Update: 2007-03-13 10:19 AM -0500

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Disclaimer: Because of the nature of the compilation, there are bound to be errors, and the reader is advised to check the accuracy of the data given. TIL and the authors do not accept responsibility (legal or otherwise) for any inconvenience that might have caused the reader.

Contents of this page:

{lak-hpak}   Camellia sinensis Terustroemiaceae
{lak-htoat} Alstonia scholaris  Apocynaceae See also {taung-mu.ro.}
{lak-htoat-kri:}   Holarrhena antidysenterica Apocynaceae
{lak-htoat-thaim} Wrightia tomentosa Apocynaceae
{lak-pn} Salmalia malabarica Bombacaceae
{laip-hsu:rhw} Barleria prionitis Acanthaceae
{ling:l} / {ling:n} Acorus calamus Araceae

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{lak-hpak}

Camellia sinensis

Family: Theaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 53-1421: {lak-hpak}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein : 3-193: {lak-Bak}
UHM 11: La-phet (fam. Ternstroemiaceae)

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
Official Myanmar Dictionaries 
{lak-hpak} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 293
{lak-hpak} - n. 1 tea plant. 2 pickled tea leaves. 3. pickled tea leaves mixed with other ingredients and and served as a delicacy - Myan-Engl-Dict 443

 

Burmese-Myanmar transcription: La-phet

UKT: The Burmese-Myanmar spelling under the illustration on the right (from Nagathein) is orthographically wrong.
   Myanmar akshara or the Myanmar script in which Burmese is written is an alpha-syllabary (sometimes incorrectly called syllabic alphabet) and is totally different from an alphabet the writing system of Europe. It is derived from the Asoka script, which is found on Asoka inscriptions dated a couple of centuries after the birth of Gautama Buddha, the historical founder of Buddhism. Technically, Myanmar script together with the parent Asoka script, is known as a abugida. Each character of an abugida, unlike the letter of English-Latin alphabet, has an inherent vowel similar to the English short a. The abugidas are characterised by the presence of a vowel killer which in Myanmar is known as an a-thut and in Devanagari (the script in which Hindi is written) is known as Virama ् . All abugidas, unlike the alphabets, can form conjoined characters or conjuncts.
   The spelling used by Nagathein involves three characters, {ka.}, {Ba.}and {la.}, which in Devanagari are: क भ ल respectively. Nagathein has the characters {la.} and {Ba.} conjoined into a vertical conjunct which would involve the sound /lbak/ which cannot be pronounced, and is therefore not allowed in Myanmar script.

 

La-phet and Myanmar culture

UKT: Myanmar is probably the only country in the world in which the tea leaves (containing Caffeine - up to 4 %) are eaten. Eating 'prepared' tea leaves ("pickled" is not appropriate) is recommended for old people "to check the 'wind' ".

"Eating la-phet" by the contesting litigants in front of the judge was ceremoniously done in settling all legal matters at courts of law under the Myanmar kings. It signaled that the matter had been settled: all legal matters were settled in Myanmar in accordance with Myanmar Buddhist legal codes which were based on the Buddhist Monastic code (set mostly by Gottama Buddha himself) and ancient "dhamathats" such as the Manu Dhamathat. However, if the matter involved the royal decrees (set by the reigning monarch), the case was considered to be criminal, and could involve capital punishment. It is interesting to note that even a murder case between ordinary citizens was not considered criminal and usually did not involve capital punishment. The offender and his immediate relatives were forced to pay either in cash or labour to the offended (widows and orphans) -- in effect made to support the offended party.

La-phet was so important in all matters that even one of its traders became a minor god or "nat" by the name Maung Po Tu Nat (see my edition of "Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism". Original by Maung Htin Aung, printed and published by U Myint Maung, Deputy Director, Regd: No (02405/02527) at the Religious Affairs Dept. Press. Yegu, Kaba-Aye P.O., Rangoon, BURMA. 1981. The book is also available online http://web.ukonline.co.uk/buddhism/ . In my edition I have cited U Po Kya Thirty-seven Kings of U Po Kya, {pa-ra.mi sa-p} 2nd printing 1999, p.36-51.

25. Maung Po Tu  --  {maung-po:tu} U Po Kya p.46
   Native of Pinya and tea-trader. Lived in the reign of king {min:hkaung} the first of Ava. Went on a trading trip to Momeik and Thibaw in northern Shan State, and was killed by a tiger on his return trip.

For more information, go to Camellia sinensis .

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{lak-htoat}

UKT: The name {lak-htoat} should not be applied to Alstonia scholaris . See {lak-htoak} Controversy . However, I am entering A. scholaris under {lak-htoat} because of common usage even though it is misleading.

Alstonia scholaris

Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000
-17-0423: {sa.r:}, {taung-mu.ro:}, {taung-m-oap}
-29-0749: {taung-mu.ro:}, {taung-m-oap}
Chklist: Devil tree, Dita bark, Letpan-ga, Taung-mayo, Taung-meoak
LSR 209 : () {taung-m-oap(lak-pn-hka:)}
   {taung-ma.ro:}, {thing-poan:}, {hs:hka:}
FAO 061: Lettok
KS-TMN 45: Taung-ma-yoe; Let-htoke, Taung-mare-oke
Nagathein 2-047: {taung-ma.ro:}
UHM 04: Lak-htoat , Taung-me-ok

UKT: Agri.Dept.2000 applied the name {lak-htoat} to two other species of the family Apocynaceae,  Holarrhena antidysenterica pg 53 entry 1417 with the suffix "major" and to Wrightia tomentosa pg 53 entry 1418 with the suffix "minor".

Myanmar-Script Spelling
{taung-m:oap} / {hs:hka:kri:} / {taung-mu.ro:} / {lak-htoat} / {thing-poan:}
  -- MMDict131
{taung-m:oap} /|taun me: ou'|/ - n. tall tree yielding soft white wood, with bark and sap having medicinal application. Alstonia scholaris . Also {taung-mu.ro:} -- MEDict178

For more information, go to: Alstonia scholaris

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{lak-htoat-kri:}

Holarrhena antidysenterica

Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 53-1417: {lak-htoat-kri:}
Chklist: Danghkyam-kaba, Dangkyam, Kurchi conessi, Lettok, Lettok-gyi, Mai-hkao-long, Mai-yang
LSR 407: {lak-htoat-kri:}
FAO : NL
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein 3-246: {lak-htoat-kri:}
UHM 29: Lettok-kyi

Myanmar-Script Spelling
{lak-htoat} - -- MMDict295
{lak-htoat} /|le' htou'|/ - n. same as {lak-htoat-kri:}
- n.  tree which provides useful timber and bark for treating dysentery, Holarrhena antidysenterica -- MEDict 448

For further information see Holarrhena antidysenterica . Family: Apocynaceae.

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{lak-htoat-thaim}

Wrightia tomentosa

Family: Apocynaceae

Syn. W. pubescens R. Br. --  http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/plantatlas/main.asp?plantID=544
Periploca arborea Dennstedt, Schlssel Hortus Malab. 13, 23, 25. 1818; Nerium tomentosum Roxburgh; Wrightia tomentosa (Roxburgh) Roemer & Schultes. --  http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=210002329

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
Agri.Dept.2000 53-1418: {lak-htoat-thaim}
Chklist: Lettok-thein, Taung-zalut
LSR : NL
FAO : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 3-254: {lak-htoat-thaim}
UHM :

Myanmar-Script Spelling
{lak-htoat-thaim} - -   MMDict295
{lak-htoat-thaim} /|le' htou' thein|/  - n. medium-sized tree which provides useful timber and bark for treating renal complaints. Wrightia tomentosa.  MEDict448

For further information see Wrightia tomentosa

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{lak-pn}

Salmalia malabarica

Family: Bombacaceae

 Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 53-1419: {lak-pan}
FAO 81: Letpan, (Syn: Salmalia malabarica, Bombax malabaricum )
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN 73: Let-pan
Nagathein 3-235 : ()  {lak-pan (a.ni)} with suffix: "red".
UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries  : 
{lak-pan} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 296
{lak-pan} - n. red silk cotton tree -- Myan-Engl-Dict 448

For further information see Salmalia malabarica

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{laip-hsu:rhw}

Barleria prionitis

Family: Acanthaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts:
Agri2000 54-1431: {laip-hsu:shw}
Chklist: Leik-su-ywe
LSR415 : {leip-hsu:shw}; {laip-tha.shw a.wa}:
FAO : NL
KS-TMN 33: Leik-sa-ywe; Leik-tha-ywe
Nagathein 3-271: {laip-hsu:shw a.wa}
   Nagathein listed 4 kinds of {laip-hsu} differentiated by colors.
UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries 
{laip-hsu:shw} -- -- MM299
{laip-sa.rw} /|lei' sajwei|/ -- n. See {laip-hsu:shw} -- MEDict454
{laip-hsu:shw} /|lei' hsu: shwei|/ -- n. kind of thorny shrub, Barleria prionitis -- MEDict454

For more information go to: Barleria prionitis

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{ling:l}

Acorus calamus

Family: Araceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 54-1426: () {ling:l (ling:n)}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 411: {ling:n}
KS-TMN 57: Lin-ne
Nagathein 3-260: {ling:n}
UHM 02: Lin-ne

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{ling:l} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 297
{ling:n} - n. See {ling:l} -- Myan-Engl-Dict 450
{ling:l} - n. sweet flag, Acorus calamus -- Myan-Engl-Dict 451

For more information go to Acorus calamus

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Entry format: Burmese-Myanmar name / Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts / Official Myanmar Dictionary / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file