Update: 2016-01-16 06:28 PM -0500


Computer Assisted Teaching of English
- Canada

Classics Canada Book 1
Authentic Readings for ESL Students

Chapters 04, 05, 06

by Patricia Brock (Dawson College) and Brian John Bushy, Prentice Hall Regents Canada, Scarborough, Ontario: copyright 1995. ISBN 0-13-328972-9

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

04. Nature Poetry
-- George Bowering - 028
  Text   Glossary   Activities

05. The Chinook
-- A Western-Canadian legend - 035
  Text   Glossary   Activities

06. How Summer Came to Canada
-- A Micmac Indian legend retold by William Toye - 044
  Text   Glossary   Activities

UKT notes
George Bowering (1935- )
  a modern Canadian poet
Baron Munchausen (1720-1797)
  the teller of tall tales
The Real Chinook 
  a weather phenomenon explained in terms of adiabatic compression
Rhyme and Metre 
  included in Phonetics

Contents of this page

04. Nature Poetry
-- George Bowering

See my note on the modern Canadian poet George Bowering


The poems in this chapter are written by a well-known Canadian author, George Bowering. He is not only a poet, but also a fiction writer, an editor, a critic, and a teacher. He has published over 40 books of poetry, fiction, and criticism.

Introduction to the Poems
Think about these questions as you read the poems: Who is the speaker in each poem? What kind of person does he or she seem to be? To whom is he or she speaking? (p027end-p028begin)

What is the speaker's point of view and relation to the subject? What is the general mood or feeling ( tone) of each poem ? Is the feeling consistent from poem to poem or is there a shift in tone? What is the situation or occasion of each poem? What is the setting in time and space of each poem ?

The four poems are about nature. If you wrote a poem about nature, what would you write about: the earth? the wind? the rain? the sky? the sun? the moon? the stars? Why? Listen to the poems and read them as many times as you wish.



Poem 1

The Bow River
was blue today,
the sky,
the Rockies somewhere.

that is, the mud
has sunk,
the ice.
disappeared sometime.

I would do that,
disappear sometime
like a blue river
on the prairie.


Poem 2

This sudden snow:
the prairie is!

Those houses are:
under roofs of snow -- (p028end-p029begin)

That hill up to the cloud is:
by snow creeks down to town --

This footpath is:
     a bare line
across white field --

     This woman appears
     thru° drift of snow:
a red coat.


Poem 3

I must tell you
of the brown grass
that has twenty times
this year, appeared
from under the
melting snow, reared
its version of spring
like a sea lion coming
out of water, a-dazzle°
in the sun, this
brave grass the sun
will only burn again
returning like a tiny


Poem 4

The yellow trees
along the river

are dying I said
they are in
their moment of life
you said.

The Indians I think
are dead, you can't
immortalize them, a (p029end-p030begin)

leaf presst° between
pages becomes a

In a month
the river will move

beneath ice, moving
as it always does
south. We will
believe it as we

will no longer see
those yellow borders
of the river.


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* thru (prep)
  -- through
* sea lion (n)
  -- large fish-eating sea animal [mammal] with broad flat limbs suitable for swimming;
  found in the Pacific Ocean
* a-dazzle (adj)
  -- a poetic version of "dazzling"; to make unable to see by throwing a strong light in the eyes
* presst ( v)
  -- a poetic spelling of the verb "pressed"; to direct weight or force on something
  in order to crush, flatten, or pack tightly

There may be other words and expressions in the poems that are not familiar to you. Write each one in your journal. Then look it up in a dictionary, ask another student, or ask the teacher for a definition. Write the definition on the line beside the word or expression. Try to use the new word or expression in a sentence.

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Mix and Match
Read the four poems again. Decide on an appropriate title for each poem and write it in your journal. Discuss your choices and the reasons for them with the teacher and other students. (p030end-p031begin)

Read the poems again and match them in your journal with the titles that George Bowering gave to them. Discuss your choices and the reasons for them with the teacher and other students.

Poem 1      a) " A Sudden Measure"
Poem 2      b) "Indian Summer"
Poem 3      c) "The Blue"
Poem 4      d) "The Grass"

A Poem Is...
Read the poems again and discuss the statements below with the teacher and other students. Be ready to give your reasons.
1. A poem always makes you think about words and their arrangement.
2. The lines of a poem always rhyme ( that is, the lines end in words that sound almost the same).
3. A poem is always metrical ( that is, there is a rhythm or a beat to the sound).
4. A poem is always about beauty.
5. A poem is always high-toned and moral.
6. A poem is always serious.



George Bowering
This is a text on the life of George Bowering. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and write as much of it as you can in your journal. Third, listen to the text and complete it. Then go over it with the teacher and the other students.



Identify the Types of Poetry
There are different types of poetry. Some of these types are ballads, lyrics, odes, and sonnets. Talk or write about the type of poems written by George Bowering. Are they all the same type, or are they different types? What is your favourite type of poetry? Why? Give a specific example. (p031end-p032begin)

Identify the Functions of Poetry
Poetry has different functions as well. Some poems narrate a story, others describe people, places, and things, and still others reflect upon thoughts and feelings. Talk or write about the function of the poems written by George Bowering. Do they all have the same function, or do they have different functions? What kind of poetry do you prefer: poetry that narrates, describes, or reflects? Why ? Give a specific example.

Describe the Symbols and Images
Poetry often contains symbols, images, and figures of speech. If you are not sure what these terms mean, discuss them with the teacher and other students. Then talk or write about the symbols, images, and figures of speech in the poems written by George Bowering. Are they the same in all the poems, or are they different? Which symbol, image, or figure of speech in these poems do you admire the most? Why?

Describe the Rhyme and Metre
Poetry relies heavily on the sound and rhythm of speech, and often uses both rhyme and metre. If you are not sure what these terms mean, discuss them with the teacher and other students. Then talk or write about the rhyme and metre in the poems written by George Bowering. Are they the same in all the poems, or are they different? What is your favourite type of rhyme and metre in poetry ? Why ? Give a specific example.

UKT 141122: See my note on Rhyme and Metre

Evaluate the Poems by George Bowering
Talk or write about your evaluation of the poems. What is your reaction to each one? Do you like each one? If so, why? If not, why not? How do the poems compare to your own favourite poems? Why ? Give a specific example.

Evaluate the Poet
Talk or write about your evaluation of George Bowering. Do you like his work? If so, why? If not, why not? How does George Bowering's work compare to the work of your own favourite poet? (p032end-p033begin)



If you would like to read other works by George Bowering, look for these books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore.

Burning Water
(Toronto: New Press, 1983). A novel about the 18th-century explorer, George Vancouver. Written for adults, this book won the 1980 Governor General's award for fiction.

George Bowering Selected Poems 1961 - 1992
(Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1993). A large collection of some of Bowering's finest poetry. Edited by Roy Miki.

Mask in Place
(Winnipeg: Turnstone, 1982). A collection of short essays on Canadian and American literature.

Rocky Mountain Foot
(Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1968). A collection of poetry which, with The Gangs of Kosmos (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1969), won Bowering the 1969 Governor General's Award for poetry.

If you would like to read about George Bowering, look for these books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore.

George Bowering
Eva-Marie Kroller (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1992). A critical look at the work of the poet.

George Bowering and His Works
John Harris (Toronto: ECW, 1991). A brief book combining biography and criticism.

A Record of Writing
Roy Miki (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1990). An annotated and illustrated bibliography of the poet. (p033end)


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05. The Chinook
-- A Canadian Tall Tale. A Western-Canadian legend


Look at the picture of the Rocky Mountains. Do you know where they are? Do you know where they begin and end? Do you know how high they are? Have you ever seen them? Have you ever taken a picture of them? Have you ever travelled across or through them? Tell the class about it.

This story is about a west wind that blows from the Pacific Ocean across the Rocky Mountains. It is cool and wet as it goes up one side of the Rockies, but it becomes warm and dry as it goes down the other side. This wind is called the chinook. (p034end-p035begin)

UKT 141123: The Chinook is a real geographical phenomenon. See my note on Chinook.
Here, it is a tall tale about Chinook. The first tall tale I had read, as a child of 11, in an English Reader is by Baron Munchausen (1720-1797)

Read the questions below. The answer to each question can be found in the story. Read the story quickly, looking for the information that will answer each question. You do not need to understand everything in the story, but you must read carefully enough to find the answer to each question. This kind of reading to find information is called scanning. Try to answer each question in 30 seconds or less.

1. In what year does the story take place ?
2. Who and what is a greenhorn?
3. Who and what are the old timers?
4. What season of the year is it?
5. Where is the nearest city?
6. What kind of stories are the old timers telling Tom?
7. What are the stories about?
8. How many stories do they tell him?

Introduction to the Story
Think about these questions as you read the story: Why do the old timers tell the greenhorn these stories? How do you know that these stories are not true? What is your reaction to these tall tales ?


Contents of this page

The Chinook

To most of you, a chinook is just a warm, dry wind that blows out of the Rockies, but to pioneers like Jack and Charlie Henderson, it was an extraordinary event, Back in 1890, a young eastern visitor or "greenhorn" named Tom found out from these old timers just what a chinook could do.

Tom had arrived late in the summer and found work on the Henderson's cattle ranch near the town of Calgary. One evening, after the branding° had been done, Tom was sitting in the house with the Henderson brothers and a couple of ranch hands°. No one would ever think that Jack and Charlie were brothers. Jack was lanky° and soft-spoken, while Charlie was built like a bull and always boisterous°.

The nights were already starting to get cool. Charlie stoked° the fire, then (p035end-p036begin) sat in his overstuffed° chair and lit his pipe. Since Tom had never spent a winter there, he asked Charlie if chinook winds were really as warm as people said. The old timer's eyes twinkled° as he puffed on his pipe.

"I'll tell you what happened to me a few winters back," he said,
"and then you tell me if they're as warm as folks say they are. Fair enough?"

Tom nodded.

"We lived in Morley then, about 40 miles west of here. There must've been two feet of snow on the ground when I left for Calgary with the team and bobsleigh°. After a while, I heard a whistlin' at my back and I knew there was a chinook followin' me. So I whipped up the horses to a gallop° so as I'd reach town before the snow melted. Sure enough, the snow melted so darn fast that the front runners° were in the snow, but the back runners were draggin' in the mud! Isn't that right, Jack?"

Tom stared at one, then the other.

"Yes, indeed," his brother replied, stroking his beard.
"Reminds me of the time I was driving in from Morley with my wife in the back of the wagon. A chinook was chasing us, so I drove like blazes° and managed to stay ahead of it. Because by the time we got to Calgary, I had frostbite° and my wife had sunstroke°,"

Tom did not know whether to laugh or not. Nobody else was.

"That's nothin' ," said Fred, one of the ranch hands.
"One winter, before you fellers° came out here, there was so much snow that every building in Calgary was covered by drifts°. I went to get provisions one day and the whole town had disappeared! So I turned 'round and headed west. But then a scorcher° of a chinook blew out of the mountains and I ended up havin' to swim back home!"

"Does it get very cold?" ,
Tom asked.

"Cold?" ,
Jack said, leaning forward in his rocking chair.

"Well, years ago, when greenhorns like yourself came to Calgary, they didn't realize how cold it could get, so they never covered their ears. What a mistake that was. Lots of them had their ears frozen right off! And since they didn't want to go around with no ears, they got the local blacksmith°° to make them artificial ones. First he tried making them out of leather but that didn't work so well. For one thing, they got all soft and floppy; for another, you'd get nuzzled° by horses all the time. Then he thought of making them out of tin. Them tin ears were a big success -- except in a hailstorm°. Boy, the noise was deafening!"

"Probably makes more sense to wear a warm hat," said Charlie.
"Or to wait for a chinook. Warms your ears up in no time."

The old rancher's eyes were really twinkling now.

"Like in the winter of '86. We were drivin' up to Edmonton -- or tryin' to anyway -- and had to camp for the night. So we tied the horses to some evergreens° and pitched our tent. We were so damn cold we just went straight to bed. When we woke up in the morning, we were in a sweat 'cause a chinook had come in the night. Then we went outside and realized that our horses were gone. We were lookin' everywhere for them and (p036end-p037begin) suddenly heard this strange sound up in the trees. We looked up and there were the horses -- danglin' from the treetops!"

Charlie leaned back and blew a stack of smoke rings that sailed right over Tom's head.

Contents of this page


* pioneers (n)
  -- people who have settled in a region that is still mostly wilderness
* branding (n)
  -- a mark made (as by burning), usually to show ownership
* ranch hands (n)
  -- people, in particular cowboys, who work on a large farm, especially one where sheep,
  cattle, or horses are produced in the western part of Canada and the United States
* lanky (adj)
  -- (especially of a person) very thin and ungracefully tall
* boisterous (adj)
  -- (of a person or his/her behaviour) noisily cheerful and rough
* stoked (v)
  -- filled (an enclosed fire) with material (fuel) which is burned to give heat or power
* overstuffed (adj)
  -- too much padding stuffed under the material of upholstered furniture
* twinkled ( v)
  -- were bright with amusement or delight
* bobsleigh (n)
  -- also bobsled; a small vehicle that runs on metal blades and is used
  for travelling over snow or sliding down snowy slopes
* gallop (n)
  -- the movement of a horse at its fastest speed
* runners (n)
  -- the two thin blades on which a sled or a sleigh slides over the snow
* drove like blazes (exp)
  - drove as quickly and as recklessly as possible
* frostbite (n)
  -- swelling and discolouration of a person's limbs, caused by a great cold
* sunstroke (n)
  -- an illness caused by the effects of too much strong sunlight
* fellers (n)
  -- informal term for fellows, men, or guys
* drifts (n)
  -- a mass of matter (such as snow or sand) blown together by the wind
* scorcher (n)
  -- a very hot one
* blacksmith (n)
  -- a person who makes and repairs things made of iron, especially horseshoes, usually made by hand
* nuzzled ( v)
  -- ( especially of an animal) to rub, touch, or push with the nose
* hailstorm (n)
  -- a storm in which frozen raindrops fall very heavily as little hard balls
* evergreens (n)
  -- a tree or bush, such as pine or spruce, that does not lose its leaves or its needles in cold weather

There may be other words and expressions in the story that are not familiar to you. Write each one in your journal. Then look it up in a dictionary, ask another student, or ask the teacher for a definition. Write the definition on the line beside the word or expression. Try to use the new word or expression in a sentence.

Contents of this page



Standard English
Sometimes when people speak and write English, they do not use standard English. For example, Charlie Henderson says: "After a while, I heard a whistlin' at my back and I knew there was a chinook followin' me." In standard English, the words should be spelled whistling and following. Find at least five other examples of non-standard English and rewrite them in standard English.

Guess the Meaning of Words from Context
Scan the text and find words or phrases in it that seem to correspond to the definitions given below. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.
1. pile, 2. fake, 3. hanging, 4. loud,
5. big and soft, 6. whiskers, 7. set up, 8. limp (p038end-p039begin)

Express Your Opinion
Discuss the answers to these questions with the teacher and other students:
1. Why do old timers tell greenhorns tall tales?
2. How do you know that these tall tales are not true ?
3. What is your reaction to these tall tales?



The Chinook
This is a text of amazing but true facts about the chinook. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and answer each question below in your journal. Third, listen to the text and check your answers. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

UKT 141123: The ESL student and teacher, particularly those from non-English speaking countries - alike should be aware that we do make mistakes now and then. In the above para the authors of the ink-on-paper book have made a usage-mistake. There is no such thing as "true facts". Unless something is "true" it is not a "fact". I contend that the usage "true facts" is a redundancy.

I remember in one of speeches the-then Secretary General of the UN, U Thant, had used it. Later, the-then U.S. President publicly ridiculed him for making the mistake. I do feel sorry that a U.S. President had belittled a Bur-Myan speaker. At that time, U Thant had been blamed by the U.S. and its allies for pulling out the UN peace-keeping troops separating the Arabs and the Israelis. U Thant had heeded the request from Egypt in accordance with the UN mandate. I rely on my memory for this statement.

1. By how much can a chinook raise the air temperature ?
2. How fast can chinook winds blow per hour?
3. When a chinook visits southern Alberta, what summer sport can be played?
4. According to Indian legend, what is the chinook and where does it come from?
5. According to weather specialists, what is the chinook and where does it come from?
6. What effect can a chinook have on cattle and farmers ?
7. What effect can a chinook have on fruit trees?
8. What effect can a chinook have on the topsoil?



Retell a Tall Tale
Imagine that you are Tom or a greenhorn in 1890 in Calgary. Choose one of the five tall tales from "The Chinook" and retell it either orally or in writing in your own words.
 • Chatlie's tall tale about his horses and bobsleigh .
 • Jack's tall tale about his wife and wagon ~ (p039end-p040begin)
 • Fred's tall tale about his trip to Calgary
 • Jack's tall tale about the blacksmith and the ears
 • Charlie's tall tale about his trip to Edmonton

Tell a Tall Tale
Have you ever heard or read a tall tale? Talk or write about it with the teacher and other students. Then decide who has heard or read the most interesting tall tale.

Create a Tall Tale
Create and develop your own tall tale or wildly exaggerated story. Share it with the teacher and other students. Then decide who has told or written the best tall tale.

Weather Watch
Chinook-type winds occur in other parts of the world where there are geographical features similar to those in western Canada: mountains at right angles to the prevailing winds, which carry warm, moist air from an ocean. Here are some examples:
 • the foehn of Austria and Switzerland
 • the hams in of Israel
 • the Santa Ana wind of southern California
 • the mistral wind of France
 • the sirocco of the Mediterranean

These are warm, dry, and gusty westerly winds. Such winds seem to cause abnormal behaviour. Some people report feeling aggressive or listless just before these winds blow. Rates of accidents, crimes, and suicides increase.

Choose one of the famous winds listed above. Find out some information about it and its effect on people. Talk or write about this wind with the teacher and other students.

Unusual Weather
Have you experienced or do you know anyone who has experienced unusual weather, such as those mentioned below ? If so, talk or write about it. If not, find out some information about one of them and share it with the rest of the class. (p040end--041begin)
  hail, flood, avalanche, hurricane
  blizzard, tidal, wave, drought
  tornado, earthquake, volcanic eruption

The Weather and Climate in Canada
Write a letter to one of these government organizations: Environment Canada or Health and Welfare Canada. Ask the organization for general information about the weather and the climate in Canada, or request one of the following booklets or brochures:
  "The Atmosphere: Out of Sight, Out of Mind?"
  "The Climate: What a Difference a Degree Makes!"
  "Explore Water"
  "From the Mountains to the Sea"
  "The Green Scene"
  "Ozone: Guarding Our Earth"
  "The Ozone Layer: What's Going On Up There ?"
  "Smog: Let's Clear the Air!"

When you receive the information, read it carefully. Did you lear facts about the weather and climate in Canada? What are they?



As well as tall tales about the warm chinook wind, there are other popular Canadian folktales. For example, there is the story about four fishermen who searched for mysterious pirate treasure one night on Oak Island in Nova Scotia. There is also a legend that in the winter lumber camps or "shanties" of Quebec, years ago, loggers could sail over miles of snow-covered terrain in a chasse-galerie or witch canoe, simply by making a deal with the devil. And there is a chilling Inuit legend from the eastern Arctic about Kaujakjuk, the orphan boy, who was so mistreated that he decided to seek revenge. You can read about them in the following books.

Folktales - Contes Populaires
(Ottawa: Canada Post, 1991 ). Available at most post offices in Canada. (p041end-p042begin)

Johnny Chinook
Robert E. Gard (Edmonton: Hurtig, 1967). A collection of legends and tall tales from western Canada.

If you would like to read more about the weather, look for these books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore.

David Allen (Toronto: Annick, 1993). A look at all aspects of air, including the chinook, cyclones, rainbows, clouds, and the ozone layer. Illustrated by Gordon Bain.

Exploring the Sky by Day
Terence Dickinson (Camdem East, Ontario: Camden House, 1988). An illustrated young adult's guide to weather and the atmosphere.

Looking at Weather
David Suzuki and Barbara Henner (Toronto: Stoddart, 1988). An illustrated book for young adults by one of Canada's most popular scientists and broadcasters.

Frank B. Edwards (Toronto: Firefly, 1992). A look at all aspects of snow. Illustrated by John Biachi.

The Weather Book
Reuben A. Hornstein (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1980). A book on weather folklore and forecasting, written in conjunction with Environment Canada.

Weather Watch
Valerie Wyatt (Toronto: Greey de Pencier, 1988). A young adult's book dealing with weather and weather experiments. Illustrated by Pat Cupples. (p042end)

Contents of this page

06. How Summer Came to Canada
-- A Micmac Indian legend retold by William Toye


According to the Micmac people, Glooskap brought summer to Canada. Glooskap is the mythical lord and creator of the Micmac people. Do you know any legends or stories about Glooskap? Share them with the rest of the class.

Skimming .
Sometimes we want to have a general idea about a piece of writing before we read it carefully. This activity will show you one way of doing that. (p043end-p044begin)

Take one minute (60 seconds) to read the first three paragraphs in the story. This kind of fast reading for the general idea is called skimming. Next, try to answer the following questions. Do not look back at the story to answer them.
1. Who is Glooskap?
2. Where does he live?
3. Who does he meet?
4. Where does Winter live?
5. What happens to the land?
6. What happens to the Indians?
7. How does Glooskap send Winter away ?

Remember that, in the legends of First Nations peoples, Winter is not only the coldest season of the year, but also a person who has supernatural powers.

UKT 141123: If the legends had been told in the Indian-subcontinent in Asia, the natural phenomena such as Winter and Summer, and a human leader Glooskap would be deified as Gods and Goddess:
¤ Winter - a male Déva-god
¤ Summer - a female Déva-god, or Dévi
¤ Glooskap - a human-leader deified into a male Déva-god.
The legend is probably based on a historical account of the people from Asia coming into North-America at the end of the Great Ice-Age.

Introduction to the Story
Think about these questions as you read the story: How does Glooskap use his magic powers? Whose magic is stronger: Glooskap's or Winter's? Who helps Glooskap in his struggle against Winter? How does Summer come to Canada? What happens to Winter, Summer, and Glooskap at the end of the story?


Contents of this page

How Summer Came to Canada

Long, long ago, when the Indians were first created, the giant Winter came down from his home in the Far North to live in eastern Canada.

As he breathed on the trees and flowers and passed his icy hand over mountains and fields, all the once-green land became frozen and white.

Nothing grew anywhere and the Indians died from cold and hunger. Glooskap, their lord and creator, decided to use his magic powers to send Winter away.

He went to the beautiful place where Winter lived. The giant's tent glistened° white and cold in the rays of the moon. Above it the sky was filled with flashing, quivering° lights and the stars shone like diamonds.

When Glooskap entered the tent, Winter made him welcome. But before Glooskap could use his magic powers to send Winter away, Winter cast a (p044end-p045begin) spell° on him. He proceeded to tell Glooskap tales of ancient times when the whole world was covered with ice and snow. Glooskap forgot the reason for his visit and felt a great longing to stay with Winter. He became drowsy°. He fell into a deep sleep and had a dream.

The giant Winter, looking cold and menacing°, loomed over Glooskop in his dream.

Then suddenly he grew smaller and smaller. The smaller he became the faster the ice and snow melted, until they made raging torrents° of water.

When Winter had all but disappeared and the land turned green again, the dream ended. For six months Glooskap slept like a bear.

When Glooskap woke, his friend Loon° appeared before him.

"There is a land far away in the South," he said,
"where it is always warm. A Queen reigns° there and her power is greater than the giant Winter's. Go to her and bring her here."

So Glooskap went to the ocean, many miles away, and called for Whale°. He jumped on Whale's back and together they sped through the water for many days, until the ocean became warm and the air sweet with the fragrance of flowers and pines. When Glooskap looked into the clear green depths of the sea and saw white sand beneath him, he slipped off Whale's back and swam ashore.

With great strides° Glooskap walked far inland along a flower-lined road. Tulip trees grew on either side, birds of brilliant plumage° sang in their branches, and wherever flowers or trees did not grow, the ground was covered with velvety grass.

He came to a grove° where he heard voices raised in song. He peered through the trees and saw four maidens° singing and dancing in a Wilderness of Flowers. They held blossoms in their hands and circled around the fairest woman Glooskap had ever seen.

When he recovered from his surprise, Glooskap noticed that a little old woman stood beside him.

"Who are these maidens?" he asked her.

"The Fairies" of Light and Sunshine and Flowers," the old woman answered.
"They dance around their Queen. Her name is Summer."

Glooskap knew that here at last was the Queen who could match old Winter's power. He sang a magic song. When the Queen heard it she willingly left her maidens and went to Glooskap. Unravelling° behind him a slender cord of moosehide°, he raced away with Summer.

After many days Glooskap and Summer reached the Northland. The people were all asleep; the cold and lonely land was also asleep under Winter's spell.

Winter's tent gleamed in the morning sun. The giant was overjoyed to see Glooskap again. He determined to keep him with him always, and Summer too, by casting his strongest spell. (p045end-p046begin)

But the power of Summer was changing the frozen land. Ice and snow were turning to water. New grass and leaves showed that the earth had returned to life.

Even old Winter was melting away. He wept and his tears fell like cold rain on all the land. Summer took pity on him.

"I love Glooskap's country and want to stay," she said,
"but we cannot live here together. Return to your home in the North for half the year. When you come back, I will never disturb you. But I will rule when you are away."

Winter could do nothing but agree to this. In the Far North he keeps the land in his strong and icy grip° all year round. But he leaves in late autumn and comes back to Glooskap's country where he reigns for half the year.

On his approach, Summer follows Glooskap's moose-hide cord to her home in the South and to the Wilderness of Flowers.

But every year her love of Glooskap's country brings her back to awaken the earth from its deep sleep and bestow° life on everything that grows. In this way Winter and Summer divide their rule between them in Glooskap's country.

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* giant (n)
  -- in legends and tales, a very big strong man, often unfriendly and cruel
* glistened ( v)
  -- shone from (or as if from) a wet surface
* quivering (adj)
  -- trembling or shaking a little
* cast a spell (exp)
  -- to make something happen or to cause a certain condition to happen by the power of magic
* drowsy (adj)
  -- ready to fall asleep
* menacing (adj)
  -- threatening
* raging torrents (n)
  -- wild and violent rushing streams of water
* Loon (n)
  -- a water bird known for its very sad cry; in First Nations legends,
  the loon is a bird with both natural and supernatural powers
* reigns (v)
  -- rules over
* Whale (n)
  -- a very large animal that lives in the sea and looks like a fish, but is a mammal;
  in First Nations legends, the whale is an animal with both natural and supernatural powers
* strides (n)
  -- long steps in walking
* plumage (n)
  -- a bird's covering of feathers
* grove (n)
  -- a small group of trees
* maidens (n)
  -- young girls who are not married
* Fairies (n)
  -- small imaginary figures with magical powers and shaped like human beings
* unravelling (v)
  -- causing something such as thread or cloth to become separated or unwoven
* moosehide (n)
  -- the skin of a moose, especially when it has been removed to be used for leather
* Northland (n)
  -- in First Nations legends, Northland refers to the cold land in the northern part of North America
* grip (n)
  -- a very tight, forceful hold
* bestow (v) -- to give

There may be other words and expressions in the story that are not familiar to you. Write each one in your journal. Then look it up in a dictionary, ask another student, or ask the teacher for a definition. Write the definition on the line beside the word or expression. Try to use the new word or expression in a sentence.

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You will probably want to look back and scan the text to decide on the answers to some of these questions. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.
1. Who rules over the land in the South ?
2. Who slept for six months?
3. Who made the land frozen and white?
4. Who carried Glooskap on his back?
5. Who told Glooskap about the land in the South?
6. Who dances around the Queen?
7. Who lives in a tent?
8. Who does Glooskap love? (p047end-p048begin)



The Micmac
Read the key words and the sentences below. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and, in your journal, fill in the blanks with an appropriate word or expression from the list of key words. You will not use all the words. Third, listen to the text and complete the blanks. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

Key Words
  fur,   Europe,   lakes,   Algonquian,   farm,
  rivers,   Nova Scotia,   fiddler,   Micmac,   Prince Edward Island,
  fish,   hunt,   poet,   Newfoundland

01. The language of the Micmac is called __________.
02. Micmac is an Eastern __________ language.
03. Original Micmac settlements were along bays and __________ .
04. In the summer, the Micmac would __________ .
05. In the winter, the Micmac would __________ .
06. The Micmac were among the first aboriginal peoples to meet settlers from __________ .
07. The Micmac were once very involved in the __________ trade.
08. Leo Cremo is a fiddler from __________ .
09. Rita Joe is a __________ from Prince Edward Island.
10. The Micmac live mainly in the Maritimes, __________, and Quebec.



Retell the Legend
Imagine that you are Winter or Summer. From that point of view, retell the legend of How Summer Came to Canada either orally or in writing.

First Nations Legends
Have you ever heard or read about an aboriginal legend? Talk or write about it with the teacher and other students. Then decide who has heard or read the most compelling legend.

Create a Legend
Create and develop your own legend. It could be about one of these topics:
 • how day and night came about
 • why the monkey has a long tail
 • where the moon and the stars came from
Share your legend with the teacher and other students. Then decide who has told or written the most interesting one.

First Nations Hunters of Eastern Canada
Choose one of these First Nations groups of Eastern Woodlands Hunters:
1. Abenaki, 2. Algonquian, 3. Maliseet, 4. Micmac,
5. Nipissing, 6. Ojibwa, or 7. Ottawa.

Find out some information about the group, such as its history, territory, language, food, shelter, clothing, transportation, social and political organization, religion, art and leisure, or contemporary life.

Talk or write about the First Nations people that you have researched. In your opinion, what is the most interesting aspect of their culture?



If you would like to read other stories by William Toye, look for the following books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore. (p049end-p050begin)

How Summer Come to Canada
(Toronto: Oxford, 1969). This edition is illustrated by Elizabeth Cleaver.

The Loon's Necklace
(Toronto: Oxford, 1977). A Tsimshian legend retold by William Toye. This edition is illustrated by Elizabeth Cleaver.

Cartier Discovers the St. Lawrence
(Toronto: Oxford, 1970), A book for young adults about the early French explorer Jacques Cartier. Illustrated by Laszlo Gal.

If you would like to read other stories about Glooskap, look for the following books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore.

Canadian Wonder Tales
Cyrus Macmillan (Toronto: Bodley Head, 1974). A collection of 58 folktales and folk songs of Canada.

Glooskap and His Magic
Kay Hill (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1963). A collection of 19 stories about Glooskap.

How Glooskap Outwits the Ice Giants
Howard Norman (Boston: Little, Brown, 1989). A collection of six stories about Glooskap.

More Glooskap Stories
Kay Hill (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1970). A collection of 18 stories about Glooskap.

If you would like to read more about the Micmac people, look for the following books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore. (p050end-p051begin)

The Micmac
Ruth Holmes Whitehead and Harold McGee (Halifax: Nimbus, 1983). A look at the life of the Micmac 500 years ago, before the arrival of European settlers.

Micmac by Choice
Mary Olga McKenna (Toronto: Lorimer, 1990). A biography of Elsie Sork, a Micmac woman from Prince Edward Island.

Micmac Legends of Prince Edward Island
J. J. Sork (Charlottetown: Ragweed, 1988). A collection of legends with illustrations by Michael Francis and George Paul.

The Micmacs
Robert Leavitt (Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1985). An illustrated history of the Micmacs.

Winter of the Black Weasel
Tom Dowe (St. John's: Breakwater, 1988). An illustrated book for young adults based on a Newfoundland Micmac legend. (p051end-p052begin)


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UKT notes

George Bowering

- UKT 141123

There are types of poetry, especially the modern ones, which I don't appreciate. But then as the Bur-Myan saying goes {kywè:pa: saung:ti:} "Like playing harp to the water buffalo". - My addition: "What the noise the buffalo must have said and gored you to your death".

From Wikipedia:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Bowering 141123

George Harry Bowering, OC, OBC (born Dec 1, 1935) is a prolific Canadian novelist, poet, historian, and biographer. He has served as Canada's Parliamentary Poet Laureate.

He was born in Penticton, British Columbia, and raised in the nearby town of Oliver, where his father was a high-school chemistry teacher. Bowering is author of more than 100 books.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bow_River 141123

The Bow River is a river in the Canadian province of Alberta. It begins in the Rocky Mountains and winds through the Alberta foothills onto the prairies where it meets the Oldman River, the two then forming the South Saskatchewan River. These waters ultimately flow through the Nelson River into Hudson Bay.[1] [UKT ¶]

The Bow River runs through the city of Calgary, taking in the Elbow River at the historic site of Fort Calgary near downtown. The Bow River pathway, developed along the river's banks, is considered a part of Calgary's self-image.[2]

First Nations peoples made varied use of the river for sustenance before settlers of European origin arrived, such as using its valleys in the buffalo hunt.[3] The name "Bow" refers to the reeds that grew along its banks and were used by the local First Nations peoples to make bows; the Peigan name for the river is "Makhabn", meaning "river where bow reeds grow".[4]

The river is an important source of water for irrigation and drinking water. Between the years 1910 and 1960, the Bow River and its tributaries were engineered to provide hydroelectric power, primarily for Calgary's use. This significantly altered the river's flow and certain ecosystems. [5]

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Baron Munchausen (1720-1797)

- UKT 141118:
The first tall tale I had read, as a child of 11, in an English Reader is by Baron Munchausen about how cold it can get while travelling in Russia. It is about how the musical notes blown into his horn by the sledge driver getting frozen. They only came out (thawed out) when the Barron was resting by the fire at the wayside inn.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_M%C3%BCnchhausen 141118

Baron von Münchhausen (Hieronymus Carl Friedrich Baron von Münchhausen (11 May 1720 – 22 February 1797) was a German nobleman and a famous recounter of tall tales. He joined the Russian military and took part in two campaigns against the Ottoman Turks. Upon returning home, Münchhausen is said to have told a number of outrageously farfetched stories about his adventures.[1]

Münchhausen's reputation as a storyteller has been exaggerated by writers, giving birth to a fully fictionalized literary character usually called simply Baron Munchausen.

Münchausen syndrome and the Münchhausen trilemma are named after him. The Münchhausen Prize is awarded annually in the Baron's hometown of Bodenwerder.

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The Real Chinook

- UKT 141122 

Canadian Rockies aka Canadian Rocky Mountain ranges, extend from extreme north and extend down south, through the United States of America, Central America, right down south to the tip of South America. Of course, as the system of mountain ranges go through each area, it is called by different names.

At certain times of the year, a westerly wind blows in from the Pacific Ocean, blows up the Rockies and down in the east onto the central Canadian provinces. As the wind climbs higher it becomes cold. Then it blows across the ice glaciers. But when it comes down it can sometimes get very hot. Such a abnormality is called Chinook.

The downward wind getting suddenly hot is explained in terms of Thermodynamic cycles, which was also known as Heat Engines - a part of Physical Chemistry - which I taught as a lecturer in Physical Chemistry to my students in RIT (Rangoon Inst. of Tech.), Mandalay Arts & Sc. Univ, Rangoon Arts & Sc. Univ., Bassein College (now Univ.), Workers' College, and Taunggyi College (now Univ.) during my service to my birth country - Myanmarpré - for over 33 years before emigrating (legally -- not as political refugees) to Canada.

Personal note: My wife Daw Than Than, had also served as a Chemistry teacher for even a longer period than mine. However, when we became naturalized Canadians, the various governments of our birth-country have seen fit to cut off our service pensions. As Canadian Seniors, we (now I alone) are relying on whatever the Canadian government is providing. I must also mention that our children and our former students in Myanmarpré and abroad are also helping us in whatever way they can.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinook_wind 141122

Chinook winds /ʃɪˈnʊk/, or simply chinooks, are fierce  winds [1] in the interior West of North America, where the Canadian Prairies and Great Plains meet various mountain ranges, although the original usage is in reference to wet, warm coastal winds in the Pacific Northwest. [2]

Chinook is claimed by popular folk-etymology to mean "snow-eater", but it is really the name of the people in the region where the usage was first derived. The reference to a wind or weather system, simply "a Chinook", originally meant a warming wind from the ocean into the interior regions of the Pacific Northwest of the USA (the Chinook people lived near the ocean, along the lower Columbia River). [UKT ¶]

A strong Chinook can make snow one foot deep almost vanish in one day. The snow partly melts and partly evaporates in the dry wind. Chinook winds have been observed to raise winter temperature, often from below -20°C (-4°F) to as high as 10-20°C (50-68°F) for a few hours or days, then temperatures plummet to their base levels. The greatest recorded temperature change in 24 hours was caused by Chinook winds on January 15, 1972, in Loma, Montana; the temperature rose from -48 to 9°C (-54 to 48°F). [3]

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Rhyme and Metre

-- UKT 141122

Rhyme and Metre, included in Phonetics have been studied in the East thousands of years ago by Rishis (Skt-Dev: ऋषि «ṛṣi», Pal-Myan: {I.þi.}, Bur-Myan: {ra.þé.} - who I contend were living along the foothills of Indian Himalayas extending into Myanmar Himalayas and extending down south along the mountain ranges of the Western- and the Eastern-Yomas.

These ऋषि «ṛṣi» or {I.þi.} were neither Buddhists nor Hindus. Gautama Buddha was yet to be born for at least a thousand years: Hindus (the worshippers of Vishnu  - Vishnavite Hindus) had not yet infiltrated into the Indian subcontinent from Iran highland for at least the same period of time. The oldest Metre is known as the Gayatri metre and is recorded in the Rig Veda ऋग्वेद = ऋ ग ् व े द «ṛgveda».

See my ongoing work on:
- A. A. Macdonell's A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary - MC-indx.htm (link chk 141122)
and proceed to - p084.htm (link chk 141122)
Look into my note on - Gayatri Mantra
(Védic-Hinduism) and Mora Sutta (Theravada Buddhism) :
Or go online and see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_meter 141122

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