Update: 2019-08-10 05:20 AM -0400


Sanskrit Glossary for Buddhists and Hindus : Consonants


Based on
1. Sanskrit Documents ||संस्कृत शब्दार्थ || = स ं स ् क ृ त ,
  - Downloaded in TIL non-PDF & non-SD libraries, Archive section.
  - Downloaded and reformatted in TIL version under MC-indx.htm
  Write to sanskrit@cheerful.com . 12/22/2018 23:25:17 
2. Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (name later changed to
  U Pe Maung Tin),  (ref: UPMT-PEDictxxx).
  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190114) 
  UKT 190808: The first step to include UPMT's Pali is to download and reformat in TIL version.
  - Consonants, p061-175 - UPMT-PEDc.htm
  - Approximants, p175-251 - UPMT-PEDa.htm
  - Vowels, p001-061 - UPMT-PEDv.htm

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com


index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

TOC in rows (5 rows: r1 r2 r3 r4 r5) and columns (5 columns in two groups: c1, c2, and c3, c4, c5)

Consonant row#1 - SktGlossC1-12.htm  / SktGlossC1-345.htm 
Consonant row#2 - SktGlossC2-12.htm / SktGlossC2-345.htm
Consonant row#3 - SktGlossC3-12.htm / SktGlossC3-345.htm
Consonant row#4 - SktGlossC4-12.htm / SktGlossC4-345.htm
Consonant row#5 - SktGlossC5-12.htm / SktGlossC5-345.htm

UKT notes
Doggie's Tale : copy and paste

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Caution: My main difficulty in learning Skt-Dev, is to become familiar with horizontal conjuncts. I've no choice but to rely on my knowledge of Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan, to come up with a compromise in giving the akshara-equivalents, knowing fully well that it would not make my pronunciation of Skt-Dev any better. It might even a detriment. But since, translation is my ultimate aim, using the motto of Shin Kic'si -- the Buddhist grammarian praised by Gautama Buddha himself -- I have to be content with what is available to me.

To aid me in my task, I'm preparing a Sanskrit Glossary for Buddhists and Hindus , based on the Sonority Scale, in which begins with Consonants and Vowels last: an arrangement used in Bur-Myan dictionaries and glossaries.

The original Glossary files given by Sanskrit Documents has become so unmanageable in size that I've to divide it into sub-files. Since, I'm including Pali terms from UPMT, I've to subdivide down to columns, pairing them into {a.wuN} "similar or beautiful pairs" and {a.a.wuN} "dissimilar ugly pairs".

The vowels are the problematical, because some are missing in languages, e.g. // is absent in Eng-Lat, and /ao/ is absent in Bur-Myan but present in Mon-Myan. Because of this fact and also because the back-vowels are very near each other, there are bound to be un-solvable problems phonetically. The only way to analyze them is to measure formants in the speech of modern speakers. Still we do not know how ancient speakers had pronounced. I've to compare the "ugly pairs" of other aksharas and come to a "happy medium" which you can take or ignore.

Entries on Skt from SktDoc are in Devanagari characters (together with unreliable English transliteration), and on Pali from U Pe Maung Tin (UPT) are in International Pali characters. Be careful to check diacritics when using UPT. Astrological terms are given for which I'm giving the symbols for:
Luminaries (commonly and mistakenly called Planets): ☼ ☽ ♂ ☿ ♃ ♀ ♄ 
Rasis (Signs of Zodiac): ♈ ♉ ♊ ♋ ♌ ♍ ♎ ♏ ♐ ♑ ♒ ♓

The following are in Archive section of HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
available only in Research Station.
SktDocGlossC<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190729)
SktDocGlossA<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190729)
SktDocGlossF<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190729)
SktDocGlossV<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190729)

The above SktDocGloss will eventually be coupled with Pali, which will be from
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920. Downloaded
copies are in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
However to be more useful, I've to it in HTML. These are stored it in TIL HD-nonPDF
and SD-nonPDF libraries, Archive section:
UPMT-PEDv<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190729)
UPMT-PEDc<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190729)


UKT 171129, 180702, 181203: To find the relation between Bur-Myan, Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev, words should be carefully spelled out. Giving only English transcription has hindered my understanding of such words, such as BEPS basic akshara {Shpa.} --> स्फोट
TIL HTML editor 180630: For BHS bookmarks, the following convention is used:
1. m - usual m; [m] - ṃ
2. s  - usual s;   [s]  - ṣ  ;  [s] - ś :- e.g. aṃśa - [amsa]

UKT 180511: What does the glyph {a.} represent? In Eng-Lat script, a represents the vowel /a/ without specifying the vowel-duration. It could be either {a.} of duration 1 blnk (eye-blink), or {a} 2 blnk. It could also be the negation of something. However, the negation in Bur-Myan is not {a.}, but {ma.}.

UKT 190424: Too preoccupied with ourselves, our modern problems, and thinking highly of ourselves, we have a low opinion of the ancient world and know next to nothing of our fore-parents, their cultures and their languages from which we have evolved. Pali, Sanskrit, and Vedic languages were our heritage and we should know something of them before we begin our study of Sanskrit speech written in Devanagari script.

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UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:  
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher and hisser, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā ă ấ  Ē ē ĕ ế  Ī ī ĭ  Ō ō ŏ  Ū ū ŭ ː
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ ɴ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Book marks: * star, dagger (alt0134), double dagger (alt0135).
Bur-Myan: for {gna.}-onset use c ċ (U010B) - unfortunately ċ is non-ASCII
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Repha spelling: exemplified by
  dharma: ध र ् म --> धर्म 
  spota: ष ् प र ् श ा ः --> ष्पर
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: भ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ
  च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev Row #3: ट ठ ड ढ ण ; conjunct ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
IAST Dev: Repha & Viram-position, e.g. तर्ज tarj [ targ ] = त र ् ज
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa क ् ष = क्ष
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Using ZWNJ (ZeroWidthNonJoiner), e.g. , क्‌ष (code: क्&zwnj;ष)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-width_non-joiner 150630
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ɲ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::tn}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols:
 ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ħ ʔ /ˌ / /ʰ/ /ʳ/ /ː/
  <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) 
  <kick> /kɪc/ (DJPD16-299 gives /kik/) and <kiss> /kɪs/ (DJPD16-301)
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ
Subscripts: ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ : CO₂

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End of TIL file