Update: 2016-09-20 12:06 AM -0400

TIL

English Grammar in Plain Language

ch06.htm

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning).
Based on Barrons Educational Series, Grammar In Plain English, by Diamond, H. and Dutwin, P., Barrons Educational Series, Inc., Woodbury, New York. Copyright 1977. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : 
http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm |Top
EGPE-indx.htm

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Cumulative Review
01. Review 1
02. Review 2

UKT notes
aerobic blue doctor HDL

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Cumulative Review

This review covers:

Performer (S) and Action (V) -- agreement in number
Action words -- agreement in time
Correct use of Descriptive words

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Review 1.

The following paragraphs may contain sentences with errors in usages. I have underlined the probable errors, and if you agree, correct it. Give reasons for your judgment. Or, find other errors and correct them. Please note that the numbering of following do not follow that of the book.

The flu and TB doesn't worry most people in the 1990s. Those diseases, the second-most-common cause of death in the 1930s, have lost their death grip on the people. Penicillin and immunization, as well a healthier living conditions, was the weapons used against the big killers. Can we consider our health problems solved? No, we can't. Now, the killer diseases of the early 20th century has been replaced by others.
It is true that the genes we inherit from our parents decide, to some extent, what our health was like. But most experts today agree that changing the way we live will help us to reach a healthier old age. To fight heart diseases, cancer, and stroke, there's three basic "no's" to remember: no cigarettes, no (or less) salt and saturated fat, and no (or minimal) stress. Along with a healthful diet of whole grains, beans, fruits, vegetables, fish, and chicken, adding regular exercise to fend off the avoidable health problems.

tha.ti. pru. pa// di sa-peid r:n: ha <informal> pric t// tak~ka.thol sa-tam: mya: r: ra mha ma.thon: pa n.// <formal> sa-tam: mya: mha <doesn't> lo sa-lon: tw a.sa: a.rh <do not> ko thon: pa//

01. The flu and TB doesn't worry most people in the 1990s.

Ans.: The flu and TB don't worry most people in the 1990s.
Reason: (don't) agree with the plural S (flu, TB)

02. Those diseases, the second-most-common cause of death in the 1930s, have lost their death grip on Americans.

Ans.: have lost is correct.
Reason: (have lost) agrees with the plural S (diseases)

03. Penicillin and immunization, as well a healthier living conditions, was the weapons used against the big killers.

Ans.: change was to were
Reason: (were) agrees with the plural S (penicillin, immunization)

04. Can we consider our health problems solved?

Ans.: no correction necessary

05. No, we can't. 

Ans.: no correction necessary

06. Now, the killer diseases of the early 20th century has been replaced by others.

Ans.: change has to have
Reason: (have) agrees with the plural S (diseases)

07. It is true that the genes we inherit from our parents decide, to some extent, what our health was like.

Ans.: change was to will be .
Reason: The paragraph discusses reaching a healthier old age. (Will be) suggests the future.

08. But most experts today agree that changing the way we live will help us to reach a healthier old age.
How would you correct it?

Ans.: no correction necessary.

09. To fight heart diseases, cancer, and stroke, there's three basic "no's" to remember: no cigarettes, no (or less) salt and saturated fat, and no (or minimal) stress.

Ans.: change there's to there are .
Reason: (there are) agrees with the plural S (no's).

10. Along with a healthful diet of whole grains, beans, fruits, vegetables, fish, and chicken, adding regular exercise to fend off the avoidable health problems.

Ans.: change adding to add .
Reason: (add) is the action word that completes the thought.

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Review 2.

The following paragraphs may contain sentences with errors in usages. I have underlined the probable errors, and if you agree, correct it. Give reasons for your judgment. Or, find other errors and correct them. Please note that the numbering of following do not follow that of the book.

You must exercise regular; it is necessary for good health. Experts have studied this real thoroughly. They've concluded that exercising does more than just help you lose weight quick. In fact, research offers many compelling reasons for including exercise in your life.
   Have you ever felt "blue"? Is it harder to get a good night's sleep at these times? Exercise performed often and moderate will help to lift your spirits. According to studies done with mildly depressed people, aerobic activity calms the central nervous system and relieves anxiety. In one study, it took only two to three weeks for the patients to feel good and sleep good.
   Doctors have tracked the physical effects of exercise, too. One conclusion that no one can ignore is that exercise reduces the risk of heart disease. The exercised heart, as a matter of fact, simply pumps more efficient. In addition, exercise raises the level of "good" cholesterol, or H.D.L.'s. H.D.L.'s, experts think, remove the worse cholesterol from blood and arteries.

01. You must exercise regular; it is necessary for good health.

Ans.: change regular to regularly
Reason: (regularly) describes action word (exercise)

02. Experts have studied this real thoroughly.

Ans.: change real thoroughly to really thoroughly
Reason: (really) describes the descriptive word (thoroughly)

03. They've concluded that exercising does more than just help you lose weight quick.

Ans.: change quick to quickly
Reason: (quickly) describes the action word (lose)

04. In fact, research offers many compelling reasons for including exercise in your life.

Ans.: no correction necessary

05. Have you ever felt "blue"?

Ans.: no correction necessary

06. Is it harder to get a good night's sleep at these times?

Ans.: no correction necessary

07. Exercise performed often and moderate will help to lift your spirits.

Ans.: change (often and moderate) to (often and moderately)
Reason: (moderately) describes V (perforemed)

08. According to studies done with mildly depressed people, aerobic activity calms the central nervous system and relieves anxiety.

Ans.: no correction necessary

09. In one study, it took only two to three weeks for the patients to feel good and sleep good.

Ans.: change (feel good and sleep good) to (feel well and sleep better)
Reason: 1. (well) is used to describe a state of health. 2. (better) is the comparative form of (good).

10. Doctors have tracked the physical effects of exercise, too.

Ans.: no correction necessary

11. One conclusion that no one can ignore is that exercise reduces the risk of heart disease.

Ans.: no correction necessary

12. The exercised heart, as a matter of fact, simply pumps more efficient.

Ans.: change (efficient) to (efficiently)
Reason: (efficiently) describes the action word (pumps).

13. In addition, exercise raises the level of "good" cholesterol, or H.D.L.'s. H.D.L.'s, experts think, remove the worse cholesterol from blood and arteries.

Ans.: change (worse) to (bad)
Reason: (bad) is used when there is no comparison.

 

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UKT notes

aerobic

adj. 1. Biology a. Living or occurring only in the presence of oxygen: aerobic bacteria. b. Of or relating to aerobes. 2. Involving or improving oxygen consumption by the body: aerobic exercise. 3. Relating to or used in aerobics: aerobic shoes. -- AHTD

Go back aerobic-note-b

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doctor

UKT note: The use of the word "doctor" is this sentence by the book is inappropriate as the following dictionary definition of the word shows. This mistake is now quite commonly done in North America. A "doctor" is just a medical practitioner. The work being described is done not only by medical scientists but also by other scientists from outside the medical field. The appropriate word is "scientists" or "health scientists".

doctor n. 1. A person, especially a physician, dentist, or veterinarian, trained in the healing arts and licensed to practice. 2. a. A person who has earned the highest academic degree awarded by a college or university in a specified discipline. b. A person awarded an honorary degree by a college or university. 3. Abbr. Dr. Used as a title and form of address for a person holding the degree of doctor. 4. Roman Catholic Church An eminent theologian. 5. A rig or device contrived for remedying an emergency situation or for doing a special task. 6. Any of several brightly colored artificial flies used in fly fishing. v. doctored doctoring doctors Informal v. tr. 1. Informal To give medical treatment to: [He] does more than practice medicine. He doctors people. There's a difference Charles Kuralt 2. To repair, especially in a makeshift manner; rig. 3. a. To falsify or change in such a way as to make favorable to oneself: doctored the evidence. b. To add ingredients so as to improve or conceal the taste, appearance, or quality of: doctor the soup with a dash of sherry. See note at adulterate . c. To alter or modify for a specific end: doctored my standard speech for the small-town audience. v. intr. Informal 1. To practice medicine. [Middle English an expert, authority from Old French docteur from Latin doctor teacher from docēre to teach; See dek- in Indo-European Roots.] -- AHTD

Go back doctor-note-b

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feel blue

5. a. Gloomy; depressed. See note at depressed . b. Dismal; dreary: a blue day. -- AHTD

Go back feel-blue-note-b

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High-density lipoproteins (HDL)

From Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_density_lipoprotein 080521

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (811 nm in diameter), that carry fatty acids and cholesterol from the body's tissues to the liver. About thirty percent of blood cholesterol is carried by HDL.

It is hypothesized that HDL can remove cholesterol from atheroma within arteries and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilizationwhich is the main reason why HDL-bound cholesterol is sometimes called "good cholesterol", or HDL-C. A high level of HDL-C seems to protect against cardiovascular diseases, and low HDL cholesterol levels (less than 40 mg/dL) increase the risk for heart disease. When measuring cholesterol, any contained in HDL particles is considered as protection to the body's cardiovascular health, in contrast to "bad" LDL cholesterol.

Go back HDL-note-b

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End of TIL file