Update: 2014-12-22 09:10 PM -0500


TIL English Grammar


A compilation by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

Updates of these files: 020725, 070706, 120118 (partial), 141222 (partial).
Phonetics is being increasing included, I am using Arial Unicode MS fonts. No Myanmar font has been used and Bur-Myan (Burmese-Myanmar) characters are in gif pix format.
   My principal source is HyperGrammar from the Writing Centre of University of Ottawa, http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/grammar.html 090524, 120118 
The site uses the Oxford dictionary spellings.

The reader is reminded that the principal reason for me in taking up these endeavors is to perfect Romabama, a one-to-one transliteration between Burmese-Myanmar akshara and English-extended-Latin alphabet. Romabama is now upgraded to a transcription stage - by making vowel changes in accordance with Burmese and English phonologies. The reader is reminded that the Burmese speech written in Myanmar script - the unifying script of the country of Myanmar aka Myanmarpré, is a phonetic script. It preceded the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet), by centuries if not by millenniums if you give credence to my contention that it is the direct descendant of the Asoka script aka Brahmi script, the oldest script found on stone inscriptions in India. Myanmar shares 33% of the graphemes of the Brahmi. Perhaps, if you consider the use of circles in Myanmar script to be a form of writing ideographs, you can extend it further to the Indus-Sarawati civilization the contemporary of the Egyptian Pyramids. This last conjecture is based on my interpretation of the Sadabawa In - a supposedly magical charm to the moderns. -- UKT120118

index.htm | Top

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UKT 141222: The Grammars of languages are difficult and tedious to study because of the slew of definitions of many terms. I have tried to give active links to these words to help the students (including myself). However, my effort turned into a nightmare, and the reader is advised to look for the definitions in my
¤ GRAMMAR GLOSSARY -- GramGloss-indx.htm
¤ or to go online use the Google search engine.

Contents in detail
01. Parts of Speech aka word class aka lexical class,
¤ Verbs - c01Pts-Speech.htm
¤ Nouns & Pronouns - c01Pts-Speech2.htm
¤ Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections - c01Pts-Speech3.htm 

02. Parts of Sentence - c02Pts-Sent.htm

03. Punctuation - c03Punct.htm

04. Using Pronouns - c04-Pron.htm

05. Using Verbs - c05-Verb.htm
   Using Verb Tenses - c05-Tense.htm
   Verb tense tutorial - c05Tense-tut.htm

06. Modifiers - c06Modifi.htm

07. Building Phrases - c07Build-Phras.htm

08. Building Clauses - c08Build-Claus.htm

09. Building Sentences - c09Build-Sent.htm

10. Writing Paragraphs - c10Writ-Para.htm

11. Diction - c11Dicti.htm
12. Spelling - c12Spell.htm
13. Miscellaneous - c13Misc.htm
14. TIL Grammar Glossary - indx-GramGloss.htm

UKT notes

UKT references


Contents of this page

Contents in detail

01. Parts of Speech

01.01. Eight Parts of Speech:
           Verb, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection
01.02. What is a Verb?
01.03. What is a Noun?
01.03.01. Noun Gender
01.03.02. Noun Plural
01.03.03. Possessive Noun 
   Using Possessive Nouns
01.03.04. Types of Nouns 
   Proper Noun, Common Noun, Concrete Noun, Abstract Noun, 
   Countable Noun, Non-Countable Noun, Collective Noun
01.04. What is a Pronoun?
01.04.01. Personal Pronoun,
   Subjective Personal Pronoun, Objective Personal Pronoun, Possessive Personal Pronoun
01.04.02. Demonstrative Pronoun
01.04.03. Interrogative Pronoun
01.04.04. Relative Pronoun
01.04.05. Indefinite Pronoun
01.04.06. Reflexive Pronoun
01.04.07. Intensive Pronoun
01.05. What Is An Adjective?
01.05.01. Possessive Adjective
01.05.02. Demonstrative Adjective
01.05.03. Interrogative Adjective
01.05.04. Indefinite Adjective
01.06. What is an Adverb?
01.06.01. Conjunctive Adverb
01.07. What is a Preposition?
   Prepositional phrase
01.08. What is a Conjunction?
01.08.01. Coordinating Conjunction
01.08.02. Subordinating Conjunction
01.08.03. Correlative Conjunction
01.09. What is an Interjection?
01.10. Review: Parts of Speech

UKT notes
• adjective • preposition • proper/common noun in Burmese-Myanmar • verb

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to be deleted after each file has been constructed.

01. Parts of Speech 2 of 2
0104. What is an adjective:
010401. Possessive adjective
010402. Demonstrative adjective
010403. Interrogative adjective
010404. Indefinite adjective
0105. What is an adverb? 
010501. Conjunctive adverb
0106. What are preposition (English) and post-position (Burmese)?  
0107. What is a conjunction?
010701. Coordinating conjunction
010702. Subordinating conjunction
010703. Correlative conjunction
0108. What is an interjection?
0109. Review: Parts of Speech

02. Parts of Sentence
0201. Subject and Predicate
0201.1. Unusual Sentences
0201.2. Simple Subject and Simple Predicate
0201.3. Compound Subject and Compound Predicate
0202. Objects and Complements
0202.1. Object
0202.1. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
0202.2. Subject Complement
0202.3. Object Complement
0251. Review: Subject
0252. Review: Predicate
0253. Review: Parts of Sentence

03. Punctuation
0301. Comma 
0301.1. Comma Usage
0301.2. Superfluous Commas
0302. Semicolon
0303. Colon
0303.1 When to Use a Colon
0303.2 When Not to Use a Colon
0304. End Punctuation
0305. Quotation Marks
0305.1. Quotations Marks with Other Punctuation
0305.2. Quotation Marks - English and American styles
0305.3. Double Punctuation with Quotations
0305.4. Single Quotation Marks
0306. Apostrophe
0307. Dash
0351. Review: Comma 
0352. Review: Identifying Punctuation Errors
0353. Review: Adding Punctuation

04. Using Pronouns
0401. Pronoun Reference
0401.1. One pronoun - one antecedent
0401.2. Do not refer to an implied idea
0401.3. Do not refer to adjectives or possessive nouns
0401.4. Do not refer to a title
0401.5. Use "it", "they", and "you" carefully
0401.6. Use "it" consistently within a sentence
0401.6. Use "who", "which", and "that" carefully
0402. Tricky Points of Pronoun Usage
0402.1. Pronouns in Apposition
0402.2. "Us" and "we" before a Noun
0402.3. Using "than" or "as" in a Comparison
0451. Review: Pronoun Reference

05. Using Verbs
0501. Compound Verb
0502. Auxiliary Verb
0503. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
0504. Linking Verb
0505. Verbal
0505.1. Participle: Verbal acting as an adjective
0505.2. Gerund: Verbal acting as a noun
0505.3. Using Verbals
0506. Forming and Using Verb Tense
0506.1. Irregular Verb
0507. Frequently-Confused Verbs
0507.1. "Lie" and "Lay"
0507.2. "Sit" and "Set"
0508. Using Verb Tenses
0508.1. Verb Tense: Time
0508.2. Verb Tense: Aspect
0509. Function of Verb Tenses
0509.1. Simple Present Tense
0509.2. Present Progressive Tense
0509.3. Present Perfect Tense
0509.4. Present Perfect Progressive Tense
0509.5. Simple Past Tense
0509.6. Past Progressive Tense
0509.7. Past Perfect Tense
0509.8. Past Perfect Progressive Tense
0509.9. Simple Future Tense
0509.10. Future Progressive Tense
0509.11. Future Perfect Tense
0509.12. Future Perfect Progressive Tense
0510. Using Verb Tenses in Sequence
0510.1. Present Tenses in Sequence
0510.2. Past Tenses in Sequence
0511. Using Verb Moods
0511.1. Indicative Mood
0511.2. Imperative Mood
0511.3. Subjunctive Mood
0551. Review: Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
0552. Review: Linking Verbs
0553. Review: Verb Tense
0554. Review: Frequently-Confused Verbs
0555. Review: Verb Mood

06. Modifiers
0601. Using Adverbs and Adjectives
0601.1. Using "good", "bad", "well,'' and "badly"
0601.2. Using Adjectives with Linking Verbs
0601.3. Using Conjunctive Adverbs
0602. Using the Comparative and Superlative
0602.1. Common Problems with the Comparative and Superlative
0603. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
0603.1. Misplaced Words
0603.2. Misplaced Phrases and Clauses
0603.3. Squinting Modifier
0603.4. Split Infinitive
0603.5. Dangling Modifier
0651. Review: Adverbs and Adjectives
0652. Review: Identifying Misplaced or Dangling Modifiers
0653. Review: Fixing Misplaced Modifiers

07. Building Phrases
0701. Function of Phrases
0101.1. Verb Phrase
0101.2. Noun Phrase
0101.3. Adjective Phrase
0101.4. Adverb Phrase
0751. Review: Phrase Functions

08. Building Clauses
0801. Recognising Clauses
0802. Independent and Dependent Clauses
0803. Clauses as Nouns, Adjectives, and Adverbs
0803.1. Noun Clause
0803.2. Adjective Clause
0803.2. Adverb Clause
0851. Review: Identifying Clauses
0852. Review: Noun, Adjective, and Adverb Clauses

09. Building Sentences
0901. Why Sentence Structure Matters
0902. Structure of a Sentence
0902.1. Simple Sentence
0902.2. Compound Sentence
0902.3. Special cases of Compound Sentences
0902.4. Complex Sentence
0903. Order of a Sentence
0903.1. Loose Sentence
0903.2. Periodic Sentence
0904. Purpose of a Sentence
0904.1. Declarative Sentence
0904.2. Interrogative Sentence
0904.3. Rhetorical Question
0904.4. Exclamatory Sentence
0904.5. Imperative Sentence
0951. Review: Sentence Structure
0952. Review: Sentence Usage

10. Writing Paragraphs
1001. Start with an Outline
1002. Writing Topic Sentences
1002.1. Analysing a Topic Sentence
1003. Dividing your Argument
1004. Developing Unified and Coherent Paragraphs
1004.1. Paragraph Development by Detail
1004.2. Paragraph Development by Comparison and Contrast
1004.3. Paragraph Development by Process
1004.4. Paragraph Development by Combination
1051. Review: Topic Sentences
1052. Review: Dividing your Argument
1053. Review: Paragraph Development

11. Diction
1101. Catch Phrases
1102. Connotations and Denotations
1151. Review: Diction

12. Spelling
1201. Spelling words with "ei" and "ie"
1202. Spelling final "y" before a suffix
1203. Final Silent "e"
1204. Spelling Words with Double Consonants
1251. Review: "ei" and "ie"
1252: Review: Final "y" before a suffix
1253: Review: Final Silent "e"
1254: Review: Double Consonants

13. Miscellaneous Topics
1301. Thesis Statement
1302. Word Formation
1303. Apposition
1304. Noun and Pronoun Characteristics
1304.1 Noun and Pronoun Case
1304.1.1 Subject Case
1304.1.2. Object Case
1304.1.3. Possessive Case
1304.2. Noun and Pronoun Number
1404.3. Noun and Pronoun Gender
1404.4. Noun and Pronoun Person

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HyperGrammar is the electronic grammar course at the University of Ottawa's Writing Centre. It covers approximately the same ground as UofO English department's ENG 1320 Grammar course. The content of HyperGrammar is the result of the collaborative work of the four instructors who were teaching the course in Fall 1993: Heather MacFadyen, David Megginson, Frances Peck, and Dorothy Turner. David Megginson was then responsible for editing the grammar and exercises and for converting them to SGML. I am responsible for converting to HTML pages for students who have no access to the Internet. Though D.Meggison was the original editor, the term editor refers to me in these pages.

HyperGrammar is covered by copyrights, but is available freely for educational purposes, either privately or in an educational institution.

I've added materials from other sources and my own notes to make it more suitable for Myanmar students.

Go back HyperGramm-note-b

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U Kyaw Tun

U Kyaw Tun joined the Department of Chemistry, University of Rangoon, as an assistant lecturer in 1955. He was assigned as lecturer to the first year science students at the Yankin College. His duties were extended further the following year as lecturer in Inorganic Chemistry to the third year science students (those taking Chemistry) at the main campus in addition to his duties at the Yankin College. He served for 33 years in various universities and colleges throughout Myanmar: Rangoon University, Rangoon Institute of Technology, Mandalay University, Bassein College, Workers’ College and Taunggyi College. His last posting from which he retired was Associate Professor and Head of Department of Chemistry, Taunggyi Degree College.
     Though trained as a scientist and engineer, U Kyaw Tun has a keen interest in the culture, history, religion and mythology of various peoples of the world. His knowledge of several languages: Myanmar, English, French, Pali, Swedish and German has helped him in his cultural studies. He has an extensive knowledge of Hindu astrology, specializing the Ashtakavarga system.
     U Kyaw Tun was a part-time columnist writing for the Working Peoples’ Daily in Myanmar and was a member on the editorial board of the North Renfrew Times in Canada. He has given several public lectures in Canada on Buddhism particularly to scientists and engineers, and to non-Buddhists.

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End of TIL file