Update: 2019-05-21 03:45 AM -0400




Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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Science of Geology

The Supereons: time scale in billions of years aka Ga = 1x10^9
• Precambrian Supereon (4.6 - 0.541 Ga ago) - precambrian.htm

UKT 190517: For my own better understanding, I've stopped using the terms Ga, Ma, ka.
Instead of which, I'm using 10^9, 10^6, 10^3 .

The Eons of Precambrian Supereon: time scale in billions of years aka Ga = 1x10^9
• Hadean Eon (4.6 - 4.0 x10^9 yr ago) - hadean.htm
• Archean Eon (4.0 - 2.5 x10^9 yr ago) - archean.htm
• Proterozoic Eon (2.50 - 0.541 x10^ yr ago) - proterozoic.htm 

The Eons of Present Supereon:
• Phanerozoic Eon (0.541 x10^9 yr ago - present) - phanerozoic.htm

Though there are two Supereons, and only the first is defined, Precambrian Supereon. The second supereon is left as a white blank area. Underneath the white area is the Phanerozoic Eon. Two ranks below, we find the Cambrian Period. Because the time-scale is in the order

Supereon > Eon > Era > Period

there has been a jump down the ranks in naming the first supereon - taking the word Cambrian . The term Cambrian is from the Latinized name of the area of Wales in the United Kingdom, the rocks from which were first studied in Geology.

UKT 190518: Cambrian Period is an important Period in Geologic Time, because of its fossil record mostly of trilobites. See downloaded
The Geologic Time Scale, Ch19. The Cambrian Period, by S. Peng, L.E. Babcock and R.A. Cooper, 2012, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- SPengEtAl-CambrianPeriodCh19<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 190518)
"Abstract: Appearance of metazoans with mineralized skeletons, “explosion” in biotic diversity and disparity, infaunalization of the substrate, occurrence of metazoan Konservat Fossil-Lagersta¨tten, establishment of most invertebrate phyla, strong faunal provincialism."

The Eras: time scale in millions of years aka Ma = 1x10^6
• Paleozoic Era (541 - 251.902 x10^6 yr ago)
  - paleozoic-era.htm - update 2018May
• Mesozoic Era (252 - 66 x10^6 yr ago) aka Age of Reptiles, or Age of Conifers
  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesozoic 190819
  - downloaded in TIL libraries - Mesozoic-Wiki<Ô> (link chk 190519)
• Cenozoic Era (66 Ma ago - present day) aka Age of Mammals:
  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cenozoic 180820
  (originally: "Kainozoic" {kai:no zo-i:k} which reflects the pronunciation)
  - downloaded in TIL libraries - Cenozoic-Wiki<Ô> (link chk 190519)

• Permian geologic period - permian.htm - update 2018Feb

• Geology of Myanmarpré - myan-geol.htm - update 2018Feb
• Petroleum Geology of Myanmarpré - myan-petrol.htm
  - CJWandrey-EoceneMiocenePetrol<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 180817)

• Large rivers and orogens: The evolution of the Yarlung Tsango-Irrawaddy system and the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, by Ruth A. J. Robinson, et.al., Godwana Research, vol.26, July 2014 in Science Direct,
- https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1342937X13002281 180530

• Fossils -- fossil.htm - update 2018Mar

UKT notes
My first introduction to Geology
  My note as a remembrance to Persian-Burmans: the Bajorjhee's and the Harjee's.
Terms in Geology written in Devanagari
  My note as a remembrance to my respected teacher, Mr. B. K. Menon, Lecturer in Organic Chemistry and to Dr. Chowdhury, Reader in Chemistry, Calcutta Univ.


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Introduction: Science of Geology

UkT 180216: Few including myself know what the science of Geology is. Simply put it is study of the planet called Earth, and the rocks which are the basis of the solid Earth.

For a quick journey through Geology/Geophysics, if Internet is assessable go to:
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Geophys/geophys.html#c1 180825

See downloaded VIDEOs in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries in folder GEOLOGY
1. An Introduction to Geology
IntroGeology<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 180306).
2. Continental drift
- ContinetDrift<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 180306)

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology 180206

Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, , i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse" [1] [2] is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite, (such as Mars or the Moon).

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. [ citation needed] By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth's past climates.

Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description [Petrology], geophysical techniques [Geophysical survey], chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling [computer simulation]. In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and providing insights into past climate change. Geology, a major academic discipline, also plays a role in geotechnical engineering.

Read also Geological Sites Assessment in Myanmar, by Myint Soe, et al., 2018, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- MSoeEtAl-GeogSiteMyan<Ô> / Bkp<Ô> (link chk 190510)
"Geological sites (geosite) ... are tangible materials such as rocks, fossils, minerals, sedimentary sequences, or structures, mountain ranges, rift valleys, great escarpments, volcanoes, karst landscapes and arid environments ... "

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UKT notes

My first introduction to Geology

UKT 180211:

As a B.Sc (Chemistry Honours) student of Rangoon University in 1952-1955, I had some special lectures on Petroleum-oil industry given by the chief chemist of the Burmah Oil Company (at that time wholly owned by the British in Burma). He was Mr. Bajorjhee the maternal uncle of my childhood friends whom I had known as Edward and Brian Harjhee. Later, I came to know more of the Harjhees, the eldest brother Patrick. Patrick was at that time preparing for his M.Sc (Qualifying) exam. Mr. Bajorjhee was training us as possible future chemists for his oil company. The company at its expense flew in its special plane, all the students of my class to its refinery at Chauk. The company housed us in one of its top executive quarters fully provided with its crew of servants. It was trying to impress on us what extras we would be getting if were to join its executive staff of elites - including a home leave to England as if we were Britishers. It was trying to turn us all native Burmese to become British - to control the local Burmese staff as underlings. There were only three in the whole class, because in those days few students at the Rangoon University - there was no university at Mandalay - dared to take Chemistry as an Honours subject: deemed to be most tough lasting 5 years instead of the ordinary four. I write this little note as a remembrance to Mr. Bajorjhee and to the Harjhee's most of whom are now gone but never will be forgotten.

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Terms in Geology written in Devanagari

UKT 180514:

Many terms in Geology are from Ancient Greek, and since the ancient Greek civilization, and Indian civilization had close links, especially in the time of Alexander the Great, we should be able to transcribe these terms in Sanskrit-Devanagari. Wikipedia state: "In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the letters of the Greek alphabet have fairly stable and consistent symbol-to-sound mappings, making pronunciation of words largely predictable." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_alphabet - 180514

So far, I haven't found these terms from Skt-Dev. If only these were in Devanagari script, I can easily change them into Myanmar akshara.

With these words, I remember Dr. Chowdhury, Reader in Chemistry, Univ. of Calcutta, who I met more than once in the Rangoon Univ. He was my  external examiner when I appeared for the B.Sc. (Honours in Chemistry) Exam, Rangoon Univ. in 1955. I first met him during the oral examination when I, as the candidate, had a lively debate with Mr. B. K. Menon my examiner in Organic Chemistry. The debate was in connection with an experimental procedure in Organic Chemistry. The incident ended with my submission of my arguments against those of Mr. Menon to the full board of Examiners in Chemistry headed by Prof. U Po Tha. I have no idea whether my paper ever went up the Univ. Senate or not. The outcome was I was placed first in the result of the examination. In all probability the matter was hushed up for it could have resulted in similar debates in university exams triggering student unrest. It was a time when the unrest was in the offing.

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