Update: 2015-06-19 06:52 PM -0400


Introduction to Kachchayana's Grammar 

Kicsi Grammar {kic~s: d~da}
Introduction to Kachchayana's Grammar - James D'Alwis, Colombo, 1863


James D'Alwis, Colombo, 1863, 287 pdf -- PDF-Alwi  (link chk 150618)
Downloaded from Univ. of California website by U Kyaw Tun (UKT)(M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and edited with additions by UKT and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net

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Contents of this page 

Letter to Governor and Commander-in-Chief
Coverage of Ancient knowledge
Speech and script : {sa.ka:} & / {sa} -- UKT
Origin of the word "Pali"
What "Pali" really means


Alwis footnotes
UKT to TIL editor 150614: I have tried to keep fn bookmarks, * ‖ , without changing to "star", "dagger", "d-dagger",  "d- line", and "section break" in regular text, e.g. " fn-alwi03 ". (alwi03 is page number). However, this is not a good policy, because only DOS-characters can be used in bookmark names. Eventually, I will change "star", "dagger", "d-dagger", etc. into regular numbers "01", "02", "03", etc.
Note that a lengthy fn may begin on a page and continue into the next.
D'Alwis Introduction is very lengthy extending from roman-i (rom001) to roman-cxxxvi (rom136).

UKT notes
Dashavatara - दशावतार daśāvatāra
Vishnu - {bai~a.no:} विष्णु, viṣṇu


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Letter to Governor and Commander-in-Chief
Sir Charles Justin Mac Carthy, Kt.
Governor and Commander-in-Chief.


THE practice of inscribing a literary work to the Ruler of the land is very ancient, and very general. In the East it has been almost universal ; and in Ceylon, while the Poets and Historians of old sought the patronage of the King, the translators and compilers of recent times have dedicated the result of their labours to the British Governor.

In inscribing, however, the present work to you, I do not merely follow a time-honored rule, nor seek to do homage to a Power which stands in no need of any evidence of our loyalty and attachment. But, remembering that it was your kind patronage which chiefly enabled me to publish a previous work ; and knowing that to you, who are familiar with many of the questions discussed in the following pages, they will possess an interest which they do not possess to the general reader; I take the liberty of dedicating this work, as a token not only of my gratitude, but also of the high esteem which, in common with my countrymen, I entertain for your abilities as a Governor, and your attainments as a Scholar.

I have the honor to be,
Your Excellency's
Most obedient and humble Servant,

Hendala, 28th August, 1862.


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There is hardly a country on the face of the Globe which presents greater facilities for acquiring a knowledge of the Pali , than Ceylon; and, perhaps, no nation possesses greater advantages for its study than the Sinhalese. Pali, like the Sanskrit and the Sinhalese, forms a necessary part of the course of education pursued by the natives. (fn-alwi001-star) [UKT ]

fn-alwi001-star -- See my Sidatangar -- fn-alwi001-star-b

Our Akshara is common to these several languages, ( fn-alwi01-dagger-b), and the affinity which Pali bears to the Sinhalese, both verbally and grammatically, renders its study far more easy to the people of this country than even to the Burmese.

fn-alwi001-dagger -- Ib. p. xi., et seq. -- fn-alwi001-dagger-b

UKT 130704: I wonder how many days Mr. Alwis had spent in northern Myanmarpr to know about the Burmese people to make the above comment on the relationship of Burmese to Pali. The date of publication of his work, 1863, shows that the British had yet to swallow the country as whole, and people like Mr. Alwis must have been writing from hearsay. I take it as an arrogance of the Westerners and their half-castes to pretend to know everything about what they virtually know nothing.

First Anglo-Burmese War -- 1824-1826 : the British swallowed 1/3 of the country,
Second-Anglo Burmese War -- 1852-1853 : the British swallowed 2/3 of the country,
Third Anglo-Burmese War -- 1885-1886 : the British swallowed the whole nation.

Although the Sinhalese, as a language has been latterly neglected; the Pali, from its being the dialect in which the Buddhist scriptures are recorded, has always been the principal study of the largest portion of the Ceylonese, who are followers of the Buddha. [UKT ]

UKT 130704: The Western influence was responsible for the decline of the Sinhalese as a language. Myanmar people should be concerned about Bur-Myan language going the way of Sinhalese.

Though it is stated that Sinhala is derived from Asokan script (erroneously dubbed Brahmi), the first line of the akshara matrix points out that it is not directly derived from the oldest script found on the Indian subcontinent. However, it is not the case with Bur-Myan which bears as much as 33% resemblance to Asoka script.

From the period when it became the sacred language of the land, kings and princes have encouraged its study; nobles and statesmen have vied with each other to excel in its composition; and in it laymen and priests have produced some of our most elegant works. [UKT ]

UKT 130704, 150609: Mr. Alwis must have been under the impression that Sinhalese and Burmese are very different from Pali. It is true in the case of Sinhalese, because Sinhalese belongs to the Austro-Asiatic language group. Burmese belongs to the group of Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur) languages.

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/sinhala.htm 150613

For comparing the scripts, base your comparison on r1c5 glyphs for the phoneme /ŋ/ : you can see that Asokan and Myanmar are of the same basic shape. Both Devanagari and Sinhala have very little similarity with Asokan.

Remember Pali or Prakrit was supposed to be the language of women and slaves, and Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} look down on it. They and the nobility had spoken Sanskrit which undoubtedly was Indo-European (IE). Note: the celestial being Brahma {brah~ma} is spelled with a short <a> //.

Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} of Vaishnavism sect claimed to be the mouth piece of Mahabrahma {ma.ha-brah~ma}, who they claimed is the Creator of the Universe. Their religion presumes the existence of a being which is just an Axiom. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaishnavism 150609

Then there is another group of teachers who call themselves "Poannars {poaN~Na:}" of Shaivism or Saivism who claim that it was their dva-god Shaiva or Saiva {i-wa.} who is the Creator, and that {ma.ha-brah~ma} is just a follower. They also "demote" Vishnu {bai~a.no:} (and his reincarnate Krishna) to a secondary position). Dashavatara (दशावतार, daśāvatāra) refers to the ten avatars of a Supreme Dva-god - not necessarily Mahabrahma {ma.ha-brah~ma} or Vishnu {bai~a.no:}. Based on the story of a Chandala with his four dogs blocking the path of Adi Shankara, we can say that the latter is an expositor, if not the chief promoter of Shaivism . See my note on Shankara .
See Wikipedia:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaivism 150609
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara 150616
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashavatara 150616

The Buddhism does not have anything to do with Axioms and is therefore non-Axiomatic. Buddhists neither believe nor disbelieve in Axiomatic being. Buddhists are neither Atheists nor Theists. Buddhism is based on natural laws and is compatible with Modern Science.

Pali or Prakrit was not IE, but being a language just south of the Himalayas, must have been Tib-Bur, placing it in the same language group as Burmese. There are bound to be many similarities between Burmese and Pali, particularly in the vowels and fricatives.

I maintain further that because Gautama Buddha had preached mainly to the common people, the majority, he would have been using a language very similar to Burmese acoustically. His language would be thibilant and almost non-rhotic just as Bur-Myan. Of course, he was not speaking Bur-Myan.

Gautama Buddha was speaking Magadhi or "Pali" as spoken in Myanmarpr .

The names of Batuvantudve, Hikkaduve, Lankgoda, Dodanpah, Valna, Bentota, Kahave, and Sumangala, amongst a host of others, are familiar to Pali scholars, as those of the learned who are even now able to produce compositions ( fn-alwi001-d-dagger-b) by no means inferior to those of Buddhagosa buddhaghoṣa {boad~Da.Gau:a.} (fl. 5th CE) or a Parkkrama, though like the modern Sanskrit, certainly more artificial than some of the more ancient writings. (Alwi-rom001end-Alwi-rom002begin)

fn-alwi001-d-dagger -- For a specimen, See Appendix.  -- fn-alwi001-d-dagger-b

UKT150613: See my note on Buddhagotha {boad~Da.Gau:a.} (fl. 5th CE)

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Coverage of Ancient knowledge

The number of books, too, in the Pali language, is greater than in the Sinhalese; and, though those on Religion far exceed those upon other subjects, it is, nevertheless, a fact, that the Pali literature of the Sinhalese is not deficient in works upon other branches of Oriental Science. It presents indeed a proud array of extensive volumes on Prosody, Rhetoric, Medicine and History. On Grammar alone there are no less than forty Pali works, ( fn-alwi002-star); whilst in the Sinhalese there is but one, the solitary Sidat-Sangar. [UKT ]

fn-alwi002-star -- "The high state of cultivation to which the Pali language was carried, and the great attention that has been paid to it in Ceylon, may be inferred from the fact that a list of works in the possession of Singhalese, that I found during my residence in that Island, includes thirty-five works on Pali Grammar, some of them being of considerable extent." -- Rev. S. Hardy's Eastern Monachism, pp. 191-2 -- fn-alwi002-star-b

UKT150615: A downloaded Rev. S. Hardy's Eastern Monachism , 1860, pp.463, is available for reference in TIL library. The book has 25 chapters on:
01. GOTAMA BUDHA. 02. The Laws and Regulation of the Priesthood. 03. Names and Titles. 04. The Noviciate. 05. Ordination. 06. Celibacy. 07. Poverty. 08. Mendicancy. 09. The Diet. 10. Sleep. 11. The Tonsure. 12. The Habit. 13. The Residence. 14. Obedience. 15. The Exercise of Discipline. 16. Miscellaneous Regulations. 17. The Order of Nuns. 18. The Sacred Books. 19. Modes of Worship, Ceremonies, and Festivals. 20. Meditation. 21. Ascetic Rites and Supernatural Powers. 22. NIRWANA ; ITS Paths and Fruition. 23. The Modern Priesthood. 24. The Voice of the Past. 25. The Prospects of the Future.
   Ch25. The Prospects of the Future, p.427-431, is on what the Buddhists in Ceylon believe to be the future of the Buddhist religion: "a prophecy, in which it is declared that after the elapse of 5000 years (from the time of its establishment) their system will become extinct ; and the gradual manner in which its destruction will be effected is set forth at length. ... ... ... The ancient fabric already totters ; it will soon be swept from its base by the power that alone is resistless ; and in its stead will be erected the temple of the Lord, in which all the earth will worship the Father Everlasting. [UKT notes: Being a Christian, it is no wonder that Rev. Hardy concludes his work with a statement which would be appeal to his fellow believers that "all the earth will worship the Father Everlasting".]

From the constant study of Pali in the Buddhist monasteries of this island, the books in Pali are found to be comparatively free from errors; and it is a well known fact, that the Buddhist monks priests unlike the Brahmans {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}, are willing to give Pali scholars, whether Buddhist or Christian, free access to their libraries.

UKT 130704, 150614: I have changed the word "priest" used by D'Alwis to "monk" or {Baik~hku.}, because the former gives a totally wrong impression. 

Buddhism unlike Hinduism needs no priests. The Buddhists have monks. or {Baik~hku.}.  In Theravada countries there are only male monks. The female order of monks or {Baik~hku.ni}, was disbanded soon after the First Buddhist Council in 543542 BCE . What you see in Myanmarpr are not female monks but ordinary females who have taken a very high order of discipline on themselves. Laymen of my generation and before consider these females equal to ourselves, and pay respect to their moral discipline and not to their person. We address them as {hsa.ra-l:} 'a junior teacher' and refer to ourselves as "Kyun'daw" {kyun-tau} or "Kya'naw". They are technically known as {m-i-la.} or Maechi. See Wikipedia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordination_of_women_in_Buddhism 150614
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maechi 150614

However, there are Baikkhuni {Baik~hku.ni}, in Mahayana countries. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Buddhist_council 130704

You might be tempted to ask: why are the Buddhist monks willing to give Pali scholars, whether Buddhist or Christian, free access to their libraries. My answer is simple. Prince Siddhartha, turned Rashi, studied the then religions for six long years, and became disillusioned with the axioms and hypotheses on which all religions of his time-period were based. He, without a teacher just relying on his own intellect, sought a universal truth that would withstand the passing of time and cultures -- a truth based on physical evidence, historical evidence, and reason. He discovered the universal law that states "no sentient being is ever free from mental suffering". That is the First Law of Buddhism or the First Noble Truth on which other laws stand. You are not required to assume the existence of a Creator and a Permanent Soul. The Buddhists hold that any man of reason could find no objection to such a scientific law.

Advantages like these, combined with others, enabled the Hon'ble George Turnour, late Colonial Secretary of Ceylon, to attract the attention of Orientalists to the high claims of the Pali language as existing in Ceylon. In the prosecution of his labours with such a praiseworthy object, he drew attention, in his elaborate Introduction to the Mahvansa, to some of the Pali works formerly extant in Ceylon, and, amongst them, to Kachchyana's Grammar {kic~s: d~da}, which he then regarded as extinct. [UKT ]

This, in the very outset of my [ D'Alwis ] Pali studies, after many years' devotion to Sinhalese literature, I ascertained to be a mistake ( fn-alwi002-dagger) having added it to my library, in a purchase (Alwi-rom002end-rom003begin) of Pali books which I had then (1855) made from the collection of the late lamented F. D'Levera, Esq., District Judge of Colombo. [UKT ]

fn-alwi02-dagger -- I find that this is also extant in Burmah. The Rev. F. Mason of the Baptist Union says: --
   'The grammar reputed to have been written by Kachchyana, {kic~s: d~da}, still exists. I had a copy made from the palm-leaf, on small quarto paper, and the Pali text occupies between two and three hundred pages, while the Burmese interpretation covers more than two thousand. I made a compendium of the whole Pali and English, a few years ago, on the model of European Grammars, which might be printed in one or two hundred pages, and convey all the information contained in the two or thousand in manuscript.' -- Am. Or. Journal, iv. p107. -- fn-alwi02-dagger-b


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Shortly afterwards I communicated the fact to some of my friends in Europe; and the repeated communications which I have received from them, especially from Dr. Rost of Canterbury, urging upon me the necessity for the publication of a Pali Grammar, and expressing a curiosity to examine Kachchaya, {kic~s: d~da}, have induced me to publish a Chapter from it, as an Introduction to a fuller translation.

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Speech and script : {sa.ka:} & / {sa}

-- UKT 130705

The reader should realized that though I am a Theraveda Buddhist and was born in Myanmarpr, in these works I am a material scientist and have tried my best to be free of religious and ethnic biases. I am dealing with three different languages (made up of speech {sa.ka:} and script / {sa}), Bur-Myan, Pali-Asokan, and Sinhalese-Lanka. Most of the writers to this day are not aware of the difference between a speech {sa.ka:} and a script / {sa} and use the uncertain term "language" resulting in unnecessary confusion. Moreover, I hold that a language has nothing to do with any religion and there is no such thing as a holy language.

Speech {sa.ka:} is made up of acoustic-sounds articulated by humans for interspecies communication. When two human individuals communicate with each other they use speech {sa.ka:} for religious information with lofty aims right down the scale to sexual information during for what is politely and inaccurately called "love making". There are unwritten laws connecting acoustic-sound and meaning which are called grammar {d~da}.

Speech is impermanent: it is lost as soon as uttered. To make it more permanent we set it down in writing using glyphs. These are now called / {sa}. In Akshara (Abugida) writing systems we set unchanging rules of correspondence between script and speech. It is the aim of phonetic writing such as IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet).

In the Alphabetic writing -- English is an example -- there is almost no correspondence between speech and script. It is definitely easier to pick up an alphabetic language because of such laxity. However, it is becoming an almost insurmountable task in teaching computers -- the stupid machines -- to understand humans speaking English. The computer scientists are finding it easier to use Sanskrit -- an Abugida.

In laying this before the public, I [Mr. Alwis] propose to give a brief account of some of the Pali Grammars known in this country, including a notice of the age and author of the work here presented; and also an Essay on the relations of the Pali to the Sanskrit.

The terms Pali {pa-Li.} and Mgadh {ma-ga.Di} are at the present day indifferently employed in Ceylon, Ava [Inwa {ing:wa.} - capital of Myanmar king], Siam, and even China, to express the sacred language of the Buddhists; and, being confined to those countries, the term Pali is not met with in any of the Indian writings.

UKT 130705: If you look at the way Mr. Alwis has described the names of the countries, you will see he was using the name of a city for Myanmarpr. It seems that our present-day problem of calling the country either as Burma or Myanmar was already current in the 19th century. To make myself clear, I intend to call the country as Myanmarpr or the country of the people collectively called Myanmar which includes many ethnics such as Bama, Chin, Karen, Mon, Shan, etc. The British Raj had a self-interest in calling the country Burma, because it had swallowed two-thirds of the country making Rangoon its seat of administration. The British Raj relying on the strength of arms had every intension of swallowing the whole country and to call it Burma making Rangoon its capital. 

Mgadh {ma-ga.Di} is the correct and original name for the Pali {pa-Li.}. It was not so called in consequence, as some suppose, of the mission of Asoka, the king of Magadha {ma-ga.Da.}, to introduce Buddhism into Ceylon ( fn-alwi03-star) . [UKT ]

fn-alwi03-star -- * Professor Spiegel's Kammavach , p. vii. -- fn-alwi03-star-b

It had received that name before the age of that monarch (fn-alwi03-dagger-b), and was so called after the ancient name of Behar. [UKT ]

fn-alwi03-dagger -- See Sanyut Sangiya -- fn-alwi03-dagger-b

It [the country] was the appellation for the ancient vernacular language of Magadha. It was the designation for the [UKT: Tibeto-Burman] dialect of the Magadha -- Magadhanan bhs Mgadh  ( fn-alwi03-double-dagger-b) (Alwi-rom03end-Alwi-rom04begin)

fn-alwi03-double-dagger -- Prakrit Prahsa , p.179 -- fn-alwi03-double-dagger-b


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Origin of the word "Pali"

Pali is comparatively a modern name for the Magadhi. [UKT ]

It has not originated from 'the region called Pallistan the (supposed) land of the Pali, our Palestine.' [UKT ]

UKT 150615: Palestine: the Bible history of the holy land - John Kitto, 1841, mentions "Pallistan".
Downloaded book in pdf format is in TIL library.
- pdf<>  150615 Palestine - Kitto - Pallistan

Also in History of Christianity in India, by Rev. James Hough, M.A., F.C.P.S., vol. 4, MDCCCXLV , in a footnote on p537 of Book XII, we find: "Mr. Mason replies, Pl names, given by the Pl settlers in the region called Plstan, the land of the Pl -- our Palestine."
Downloaded book in pdf formant is in TIL library. - pdf<> 150615

It does not come from Pulitur in Tyre the so-called 'Pali tower or Fort.' [UKT ]

UKT 150614: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Tyre,_Lebanon 150614

It has no historical connection with 'the Palatine hills of Rome.' * [UKT ] ( fn-alwi04-star)

UKT 150614: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palatine_Hill 150614

fn-alwi04-star -- * the Friend, vi. p. 236. fn-alwi04-star-b

It was not called after the Pehlve, the dialect of the Sessanian dynasty, [UKT ]

UKT 150616: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sasanian_Empire 150614

nor is it derived from "Palli a village", as we should now-a-days distinguish gunavari 'village,' 'boorish,' from Urdu, the language of the Court. ( fn-alwi04-dagger)

fn-alwi04-dagger -- Prinsep, Bengal As. J., vii. p. 282. fn-alwi04-dagger-b

Nor does it indeed mean "root" or "original.' ( fn-alwi04-double-dagger)

fn-alwi04-double-dagger -- J Tumour's Mahavansa, p. xxii., where he merely Drives the opinion of the Buddhists ; and this is no more correct than the Brahmanical opinion, that Prakrita means 'the derived.' Vide post, p. xxxix. -- fn-alwi04-double-dagger-b

Like li the word pli originally signified a 'line', 'row', 'range' [UKT ] ( fn-alwi04-section-sign)

fn-alwi04-section-sign -- See Abhidhanapadipika, p. 71. It is indeed not a little curious that Mohammedans, between whom and the Buddhists there was no intercourse at the period when their sacred books were written, call the larger portions of the Koran "Sowar" ('Sura,' Sing.), signifying precisely as the word Pli does 'a row, order, or regular series'. The Arabic Sura, whether immediately derived from the Sanskrit 'Sreni' or not, is the same in use and import as the Sura or Tora of the Jews, who also call the fifty-three Sections of the Pentateuch, Sidrim, a word of the same signification. fn-alwi04-section-sign-b

and was gradually extended to mean 'suttan' from its being like a line; [UKT ] ( fn-alwi04-d-line)

fn-alwi04-d-line - Itaranpana; Atthnan schanato ; svattato savnna totha sdanato Suttanato sutta sub gatocha suttan suttanti akkhtan.
'The other (which is) the Suttan, is called 'Suttan'  from its illustrating the properties (of duties); from its exquisite tenor; from its being productive (of much sense); and from its overflowing (tendency) the protection (which it affords); and from its being like a string ' -- Buddhagosa's Atthakath. - fn-alwi04-d-line-b

and to signify edicts, [UKT ] ( fn-alwi04-para-break)

fn-alwi04-para-break -- Hevan cha hevan cha me pliyo vadetha: 'Thus, thus shall ye cause to be read my pliyo or edicts.' -- Prinsep's Asoka Inscrip. - fn-alwi04-para-break-b

or the strings of rules in Buddha's discourses or doctrines, which are taken from the Suttans.** [UKT ] ( fn-alwi04-d-star)

fn-alwi04-d-star -- ** Yettcha suttena sangahitni pupphni navi kirvanti naviddhan siyanti eva me thena sangahita alth. 'As flowers strung together with a string are not scattered, so likewise the doctrines which are taken from this (Suttan) are not lost - Sumangala Vilsini - fn-alwi04-d-star-b


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What "Pali" really means

From thence it became an appellation for the text of the Buddhist Scriptures, as in the following passages: -- ( Alwi-rom04end-Alwi-rom05begin)

Thereychariy subbe Plin viya Tamaggahun: 'All the three preceptors held this compilation in the same estimation as text  (of the Pitakattaya).' * [UKT ] ( fn-alwi05-star)

fn-alwi05-star - * Mahavansa, p.253. - fn-alwi05-star-b

Thera vdehi plehi padehi vyanjanehicha. 'In the Thera discourses as in the text (of the Pitakattya); and in an expression as in a letter.'! [UKT ] ( fn-alwi05-dagger)

fn-alwi05-dagger - Mahavansa, p.252 - fn-alwi05-dagger-b

From thence again Pli has become the name of the Mgadh language in which Buddha delivered his doctrines.


The Pali has also received the designation of Tanti , 'the string of a lute, [UKT ] ( fn-alwi05-d-dagger)

fn-alwi05-d-dagger - Abhidhnapadpik, p. 16. - fn-alwi05-d-dagger-b

its Sanskrit cognate being tantri  [तन्त्री tantrī 'string' - SpkSkt]. From that signification it seems to have been originally applied by the Brahmans {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} to tantra , 'a religious treatise teaching peculiar and mystical formula and rites for the worship of their deities, or the attainment of super-human power', or, 'that which is  comprized of five subjects, the creation and destruction of the world, the worship of the gods, the attainment of all objects, magical rites for the acquirement of six super-human faculties, and four modes of union with the spirit by meditation.' [UKT ] ( fn-alwi05-section-sign)

fn-alwi05-section-sign - Wilson's Sanskrit Dictioniary. - fn-alwi05-section-sign-b

The Magadhas, before their secession from the Brahman religion, probably used the Mgadh term, tanti  in this sense ; but when they embraced the Buddhist faith, they used it to signify the doctrines of Gotama, as in the following passages:

(i) Samm Sambuddho pi te pitakan Buddha vachanan Tantin ropento Mgadh bsyeva aropesi -- 'Buddha who rendered his tepitaka words into Tanti (or tantra or doctrines) did so by means of the Mgadh language' -- Vibhanga Atuv .

(ii) Tivagga sangahan chatuttinsa suttanta patimanditan chatu satthi bhnavra parimnan tantin sangyetv ayan dgha nikyo nm'ti ( Having rehearsed the Tanti (the doctrines) which contain 64 banvara embracing 34 Suttans composed of 3 classes, (this was) named Dighanikya' -- Bodhivansa .

From its application to the Buddhist doctrines, Tanti has become a name for the sacred language itself of the Buddhists viz., the Mgadhi or Pli. Thus in Buddhagosa's Atthakath: ' Why was the first convocation held ? In order that the nidnan of the Vinaya pitaka , the merits of which are conveyed in the Tanti (Pali) language, might be illustrated.' [UKT ] * ( fn-alwi06-star-b)

fn-alwi06-star -  B.A.J. vol. vi. p. 511. Pathama mah sangti nma es kinch-pi vinaya pitake Tanti'n rulh. 'This first great rehearsal was moreover rendered into tanti , (the original discourses or the text) on the Yinava Pitaka,' -- Sumangala  Vilsani  - fn-alwi06-star-b

Thus also, in the Bulavatara, in a part of the passage which answers to 58 in the Rev. B. Clough's version, where it is left untranslated:

Eva manna pi vieyy
Sanhit tanti y hit ;
Sanhit chita vannnan
Sannidha'byava dhnato .

That is to say, 'In this wise know the rest of the combinations which are susceptible in the Tanti (language.) Sanhita is
the combination of letters without a hiatus.'

For the elucidation of the grammar of this language there are three schools; or, in other words, all Pali Grammars extant in Ceylon may be divided into three classes, viz., (1) Saddaniti; (2) Moggallayana; and (3) Kachchayana.

1. There are but few treatises which come under the first.

2. Under the second head there are several, all which have been written upon the principles laid down by Moggllayana, the writer of Abhidhnapadpik . Owing to the omission of the Introduction and Conclusion of that work in the edition published by the Rev. B. Clough, oriental scholars have expressed various conjectures as to its date. As a help, however,
to those who may be engaged in antiquarian researches, and
with a view to fix the date of Moggallayana, the omissions
are here supplied. (Alwi-rom06end-Alwi-rom07begin)


UKT 150615: You can continue reading in PDF-Alwi  (link chk 150618)

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UKT notes


- UKT 150613: There is no doubt Shin Buddhaghotha {boad~Da.Gau:a.} (fl. 5th CE) the author of Visuddhimagga 'Path of Purification' {wi.oad~Di.mag~ga.}, wrote his treatise in Sri Lanka some one thousand years after the death of Gautama Buddha. Yet because of his expert knowledge of Pal-Myan, which is not the same as Pali as spoken in Lanka, he must have spoken either native Bur-Myan or native Mon-Myan. Since it is commonly held that though an L2 (a second language) can be learned quite well, it cannot be as perfect as one's L1 (mother tongue), many are of the opinion that Shin Buddhaghotha must have been a native of Myanmarpr. I base my note on something I had read long ago and I still need to substantiate it.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhaghosa 150613

Bhadantācariya Buddhaghoṣa (Sinhala: බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි, Thai: พระพุทธโฆษาจารย์, Chinese: 覺音/佛音) was a 5th-century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar. [1] [2] His best-known work is the Visuddhimagga, or Path of Purification, a comprehensive summary and analysis of the Theravada understanding of the Buddha's path to liberation. The interpretations provided by Buddhaghosa have generally constituted the orthodox understanding of Theravada scriptures since at least the 12th century CE. [3] [4] He is generally recognized by both Western scholars and Theravadins as the most important commentator of the Theravada. [2] [5]

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Dashavatara (दशावतार, daśāvatāra)

- UKT 150616

While doing my research work on BEPS (Burmese-English-Pali-Sanskrit) when I came across Gautama Buddha being classified as a dva-god and a re-incarnation of Vishnu, I was quite offended. Gautama Buddha was a human being born of human-parents. He became a buddha 'possessor of supreme wisdom' when he discovered his natural laws commonly known as the Four Noble Truths, and that the Atta 'unchanging Soul' is just an axiom. His philosophy is based on reason and not on blind faith. His "religion" is based on Anatta 'unreality of a Permanent unchanging entity'.

Hinduism is based on Atta, whilst Buddhism is based on Anatta. The two are just un-reconcilable. Vishnu is not human of flesh and blood - he is an Axiom. To mix up Buddha and Vishnu is an insult to human intelligence. I am a physical scientist. Mixing up Buddha and Vishnu is just a ploy by a religious group to enhance its power.

Then on further reading I realized that Hindus of Shiva sect, Shaivism, Gautama Buddha is not included. Buddhism to them is just a 'Godless' faith - only fit to be wiped out. The prime expositor of Shaivisim is Adi Shankara (scholarly opinion: 788820 CE. or as early as 509477 BCE. about a thousand years apart).

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashavatara 150616

Dashavatara दशावतार daśāvatāra refers to the ten avatars of Vishnu, the Hindu god of preservation. Vishnu is said to descend in form of an avatar to restore cosmic order.

The list of Dashavatara varies across sects and regions. The standard list is: Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Vamana, Parashurama, Rama, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki. Sometimes, Krishna replaces Vishnu as the source of all avatars and Balarama takes Krishna's place in the list. In other versions, Balarama takes Buddha's place and exists at the same time as Krishna, showing the power of Vishnu.

The Dashavatara order is interpreted to convey Darwin's evolution.

Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, is generally included as an avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism. Buddha may be depicted in Hindu scriptures as a preacher who deludes and leads demons and heretics away from the path of the Vedic scriptures. Another view praises him as a compassionate teacher who preached the path of ahimsa (non-violence). [4] [5] [7]

The adoption of Buddha as one of the avatars of Vishnu under Bhagavatism was a catalyzing factor in assimilation during the Gupta period between 330 and 550 CE. By the 8th century CE the Buddha was declared an avatar of Vishnu in several Puranas. [9] The mythologies of the Buddha and Vishnu share a number of structural and substantial similarities, which contributed to the assimilation of the Buddha as an avatar of Vishnu. [9] This assimilation is indicative of the Hindu ambivalence toward the Buddha and Buddhism. [9] Conversely, Vishnu has also been assimilated into Sinhalese Buddhist culture, [10] and Mahayana Buddhism is sometimes called Buddha-Bhagavatism. [11] By this period, the concept of Dashavatara was fully developed. [12]

Some Vaishnavas refuse to accept the Buddha as an incarnation of Vishnu, and instead believe that Balarama is the 8th incarnation, and Krishna the 9th. [13]

In Maharashtra and Goa, Vithoba's image replaces Buddha as the ninth avatar of Vishnu in some temple sculptures and Hindu astrological almanacs. [14] In certain Oriya literary creations from Orissa, Jagannath has been treated as the Ninth avatar, by substituting Buddha. [15]

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

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- UKT 150616 

I have read many years ago about the various schools of Indian philosophies which includes Buddhism. However, I had not known that an Indian philosopher, named Shankara had started a new form of Hindu worship known as Shanmata, in which the chief god is Shiva. It is the Shiva worshippers of the sect known as Shaivism which is responsible for the elimination of Buddhism in the mainland of Indian subcontinent. The destruction of Buddhism in India was complete by the 19th century with the execution and forced conversion many Buddhist monks and nuns in Nepal.  
Read about the suppression of Buddhism in the land of Buddha's birth. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banishment_of_Buddhist_monks_from_Nepal 150616
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanmata 150617
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_denominations 150617

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara 150616

Adi Shankara (pronounced [aːd̪i ɕəŋkəɾə]; early 8th century CE [2] [note 1]) was a Hindu philosopher and theologian from India, most renowned exponent of the Advaita Vedanta school of philosophy, from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived. [1] [5] [6]

His works in Sanskrit discuss the unity of the Ātman and Nirguna Brahman "brahman without attributes". [7] He wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic canon (Brahma Sutras, Principal Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita) in support of his thesis. His works elaborate on ideas found in the Upanishads. Shankara's publications critiqued of rituals-oriented Mīmāṃsā school of Hinduism. [8] He also explained the key difference between Hinduism and Buddhism, stating that Hinduism asserts "Atman (Soul, Self) exists", while Buddhism asserts that there is "no Soul, no Self". [9] [10] [11]

UKT 150617: I maintain that "no Soul, no Self", a supposed assertion of Buddhism is a gross misunderstanding of the first tenets of Buddhism. The very first one is a natural law which essentially states that "every being capable of thinking suffers mentally". Buddhism has nothing to do with unknown, unseen, indefinable "beings" such as God or Ātman and Nirguna Brahman 'brahman without attributes'. Buddhism is based on "reason" and not on Axioms. Whether there is no Soul and no Self is a non-question in Buddhism. Buddhism is non-Axiomatic just as modern Science is. It is acceptable to modern scientists. Hinduism is Axiomatic. The two are un-reconcilable.

Shankara travelled across the Indian subcontinent to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. He established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the Upanishads and Brahma Sutra, in a time when the Mīmāṃsā school established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism. He is reputed to have founded four mathas ("monasteries"), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta of which he is known as the greatest revivalist. [6] Adi Shankara is believed to be the organiser of the Dashanami monastic order and the founder of the Shanmata tradition of worship. He is also known as Adi Shankaracharya, Shankara Bhagavatpada, sometimes spelled as Sankaracharya, (Ādi) Śaṅkarācārya, Śaṅkara Bhagavatpāda and Śaṅkara Bhagavatpādācārya.

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Vishnu {bai~a.no:} विष्णु, viṣṇu

- UKT 150617

Hindu-dva-god {bai~a.no:} aka {bi.a.No:} is well known in Myanmarpr. His name appears often in classical literature as cited by U Tun Myint in UTM-PDMD203. He is referred to a Nat {nt}, which is not necessarily a dva.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishnu 150617

Vishnu , विष्णु, viṣṇu is a Hindu god, the Supreme God of Vaishnavism (one of the three principal denominations of Hinduism) and one of the three supreme deities (Trimurti) of Hinduism. [1] He is also known as Narayana and Hari. As one of the five primary forms of God in the Smarta tradition, [1] he is conceived as "the Preserver or the Protector" [2] within the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the divinity.

In Hindu sacred texts, Vishnu is usually described as having dark complexion of water-filled clouds and as having four arms. He is depicted as a pale blue being, as are his incarnations Rama and Krishna. He holds a padma (lotus flower) in his lower left hand, the Kaumodaki gada (mace) in his lower right hand, the Panchajanya shankha (conch) in his upper left hand and the discus weapon considered to be one of the most powerful weapon according to Hindu Religion Sudarshana Chakra in his upper right hand.

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