic time is the supereon. Only one is defined, the Precambrian spanning from the formation of the Earth to right before life goes crazy in the Cambrian explosion (4.6 Bya (billion years ago) to 542 Mya (million years ago).  Oddly, there is no other supereon after the Precambrian, just the Phanerozoic eon ranging from the Cambrian explosion to the present. [UKT ¶]

The Precambrian can be broken into three eons, Hadean, Acrhaean, and Proterozoic.  Life as cyanobacteria first appears in the fossil record 3.5 bya [ 3.5 Ga ago = 3.5x10^6] during the Acrhaean. Molecular estimates place life starting around 3.97 bya [3.97x10^6]."

Corresponding to eons, eras, periods, epochs and ages, the terms " eonothem", " erathem", " system", " series", " stage" are used to refer to the layers of rock that belong to these stretches of geologic time in Earth's history.

Geologists qualify these units as "early", "mid", and "late" when referring to time, and "lower", "middle", and "upper" when referring to the corresponding rocks. For example, the lower Jurassic Series in chronostratigraphy corresponds to the early Jurassic Epoch in geochronology. [2] The adjectives are capitalized when the subdivision is formally recognized, and lower case when not; thus "early Miocene" but "Early Jurassic."


From: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Geologic_time_scale 180302

In the geological time scale, the largest defined unit of time is the eon, which is further divided successively into eras, periods, epochs, and stages. Overlaid on this general pattern developed by geologists is a complementary mapping by paleontologists who have defined a system of faunal stages of varying lengths, based on changes in the observed fossil assemblages. In many cases, such faunal stages have been adopted in building the geologic nomenclature, though in general there are far more recognized faunal stages than defined geologic time units.

Geologists tend to talk in terms of Upper/Late, Lower/Early, and Middle parts of periods and other units -- for example, "Upper Jurassic", "Middle Cambrian". Because geologic units occurring at the same time but from different parts of the world can often look different and contain different fossils, there are many examples where the same period was historically given different names in different locales. For example, in North America the Early Cambrian is referred to as the Waucoban series, which is then subdivided into zones based on trilobites. The same time span is split into Tommotian, Atdabanian, and Botomian stages in East Asia and Siberia. It is a key aspect of the work of the International Commission on stratigraphy to reconcile this conflicting terminology and define universal horizons that can be used around the world.

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronozone

A chronozone or chron is a slice of time that begins at a given identifiable event and ends at another. Such tracer events are usually keyed to the disappearance (extinction) of fossils of a widely distributed and rapidly changing species or the appearance of such a species in the geological record. Researchers use chronozones or chrons especially frequently in the various disciplines related to geology, notably in stratigraphy where they contribute to relative dating.

Events susceptible to identification and analysis by the physical sciences (such as Earth's magnetic-field reversals or the location of a combination of chemical evidence in a layer corresponding to the meteor strike believed to have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs) can also help define chronozones. Hence chronozones, and the international identification and acceptance of widespread chronozones as official useful markers or benchmarks of time in the rock record, are non-hierarchical in that chronozones do not need to correspond across geographic or geologic boundaries, nor be equal in length (despite an early constraint that one be defined as smaller than a geological stage[2]). A chronozone is usually defined in geologic terms for a geographical area by fossil names (biozone or biochronozone) or in worldwide terms by geomagnetic-reversal identifiers (polarity chronozone).

According to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the term "chronozone" refers to the rocks formed during a particular time period, while "chron" refers to that time period.[3] The key factor in designating an internationally acceptable chronozone is whether the overall fossil column is clear, unambiguous, and widespread. Some accepted chronozones contain others, and certain larger chronozones have been designated which span whole defined geological time units, both large and small.

For example, the chronozone known as "the reign of Tiberius" (14 to 37 AD) would be a subset of the chronozone "Imperial Rome". Similarly the chronozone Pliocene is a subset of the chronozone Neogene, and the chronozone Pleistocene is a subset of the chronozone Quaternary.

Contents of this page

UKT notes

My first introduction to Geology

UKT 180211:

As a B.Sc (Chemistry Honours) student of Rangoon University in 1952-1955, I had some special lectures on Petroleum-oil industry given by the chief chemist of the Burmah Oil Company (at that time wholly owned by the British in Burma). He was Mr. Bajorjhee the maternal uncle of my childhood friends whom I had known as Edward and Brian Harjhee. Later, I came to know more of the Harjhees, the eldest brother Patrick. Patrick was at that time preparing for his M.Sc (Qualifying) exam. Mr. Bajorjhee was training us as possible future chemists for his oil company. The company at its expense flew in its special plane, all the students of my class to its refinery at Chauk. The company housed us in one of its top executive quarters fully provided with its crew of servants. It was trying to impress on us what extras we would be getting if were to join its executive staff of elites - including a home leave to England as if we were Britishers. It was trying to turn us all native Burmese to become British - to control the local Burmese staff as underlings. There were only three in the whole class, because in those days few students at the Rangoon University - there was no university at Mandalay - dared to take Chemistry as an Honours subject: deemed to be most tough lasting 5 years instead of the ordinary four. I write this little note as a remembrance to Mr. Hajorjhee and to the Harjhee's most of whom are now gone but never will be forgotten.

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Contents of this page

Terms in Geology written in Devanagari

UKT 180514:

Many terms in Geology are from Ancient Greek, and since the ancient Greek civilization, and Indian civilization had close links, especially in the time of Alexander the Great, we should be able to transcribe these terms in Sanskrit-Devanagari. Wikipedia state: "In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the letters of the Greek alphabet have fairly stable and consistent symbol-to-sound mappings, making pronunciation of words largely predictable." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_alphabet - 180514

So far, I haven't found these terms Devanargari. Once I can see them in Devanargari aksharas, I can easily change them into Myanmar akshara.

With these words, I remember Dr. Chowdhury, Reader in Chemistry, Univ. of Calcutta, who I met more than once in the Rangoon Univ. He was my  external examiner when I appeared for the B.Sc. (Honours in Chemistry) Exam, Rangoon Univ. in 1955. I first met him during the oral examination when I, as the candidate, had a lively debate with Mr. B. K. Menon my examiner in Organic Chemistry. The debate was in connection with an experimental procedure in Organic Chemistry. The incident ended with the submission of my arguments against those of Mr. Menon to the full board of Examiners in Chemistry headed by Prof. U Po Tha. I have no idea whether my paper ever went up the Univ. Senate or not. The outcome was I was placed first in the result of the examination. In all probability the matter was hushed up for it could have resulted in similar debates in university exams triggering student unrest. It was a time when the unrest was in the offing.

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End of TIL file