Update: 2015-06-19 06:28 PM -0400


A Pali grammar on the basis of Kachchayano

Shin Kic-si, {rhing kic~s:} , or Kachchayano
Kic-si grammar {kic~s: d~da}


by F. Mason, 1868, http://books.google.com/books?...  110727
Original publication on:
However, the book cover at the right shows the publication date as 1877
Downloaded from the above site as pdf pages: - PDF-Mason (link chk 130622, 150609)
and checked with Mazard's Version of Mason's Pali Grammar, by Francis Mason & Eisel Mazard (馬大影), first distribution in 2015, downloaded - PaliGrammar-Mason-Mazard.pdf 150609. (link chk 150609
and edited with additions by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page 

Introduction --
   See also: Introduction to Kachchayana's Grammar - James D'Alwis, Colombo, 1863, - c00-Alwi.htm
Identity of Shin Kicsi
An example of presentation
Eight books of grammar on Pali: cf.  Panini's Ashtadhyayi , अष्टाध्यायी aṣṭādhyāyī on Sanskrit
Pali grammar by Mogallano, A.D. 1158-1186
Pali text in stone of King Mindon 

UKT notes
Iliad - the Greek epic poem about the Trojan War
Panini {pa-Ni.ni.} - the Father of Sanskrit grammar

Contents of this page


"The Buddhist traditions in Ceylon," wrote Prof. Cowel, "all agree in calling the author of the earliest Pali grammar Kachchayano  {kic~s:} , and although this is said to have perished" -- "The Hon'ble G. Turnour, late Colonial Secretary of Ceylon, " says Mr. Alwis, "drew attention to some of the Pali works formerly extant in Ceylon, and amongst them, to Kachchayana's grammar {kic~s: d~da}  which he then regarded as extinct.' [UKT ]

UKT 150525: The name Kachchayano  {kic~s:} involves the question whether Nya'gyi {a.} undergoes a splitting under virama {a.t} into two Nya'l {a.} or not.

Bur-Myan: {a.} + viram --> {}
Pal-Myan: {a.} + viram --> ~{~a.}

The last time I edited this file was in 2013 June. Since that time I have found that the sole occupant of Palatal r2c5 cell of the Myanmar akshara matrix, for both Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, to be Nya'l {a.}, and that {a.} is the Palatal approximant sitting next the Velar approximant {ya.} /j/. To place {a.} in the Palatal group, I have to make a correction to the IPA table and move {ya.} /j/ to the Velar group.

As a basic akshara Nya'gyi {a.} is unaffected by virama {a.t}. We must note that Pali as a spoken language was invented only when the Asokan missionaries arrived in Lanka. Pali was an artificial language invented to handle the Theravada Buddhism. It was invented from Magadhi (of Tib-Myan group) and Lankan (of Austroasiatic group). We must also note that Magadhi had arrived in Tagaung in northern Myanmarpr long before the time of Gautama Buddha and Emperor Asoka, if we were to accept the Myanmar chronicles which the British colonialist-historians such as Prof. Luce and his brother-in-law U Pe Maung Tin, tend to dismiss. Please note that I have great respect for the native-Myanmar scholar U Pe Maung Tin for his great learning of Pali. Even though he had deep knowledge of Buddhism, he had remained a Christian his whole life. I beg his forgiveness for calling him a colonialist-historian.

If we were to accept the name of learned Buddhist monk, which Gautama Buddha had praised, to be {kic~s:}, we should note that he might be from Tagaung which is within "walking distance" from the Kingdom of Magadha.

The Rev. F. Mason says: "The grammar reputed to have been written by Kachchayana, still exists. I had a copy made from the palm-leaf, on small quarto paper, and the Pali text occupies between two and three hundred pages, while the Burmese interpretation covers more than two thousand. I made a compendium of the whole, Pali and English, a few years ago, on the model of European grammars, which might be printed in one or two hundred pages, and convey all the information contained in the two or three thousand in manuscript." (fn-intro01-star)

fn-intro01-star - Alwis, page ii - fn-intro01-star-b

UKT 130704: Myanmar Buddhist monks preserved their literary works in palm-leaf (packet) books, and Mason must have been counting individual leaves as pages.
   For illustrations their works were preserved on folding books made of special paper made from the bark of a tree native to the border areas between Burma and China. The Burma-area was the ancient Tib-Bur kingdom of Nancho which was taken over by the Chinese.
   The fibers in the paper are long, and unless a special defloculation agent was added, the fibers tend to lump together. The Americans and Europeans never got the secret of defloculation until Dard Hunter came over and literally "stole" the trade secret in the 1930s.
   I base my story of Dard Hunter from what I learned from the Dard Hunter Museum which was housed in the Institute of Paper Chemistry which was in Appleton, Wis., USA, from where I got my M.S. degree in 1959. See http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/amp/collection/museum_dhunter.htm 130704 .

UKT 130625: Rev. Mason has not numbered his footnotes: he has used symbols such as * (star) & (dagger) without giving the page number, which are very inconvenient. I have now added the page number so that they may be moved to the end of the chapter.

This "compendium" was submitted to a committee of the Bengal Asiatic Society, and approved for publication in 1854, and Mr. Alwis writes that he obtained a copy in Ceylon in 1855. The existence then of Kachchayano's work was first brought to notice from Burmah. See also what Mr. Alwis had written earlier: Introduction to Kachchayana's Grammar by James D'Alwis, Colombo 1863 - c00-Alwi.htm

Contents of this page

Identity of Shin Kic-si {rhing kic~s:}

Many will ask: "Who was Kachchayano {kic~s:} ? [UKT ]

UKT 130625: In Myanmarpr the name,  {rhing kic~s:} ends in a non-nasal sound. The name as pronounced in SriLanka ends with a nasal which had completely threw me off. The Bur-Myan ending sound rhymes with the emphatic pitch-register of a very common word -- the end particle in many sentences:

short 1 blk aka creak {.}, 
long 2 blk aka modal {}, 
long+emphasis 2 blk+emphasis aka emphatic {:} 
Note: vowel-duration is given in time-duration for you to blink your eye, i.e. in eye-blinks or blk

This word, or rather this sound, has defied many attempts by Western philologists to Romanize it as seen in the case of the British rendition of the Myanmar town {pr} as 'Prome'.

Because of such a difficult-to-pronounce name, I am beginning to wonder whether the venerable monk had been a native of northern Myanmarpr who had walked overland to meet the Gaudama Buddha. I base my conjecture on what the late Chemistry Lecturer U Thein Aung aka Chandra Prasad, M.Sc. U Thein Aung was a Gurkhar of Myitkyinar (from one of the three Gurhkar villages: Rampur, Sitapur and Radhapur) who had been my former student in Mandalay University, and then was one of my staff in Bassein College Chemistry Dept. He said, his father had tracked all the way from Nepal to Myitkyina and had settled there. Also that a sizable group of Gurkhas with their cattle, from the Myitkyina villages had tracked all their way to Nepal, soon after Burma's independence from the British. If modern people could do it there is no reason why Shin Kicsi could not have done.

The commentators on his grammar say he was one of Gaudama's disciples, selected by him to write a grammar of his discourses; not a grammar of the entire language, but of that part of it used by Gaudama, bearing the same relation to the whole language that Winer's Greek Grammar of the New Testament  writers, does to the whole of the Greek language.

From Sanskrit sources we learn that there was a Kachchayano, or Kakatyana , who composed a Sanskrit grammar about the age of Gaudama.

Dr. E. Buhler has shown from manuscripts recently discovered, that Panani  {pa-Ni.ni.} "The father of Sanskrit grammar, " (Mason-rom01end-Mason-rom02begin) quotes from Kachchayano as his predecessor, and has borrowed from him many of his grammatical terms. This establishes his antiquity, and Dr. Buhler adds: [UKT ]

"I believe that Kakatayana was not  a Brahman, and should not be at all astonished, if it were established by additional evidence that he was a follower of Sakyamuni." (fn-intro02-star)

fn-intro02-star -  Journal of A. S. of Bengal, No. II. 1864 - fn-intro02-star-b

UKT: See my note on the great phonetician & linguist Panini

The name however is not conclusive as to the authorship, for there are other writers of the same name. There were two Sanskrit grammarians of the name, and the Chinese pilgrim, Hiounthaung who was in India A.D. 629-645, sojourned in a monastery

UKT 130625: The modern spelling of the name of the Chinese pilgrim, Hiounthaung , is
Hiuen Tsang . -- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jainism 130625

founded by Asoka in which a Kachchayano composed a theological work three hundred years after the death of Gaudama.

Still the fact that the older grammarian was not a Brahmin, goes far to sustain the Buddhist tradition.

Mr. Alwis says there can be no doubt, but this grammar was written in the days of Kachchayano, but the natives prefer no such claim. They say it was preserved by oral tradition for 450 years after the death of Gautama, when with the sacred books it was committed to writing A.C. 93. Indeed there appears to have been no books in India any where in the days of Gautama, though the people were acquainted with letters.

After Alexander came to India, the Greeks wrote that the Indians were illiterate, and though letters were used for inscriptions on mile stones, yet

"Their laws were unwritten, and that they administer justice from memory."

fn-intro02-dagger -  Journal of A. S. of Bengal, No. II 1859 - fn-intro02-dagger-b

There is no good reason then to suppose that the grammar was committed to writing before A.C. 93, and if the greatest of poems, the Iliad, has reached us by oral tradition, for it is now admitted that the Greeks had no letters in the days of Homer, there is nothing incredible in a small grammar being transmitted in the same way.

UKT: See my note on the Greek historical-narrative poem of Homer, Iliad

The condition of the manuscript accords with the later date of writing, but with the earlier it would contain anachronisms. Book II. Part 3rd. Aphorism 17, contains the following example:

The following is my interpretation of the above question. Please note, my knowledge of Pal-Myan is miniscule.
{kwa.ga-tau:} - where to going
{i.twn} - you
{d-wa-nn-pi-ya.} - epithet of king,
   literal meaning "beloved of deva-gods
   or celestial beings"
{tai~a.} - given name of the king of Ceylon

UKT 130626: When you listen to video-sound you will notice that the narrator's pronunciation of {tai~a.} is: /tiːs'sa/ . We in Myanmarpr pronounce, /tɪθ'θa/ - Romabama transcription reflects our way of pronunciation.
Watch on line: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wrvTFgveiOM 130625
Downloaded:  mp4<>  mp3<))

"Now Tissa , {tai~a.}, beloved of the Devas , {d-wa-nn-pi-ya.}, was the king of Ceylon who was contemporary with Asoka, so the work could not have been written much before the date assigned by tradition. (intro02end-intro03begin)

Kachchayano's grammar, {kic~s: d~da} carries with it internal evidence of having been composed with special reference to being committed to memory. [UKT ]

UKT 130626: Modern man, including myself at one time, tend to think little of works committed to memory, until we came across, the remarkable memory training of the Buddhist Theravada monks.

I first came across it as a child in the first grade of school in Kungyangone town, Hanthawaddy District, where I was born in the early 30's.

Myanmar akshara is built on phonetic principles where we pay attention to how the sound is produced: the Place of Articulation (POA), and the manner of articulation.

We are not taught from the fundamental principles, but by having to repeat the series of syllables again and again from what is known as {ing-poan:kri:} literally the 'big blackboard' on which the characters are written. The teacher, with a 3 foot ratan-cane in hand, pronounces each syllable as precisely as he could: no slurring of words nor any trace of singing.

We the youngsters, squatting on the floor had, to repeat each syllable after him. An errant child can expect a switch on the head from the teacher's cane at any moment during the session which would last about 30 minutes.

The fault of the whole system is not to teach the modern phonetic principles that are the related to the {ing-poan:kri:} in high-school, making the modern Bur-Myan look down on the system that had been in place for over thousands of years and which is the back bone of the language. My work, on BEPS is to address our failings to the best of my ability.

Such training has produced wonders even in our times.
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mingun_Sayadaw 130625
Listen to Mingun Sayadaw recite Mora Sutta <)) (link chk 150612)

It is first written in brief aphorisms which contain the kernel of the work, and though they occupy but twenty pages of the manuscript, they contain all the grammatical principles in the book. [UKT ]

These aphorisms are next written in paraphrase to make them more easily understood, filling fifty pages, and following this stratum is a third consisting of examples, of somewhere about one hundred pages, and outside of this again are exceptions with occasional annotations. Here the commentator steps up with a paraphrase on Kachchayano to make all things plain.

In fact Kachchayano, {rhing kic~s:} built his grammar precisely like the edifice of the Pari exhibition. He laid down the germ of his grammar in the centre, and then described around it several concentric circles, each containing all the things of a kind, and then struck out some seven hundred radii, crossing these circles, from the centre to the circumference, on each of which may be found every variety in the book, aphorism, paraphrase, example, exception or annotation, and commentary. The following is an example from B.6, P.4, A.3

Contents of this page

An example of presentation

The following is an example from B.6, P.4, A.3

Aphorism : {Ga.Ta di.nn wa}

aphorism  n. 1. A tersely phrased statement of a truth or opinion; an adage. -- AHTD

screen capture from 100% PDF.

{Ga.Ta} {di.nn} {wa}
"Sometimes of {Ga.Ta} et cetra ."

Paraphrase : {Ga.Ta di.nn wa}

{Ga.Ta di.nn} {Da-tu.nn} {a.n-yau:gn~ta nn}
{woad~Da} {hau:ti.} {wa} {ka-ri.t}

"On account of a causal affix, when not ending in a compound consonant, the vowel of the root {Ga.Ta} et cetra  is sometimes lengthened."

Examples & exceptions  

{Ga-T-ti.}   {Ga.T-ti.}
{Ga-Ta.ya.ti.}  {Ga.Ta.ya.ti.}
  {Ga-Ta-p-ti.}   {Ga.Ta-p-ti.}
{Ga-Ta-pa.ya.ti.}  {Ga.Ta-pa.ya.ti.}

"He causes to unite."

{Ga.Ta-di-na.mi.ti.} {ki.mt~tn}  {ka-r-ti.}
"Why {Ga.Ta} et cetra ." "He causes to go."



The language of the commentary indicates a spoken rather than a written work, and it is noteworthy that while the grammar is a unity as a whole, it contains three small grammars, each complete in itself. [UKT ]

1. The aphorisms, which are sometimes written together in a separate volume.

2. The paraphrases, which might be written out alone, when they would form a grammar by themselves, independent of the parts that precede and follow, and

3. The examples, which written out consecutively, would form a mass of material from which all the grammatical principles might be deduced in the previous parts. [UKT ]

Nothing could be better adapted for a memoriter work than Kachchayano's grammar {kic~s: ~da}.

Me`mori`ter -- adv. 1. By, or from, memory. -- Webster's Unabridged Dict., pub. 1913
-- http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Memoriter 130628

But on the other hand it may be said there is internal evidence that the book was originally written. When two short vowels meet they are combined into one long vowel ; and Kachchayan's language, with the following example is:

(Mason-rom04end-Mason-rom05begin) is in the middle of the above inset.

In following out these instructions in the Kyoungs, the examples is written over six times, as exhibited step by step above in the Burmese character. Kachchayan's pupils must have used, the style, but it does not necessarily follow that the whole grammar was written out.

Contents of this page

Eight books of grammar

The work is also divided into eight books treating on different subjects, as below:

Book 1. The akshara, permutation and combination
Book 2. Declension nouns, adjectives, and pronouns 
Book 3. Government
Book 4. Compound words
Book 5. Noun derivatives
Book 6. Verbs
Book 7. Verbal derivatives
Book 8.   ...  ...  ...  from Uhndi  affixes

UKT 130628: Compare the eight books of {kic~s: d~da} to the Eight Chapters of Panini, the Ashtadhyayi , अष्टाध्यायी aṣṭādhyāyī . An example to illustrate Ashtadhyayi is as follows:
From: http://learnsanskrit.org/panini/structure 130628, 150612
"For illustration's sake, I've created an example. This example is not perfect, but it should help you see how these rules interact and relate to each other. ...
"1. Now we talk about food. 2. Unless otherwise stated, assume that everything that comes from a plant is food. 3. A fruit contains seeds, 4. and a vegetable does not. 5. These are fruits: peaches and tomatoes, 6. but not turnips. 7. Tomatoes are treated like vegetables.

"Here is how we should classify the rules:

"1. adhikāra. This rule tells us that all of the rules that follow are talking about food. So, a fruit is food, and a vegetable is food as well.
"2. paribhāṣā. This rule tells us how we should classify the things that come from plants. It specifically states an intuitive concept that we should apply to other objects from plants. Although the rule doesn't say so explicitly, we should understand that it only applies in the context of this list of rules.
"3. saṃjā. This rule defines the term "fruit" as a food that contains seeds.
"4. saṃjā. This rule defines the term "vegetable" as a food that does not contain seeds.
"5. vidhi. An ordinary rule.
"6. niyama. An exception to a previous rule.
"7. atideśa. We add the property of "vegetable" to the tomato. Thus, a tomato is treated "like" a vegetable.

"This example also brings up an important point about the structure of the Ashtadhyayi."

Each book is divided into several Sections, each containing from twenty to fifty aphorisms. The copy found in Ceylon by Mr. Alwis sets down the whole of the aphorisms at 687, but the copies in Burmah say there are 701.

It is probable that we have substantially the work that was composed by Kachchayano  {rhing kic~s:} , but if books that have been watched over like the manuscripts of the New Testament, have their alterations, and interpolations, it would be marvellous if Kachchayano had come down to us intact. 

The book is said to have been brought to Burmah A.D.387, by Buddhaghosa  ,  and the Burmese translations and commentary are ascribed to him. Whoever the translator was, he was certainly a Sanskrit scholar, for Sanskrit not in Pali are sometimes represented. [UKT ]

UKT 130628: What Rev. Mason had said about sounds not Pali were from Sanskrit is not necessarily correct, because Bur-Myan has such sounds in itself. See  Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm (link chk 130628). Of course Rev. Mason writing in 1868 would not have known of the later work.

Thus, " HE CROSSES " in the text is tarati {ta.ra.ti.} but taraiti {ta.ra.I.ti.} in the commentary, from the Sanskrit root tri तृ  {tRi.} (Mason-rom05end-Mason-rom06begin)

UKT 130628: Unless you know the nature of Pali language and its difference from the Sanskrit language, you would not understand what our learned Rev. Mason is pointing out. Sanskrit is a highly fricative and hissing language belonging to the IE (Indo-European language) group, whereas Bur-Myan in which the commentary is written is almost non-fricative and non-hissing language belonging to the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman language) group.

Pali in India written in Devanagari, Pal-Dev, may be IE, but Pal-Myan used in Myanmarpr is definitely Tib-Bur. Pali in the time of King Asoka was written in the Asokan (or Asoka script -- inappropriately dubbed Brahmi).

After I came to this understanding of Pali and Sanskrit, I started representing तृ {tRi.} of Sanskrit differently from {tri.} of Pal-Myan. Note the length of the hood or {ra.ric} representation: Skt-Myan with a full hood joined to the Loan'gyi'tin the "circle-on-top", and Pal-Myan with a very short hood. Actually, in तृ {tRi.} there is no Devanagari र ra {ra.}-the medial former. It is spelled with a highly rhotic Sanskrit vowel  ऋ -- not found in the Myanmar script.

Accordingly, the Romabama representations are also differentiated: Sanskrit with upper-case letter R , and Pali with lower-case letter r . In the course of work on A Practical Sanskrit dictionary by A. A. Macdonell, 1893 -- MC-indx.htm (link chk 150619) -- I have come to realize that medials like {ra.ric} and {ya.ping.} are only found in Burmese and not in Sanskrit nor in English - the IE languages. The medials are monosyllabic. No wonder my friends in the West (Americans and Canadians) could not pronounce my Burmese name KYAW correctly because it is spelled with a medial which is absent in IE. The IE uses conjuncts which are disyllabic.

Rev. Mason has failed to appreciate that the text was in Pali which may be rhotic or non-rhotic depending on where it is spoken, whereas the commentary was in Burmese which is definitely non-rhotic. Since the text in Myanmarpr was already in Pal-Myan, there is no need to bring in Sanskrit root तृ {tRi.}. But since the commentator had brought in the text from Ceylon where Pali is rhotic he had to show the difference in {ta.ra.ti.} and {ta.ra.I.ti.} .


Contents of this page

Pali grammar by Mogallano A.D. 1158-1186

A Pali grammar was published in Ceylon in 1824 by the Rev. Benjamin Clough of the Wesleyan Mission, but the writer sketched out the present  work before he knew of its existence, and he did not see a  copy till he obtained the loan of one while in London through the kind efforts of Dr. Hoyle, Secretary of the Wesleyan Missionary Society; which was in 1854, after his manuscript had been approved for publication by the Bengal Asiatic Society.

It appeared however on examination that Mr. Clough's grammar was not Kachchayano's, but a translation of Mogallano's, a writer who lived A.D. 1158-1186, (fn-intro06-star) [UKT ]   

fn-intro06-star - Alwis, page xii  - fn-intro06-star-b

Still it contains the substance of Kachchyano {rhing kic~si:} , and Mr. Clough's was accompanied with a large vocabulary by the same author. [UKT ]

Mr. Clough's book is very accurate, and its value is proven by a new edition of his Vocabulary, with inconsiderable alterations, being printed in Ceylon in 1865 with all his English definitions, but without one word of credit to Mr. Clough!

UKT 130629: I wonder who were those who did the inconsiderable alterations and printed it in 1865 in Ceylon.

In 1863 there was published "An Introduction to Kachchayano's Grammar -- James D'Alvis." [UKT ]

See my copy of Introduction to Kachchayana's Grammar by James D'Alwis, Colombo 1863, 287 pdf pages.
Go to - c00-Alwi.htm (link chk 150612) and click on PDF-Alwi (link chk 150612)

This is an exhaustive work on the subject, and is indispensable to every Pali scholar. It also contains also a literal translation of Kachchayno's Book on verbs.

This work differs essentially from both of those named.

1. It takes the facts of Kachchayano's grammar, {kic~s: d~da} , and rearranges them in the order of European grammar, incorporating such additions from the author's Pali readings as seem apposite [i.e. strikingly appropriate and relevant]. Kachchayano's grammar, {kic~s: d~da} is herein written like Asoka's rock-cut document:

{a~ti.} {-wa.} {n-hki.t-na.}
{a~ti.} {ma.Za.m.na.} {a~ti.} {wi.t~ta.na.}

2. The differences and resemblances between Pali and Sanskrit are indicated, which will be appreciated by an increasing class of readers.

3. To make the work as easy as possible for students, the introduction of new grammatical terms, which so often encumber Sanskrit grammars, has been carefully avoided.

4. To make the book intelligible to European scholars, it is printed in the English-Latin Roman character throughout. (Mason-rom06end-Mason-rom07begin)

UKT 130629, 150612: It is unfortunate that the scholars failed to differentiate speech {sa.ka:} from script / {sa}. The first glyph is in {mauk-hkya.}-form, whilst the second in {weik~hkya.}-form. Both forms have the same sound /sa/. Since, Myanmar akshara is based on circles, I prefer to use the {mauk-hkya.}-form for akshara formed from single-circle, and {weik-hkya.}-form for akshara formed from double-circle. Unfortunately there is no such rule and the Bur-Myan writer has to go by memory.

The speech of Rome was Roman and was written in Latin script. The speech in England is English, but it also uses the Latin script. Similarly, the speech in France is French, and it also uses the Latin script. The unifying script of the Roman Empire was the Latin Alphabet. The Latin Alphabet is the common script used in western Europe: the area which was the former Western Roman Empire. Thus my terminology: Roman-Latin, English-Latin, French-Latin.

In geo-political unit known as Myanmarpr, the Burmese-ethnics speak the Bama-speech, the Karen-ethnics speak the Karen-speech, and so on. Thus we have Bur-Myan, Karen-Myan, Mon-Myan, Shan-Myan, etc. The Myanmar akshara is the unifying script of the land .

5. To facilitate the study of the language in Burmah, the Pali is written in the Myanmar akshara or Pal-Myan.]

In Burmah [Myanmarpr], Pali [speech] is interwoven with the vernacular [Bur-Myan] much more than Roman is in English. [UKT ]

UKT 130629: The Church language or Liturgy is in Roman-Latin, whereas the vernacular is English-Latin. Never forget that the script is the Latin alphabet - the unifying script of what was then the Western Roman Empire.

Always differentiate the Alphabet from Akshara or Abugida. Both are scripts.
Always differentiate speech from script.
Burmese & English are speeches.
Myanmar & Latin are scripts.

In the Kyounge  {kyaung:} 'monasteries and schools' , a boy has to learn the multiplication table in Pali, and his first reading lessons are half Pal and half Burmese. [UKT ]

UKT 130629: The educators in Myanmarpr before the British incursion were the clerics -- monks and nuns. They taught not only Theravada Buddhist religion but languages such as Pali, Sanskrit, and Bangala. They also taught various arts and sciences: mathematics, medicine, astronomy, and even martial arts. Each monastery or nunnery was a school. The British slowly took over the education system by opening secular schools. The British colonialists tried to break the culture by wrestling the education system by breaking the influence of the Buddhist clergy over the population. They were aiming to make every Burmese Myanmar become a Macaulay son and daughter!

See below what Macaulay had done in India. His method was adopted by the British administrators in Myanmarpr which they had incorporated into the British Indian Empire whose first Empress was Queen Victoria -- the reigning queen of the British Isles. I was born in the reign of Emperor King George V, and my early education was in the reign of the last Emperor King George VI.

Thomas Babington Macaulay, the First Baron Macaulay wrote in one of his letters to his Father dated 1836 October 12, Calcutta, he wrote:

No Hindoo, who has received an English education, ever remains sincerely attached to his religion. Some continue to profess it as matter of policy; but many profess themselves pure Deists, and some embrace Christianity. It is my firm belief that, if our plans of education are followed up, there will not be a single idolater among the respectable classes in Bengal thirty years hence. And this will be effected without any efforts to proselytise; without the smallest interference with religious liberty; merely by the natural operation of knowledge and reflection. I heartily rejoice in the prospectt. [18]
-- ^ http://archive.org/stream/lifelettersoflor01trevuoft#page/454/mode/2up, extract from  Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Babington_Macaulay,_1st_Baron_Macaulay#cite_note-18 130629

Dr. Judson [the American Baptist missionary] studiously avoided the use of Pali words, unless absolutely necessary, yet were the Pali words in the Burmese Bible printed in colored letters, every page would be a piece of mosaic.

On opening the Bible at random, there were counted in the first paragraph read, I Cor. 18: 1-8, nineteen Pali words in eight verses. Some of these are repetitions, but there are ten different words. To exhibit this to the eye, the passage is here reprinted in English with the words that are, whole or in part, Pali in the Burmese Bible printed in Antique :

Dr. Judson held his first public meeting in April 1819 in a Zayat 'a public place'. They had come out of curiosity. His first convert was Maung Naw, a 35-year-old timber worker from the hill tribes.

"Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkering cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge: and though I have, all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. Charity suffereth long, and is kind: charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly: seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked; thinketh no evil; rejoiceth not in iniquity but rejoiceth in the truth; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Charity never faileth; but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail, whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away."

'To those then who ask Oui boni? We reply: it is hoped that, ... '

To those who ask Cui boni ? We reply: it is hoped that,
[For elaboration of Latin adage see, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cui_bono 130629. Read below and you will see what this Latin adage means.]

1. The work will be useful in the study of Burmese books. A gentleman recently called on the author with a chapter of inextricable difficulties in on of the books used in passing examination, and nearly all arose from unexplained Pali words and phrases.

2.  It will be useful in translating Burmese books. Burmese books have been translated into English by competent Burmese scholars, but which are inaccurate in the Pali extracts. See for example page 165, and Gaudama's sermon. (Mason-rom07end-Mason-rom08begin)

3. It will be useful in translating English books into Burmese. The Burmans are yet to have a European literature, and those who furnish it must know how how to use the Burmese language [Bur-Myan language] with its admixture of Pali [Pal-Myan language] accurately.

4. It will be useful to all who wish to know what the founder of Buddhism actually taught. The religious books of more than three hundred millions of people, a third of the human race, written in a highly finished language, rivaling Latin and Greek, cannot be a matter of indifference to us, and to understand them, a Pali grammar is a necessity.


Contents of this page

Pali text in stone of King Mindoan

It can scarcely be said there is no Pali literature in the face of the king of Burmah's Pali Bible at Mandalay, written on both sides of 729 marble slabs, containing, it is said, 131,220 lines and 15,090,300 letters. [UKT ]

Moreover the king of Burmah has only about half the Betegat, as it exists in Ceylon, where it is estimated to contain 29,368,000 letters, or about ten times as may as are in the English Bible. And this is only a single book!

Nor is a knowledge of Sanskrit sufficient. Take a small specimen, for instance, from Asoka's Pali inscriptions:

I desire instruments of the Law, how many soever there may be, those who are mendicant priests and those who who are mendicant priestesses.'

UKT 130701: Rev. Mason has given the above translation of the Pali-Asokan (Pali speech in Asoka script). Are we to understand that the Baptist missionary could read the script? Assuming that he could we should check his translation by first changing it to Pal-Myan akshara-to-akshara, and then translate into Bur-Myan.

Wholly misunderstanding its purport, the most distinguished Sanskrit scholar of his age rendered the clause:

' "Sirs,

' I desire instruments of the Law, how many soever there may be, those who are mendicant priests and those who are mendicant priestesses."

'Wholly misunderstanding its purport, the most distinguished Sanskrit scholar of his age rendered the clause:

' "I desire them to be regarded as the precepts of the law and that as many as there may be, male and female mendicants may hear and observe them."

'And finally, a Burmese scholar of repute writes the Author: " I feel extremely obliged to you for the portion of your invaluable Pali grammar. Irrespectively of creed or persuasion, when the work has been published, you will have no doubt conferred a great boon upon all that would enter the arena with the Buddhists." '

UKT: (Mason-rom08end) Page rom-08 is the last page of Introduction.  Next comes Chapter01 where the pages are in modern English numbers.

Contents of this page

UKT notes


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iliad 130625

The Iliad (sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles.

Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war, the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege; the earlier events, such as the gathering of warriors for the siege, the cause of the war, and related concerns tend to appear near the beginning. Then the epic narrative takes up events prophesied for the future, such as Achilles' looming death and the sack of Troy, prefigured and alluded to more and more vividly, so that when it reaches an end, the poem has told a more or less complete tale of the Trojan War.

The Iliad is paired with something of a sequel, the Odyssey, also attributed to Homer. Along with the Odyssey, the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature, and its written version is usually dated to around the eighth century BC. [1] Recent statistical modelling based on language evolution has found it to date to 760710 BC. [2] [UKT ]

UKT 130626: The Iliad of the Western literature should be compared to Mahabharata of the South Asiatic literature. The former is in Greek and the latter in Sanskrit. Since the two epic poems described the wars that occurred centuries before the birth of Gautama Buddha you can gauge the mind-set of the IE speakers of the period. They were, and I maintain they are, war-like, and they even painted the deva-gods whom they worshipped in their same likeness who in the name of justice or dharma would not hesitate to stoop down to the lowest tricks of human nature.

In the modern vulgate (accepted version), the Iliad contains 15,693 lines; it is written in Homeric Greek, a literary amalgam of Ionic Greek and other dialects.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

Go back Iliad-note-b

Contents of this page


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81%E1%B9%87ini 130625

Pāṇini (fl. 4th century BC [1] [2]) (पाणिनि, {pa-Ni.ni.}; a patronymic meaning "descendant of Paṇi") was a Sanskrit grammarian from Pushkalavati, Gandhara, northwestern Iron Age India (in the modern-day Charsadda of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). [1] [2]

Pāṇini is known for his Sanskrit grammar, particularly for his formulation of the 3,959 rules [2] of Sanskrit morphology, syntax and semantics in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi (अष्टाध्यायी aṣṭādhyāyī, meaning "eight chapters"), the foundational text of the grammatical branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of Vedic religion.

The Ashtadhyayi is one of the earliest known grammars of Sanskrit, although Pāṇini refers to previous texts like the Unadisutra, Dhatupatha, and Ganapatha. [2] It is the earliest known work on descriptive linguistics, and together with the work of his immediate predecessors ( Nirukta, Nighantu, Pratishakyas) stands at the beginning of the history of linguistics itself. His theory of morphological analysis was more advanced than any equivalent Western theory before the mid 20th century, [3] and his analysis of noun compounds still forms the basis of modern linguistic theories of compounding, which have borrowed Sanskrit terms such as bahuvrihi and dvandva.

Pāṇini's comprehensive and scientific theory of grammar is conventionally taken to mark the end of the period of Vedic Sanskrit, so by definition introducing Classical Sanskrit.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back panini-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file