Update: 2020-03-19 11:02 PM -0500


TIL Grammar Glossary


Compiled from various sources by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

TIL Grammar Glossary has it's beginnings just as a simple glossary for my work on English grammar, but now that my work has progressed to the study of BEPS (Burmese, English, IPA, Pali, and Sanskrit languages written in Myanmar, Latin, and Devanagari scripts) I have come to include terms from Linguistics, Phonetics, Phonology, and terms from grammars of non-English languages. It needs to be updated from time to time.

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

Entries A - A01.htm
Entries B - B01.htm
Entries C - C01.htm  C02.htm
Entries D - D01.htm
Entries E - E01.htm
Entries F - F01.htm
Entries G - G01.htm
Entries H - H01.htm
Entries I - I01.htm
Entries J - J01.htm
Entries K - K01.htm
Entries L - L01.htm
Entries M - M01.htm
Entries N - N01.htm
Entries O - O01.htm
Entries P - P01.htm  P02.htm
Entries Q - Q01.htm
Entries R - R01.htm
Entries S - S01.htm
Entries T - T01.htm
Entries U - U01.htm
Entries V - V01.htm
Entries W - W01.htm
Entries X - X01.htm
Entries Y - Y01.htm
Entries Z - Z01.htm


You should note that Myanmarpré was and still is a magical land -- the land of the Magi. The Chinese used to fear it and according to one Chinese writer of the 7th century (I still have to check the date), commented that the land had many "astrologers". Of course, Astrology and modern Astronomy are related. Any Bur-Myan (Burmese spoken language in Myanmar script) astrologer of note would know something of the related science of Alchemy.

As a young college student when I started learning Chemistry at Univ. of Rangoon, in 1950, I already had my earful of Astrology and Alchemy. Alchemy is a very expensive study to follow because of the cost of a very special kind of charcoal used to melt metals at high temperatures. I had already come to know some rudiments of the the Runes - { ïn:} as is known in Bur-Myan , and Yan in Cambodia and Thailand.

UKT 091221: With this background knowledge, I took Chemistry, and from the time I came across the very book the "Skeptical Chemist", Robert Boyle has been one of my heroes. Ever since a child, I was quite skeptical, never being satisfied unless I had considered the nature of things, either by observation or experimentation. I remember at the age of 4 or 5, standing on the sea shore, looking at the wave patterns formed in the sand and at the waves coming in, had come to the conclusion that there must be "particles" in water similar to "particles" of the sand. Imagine when I discussed it with my classmates. And when I told my elders, even my father, U Tun Pe (lit. "Father Tun"), who was a very knowledgeable person, failed to grasped what I was saying. I knew my father would have understood, if only I could have described to him fully -- but alas, my childhood vocabulary was limited.

UKT 160116: Earlier, at the age of 3 or 4, I had reasoned that if only a human being had eyes at the back of his head, he would be able to walk backwards. Little did I know how the legs function. I had tried walking backwards at home and had some success and I asked my parents to hold my hands on each side while I would walk backwards. They were going on business one evening from our home in Taw'pu'lwè at the western-end of Kun'gyan'goan to see my maternal grand-uncle and grand-aunt, U Ba Oh and Daw Tint, at the eastern-end of the town. They entertained my request for sometime, but after some time my school-teacher mother got annoyed and told me to walk straight. My father knew that I might have some reason which I was not able to explain, and was tolerant. My sharp-tempered mother started beating me right in the middle of the road and I bawled out. It must have been quite a scene. My father picked me up and carried me all the way to our destination. I remembered Ah'pwa Daw Tint asking my mother, "Why is the little one in tears?" My mother replied, "The ever-contradictory one, trying to walk backwards!"

UKT Notes

Contents of this page


Contents of this page


I had failed to note that many internet websites just work for a time, and that the links may no longer work when I needed them. After coming to that realization, I have given the last date on which I had accessed each one.

AHDEL The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth ed., 2000,
-- AHTD American Heritage Talking Dictionary, CD ROM, 

AUE The alt.usage.english newsgroup http://www.alt-usage-english.org/

Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis (Lonsdale 1899)
by A. W. Lonsdale, Education Department, Burma. British Burma Press, Rangoon, 1899, pp. 459. Photocopy available in TIL library.

Burmese-Myanmar Sources
¤ Myanmar Orthography (MOrtho),
  U Tun Tint editor, Myanmar Language Commission (MLC), 1986, pp292
  (Note: MLC has been renamed several times.)
¤ Myanmar English Dictionary (MEDict) by MLC, 1993, pp 635
¤ Travelling Pocket Myanmar Dictionary (MMDict ) Burmese-Myanmar to Burmese-Myanmar)  by MLC, 1999, pp 401.
¤ {pa-Li. a.Bi.Daan-hkyoap} (PMDict - Compendium Pali Dictionary), by {lèý-ti-paN~Ði.ta.} U Maung Gyi, Rangoon, 1966, pp.524 - in Burmese-Myanmar
¤ U Tun Tint - editor (retd.), MLC - personal communication.

http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/to_be.htm 080615
Fomerly • WNet http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/to_be.htm

DC Dictionary.com www.dictionary.com

English Pronouncing Dictionary by Daniel Jones. 16th ed. Edited by Peter Roach, James Hartman and Jane Setter. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

CoG Kenneth G. Wilson (1923–), Columbia Guide to Standard American English, 1993,

EClub EC.com English Grammar englishclub.com

Encarta , http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861670287/c%E2%80%99est_la_vie.html

EnPlus English Plus, Glossary

GGW Guide to Grammar and Writing, Capital Community College, Hartford, Connecticut, © 2002

GHWW- Univ.Illinois Grammar Handbook, Writers' Workshop, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

HG / HyperGram HyperGrammar, Writing Centre, Univ. of Ottawa 
http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/ 080719

The HyperTextBooks, http://papyr.com/hypertextbooks

LBH Addison-Wesley-Longman The Little Brown Handbook, 8ed, (AWL-Glossary)
terms/gloss_01.html (UKT: this link is no longer functioning. -- 080602)
UKT: The Little, Brown Handbook by H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Univ. of Memphis, 10th ed. is on the market. http://wps.ablongman.com/long_fowler_lbh_10/ . It does not include a glossary of terms. -- UKT 080602

Linn-Benton Linn-Benton Community College.


UseE UsingEnglish.com Glossary of English Grammar Terms
http://www.usingenglish.com/ 080525

UVic Univ. Victoria English Language Centre, 1999
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/advphr.htm 080521
-- UVWG UVic Writer's Guide  http://web.uvic.ca/wguide/Pages/GramSub.html

Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia

WN WordNet ® 1.6, © 1997 Princeton University

WDProj Webster Dictionary, 1913. Mark Olsen, ARTFL Project, mark@gide.uchicago.edu

WRUD Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998

Contents of this page

UKT notes


Contents of this page

U Kyaw Tun

U Kyaw Tun first became an educator as an assistant lecturer in Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry, University of Rangoon in 1955. In that capacity he lectured to the first year Science students at Yankin College campus. The following year saw him lecturing the third year Science students (those taking Chemistry) at the main campus in addition to the first year Science students at Yankin College campus. He served for 33 years in various universities and colleges throughout Myanmar: Rangoon University, Rangoon Institute of Technology, Mandalay University, Bassein College, Workers’ College and Taunggyi College. His last posting from which he retired was Associate Professor and Head of Department of Chemistry, Taunggyi Degree College.

Though trained as a scientist and engineer, U Kyaw Tun has a keen interest in the culture, history, religion and mythology of various peoples of the world. His knowledge of several languages: Myanmar, English, French, Pali, Swedish and German has helped him in his cultural studies. He has an extensive knowledge of Hindu astrology, specializing the Ashtakavarga system.

U Kyaw Tun was a part-time columnist writing for the Working Peoples’ Daily in Myanmar and was a member on the editorial board of the North Renfrew Times in Canada. He has given several public lectures in Canada on Buddhism particularly to scientists and engineers, and to non-Buddhists.

Contents of this page

End of TIL file