Update: 2016-09-23 06:21 PM -0400


English Grammar in Plain Language

- the previous major update: 2000 July
- minor update: 150731

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning).
Based on Barrons Educational Series, Grammar In Plain English (EGPE), by Diamond, H. and Dutwin, P., Barrons Educational Series, Inc., Woodbury, New York. Copyright 1977. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : 
http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

TIL Motivation

UKT 160917: I've taken some textual material from EGPE (indicated by page numbers of the original book). However, since my work is for Bur-Myan speakers who could already read and write Burmese speech written in Myanmar script, I have included some grammatical terms both in English and Burmese. For those who are already able to speak and write English written in Latin alphabet to some extent, I recommend they read the original EGPE. It certainly would improve their English reading and writing . However, inclusion of Burmese grammar - which I have to do out of necessity - makes my work somewhat confusing. Speaking is another matter - they will need a fluent English speaker with good pronunciation to teach them.
Continue reading in TIL Motivation .

Introduction - ch001.htm
New additions relating to current research on grammar - ch002.htm

Chapter 1. The Simplest Complete Thought - ch01.htm
     The Sentence Pattern of Performer and Action - Syntax
      {wa-kya.s:} or {wa-kya.hpw.hkrn:}
01. What Youve Always Known . Exercise 0101
02. Recognizing Complete and Incomplete Thoughts . Exercise 0201
03. Action Words: Special Problems: Tense
04. Subject and Predicate: Introducing Grammatical terms:

UKT 160911: Pix on the right
- the untold story of Little Peanut and his pre-teen love Daisy.

Chapter 2. Understanding Time and Number - ch02.htm
Performer and Action
01. Understanding Time : Tense
02. Understanding Number: Agreement . Exercise 0201
03. Agreement
03.01. Agreement in present time. Exercise 0301
03.02. Agreement in past time . Exercise 0302
03.03. Agreement in present and past time . Exercise 0303

Chapter 3.  Adding Descriptive Words - ch03.htm
01. Descriptive Words: Adding Meaning . Exercise 0101 , 0102
02. Descriptive Words: Special Problems . Exercise 0201

Chapter 4. Using Descriptive Words - ch04.htm
01. Using Descriptive Words: Using Comparison . Exercise 0101

UKT 160911: Pix on the right
- the little fool Peanut to impress Daisy explains what Grammar really is.

Chapter 5. Adding Descriptive Phrases - ch05.htm
01. Descriptive Phrases: Adding Meaning . Exercise 0101
02. Descriptive Phrases: Correct Placement . Exercise 0201

Chapter 6. Cumulative Review - ch06.htm
01. Review 1 , 02. Review 2

Chapter 7. Linking Words - ch07.htm
01. Linking Word or copula
01.01. Descriptive word or Adverb/Adverbial . Exercise 0101
01.02. Subject-Copula-Adverbial
02. Agreement in number between Subject and Copula
03. Verb "to be" or copula "be, is (am), are, was, wear"
04. Contraction -- copula combined with another word
05. Copula deletion -- in other languages

"Now, Daisy, my little pet",
     said little Peanut seeing Daisy going to sleep.
  "Wake up and learn your Alphabet!
  "ka.gyi: , kka.hkw: , ga.ng ...
  "b ma. l: kw. Daisy r ?"

Daisy has run away - not to be seen for some 60 years.

Chapter 8. Number: Special Problems - ch08.htm
01. Special Problems of Agreement
02. Surprisingly Singular Subjects
03. Plural Subjects

Chapter 9. Time: Special Problems - ch09.htm 
01. Past action continues into present
02. Past action before another past action
03. Future action before another future action
04. Two actions occur simultaneously

 Thinking that it was because of his radical methods of teaching, Daisy has run away, stupid little Peanut relearned his grammar.

Chapter 10. Pronouns - ch10.htm 
01. Performer pronoun, Subject pronoun, and Pronoun which receives action.
02. Pronoun Clue 1
03. Pronoun Clue 2
04. Pronoun Clue 3
05. Pronoun Clue 4
06. Pronoun Clue 5
07. Pronoun Clue 6
08. Pronoun Clue 7
09. Pronoun Clue 8

Little Peanut chose to learn Bur-Myan Grammar the traditional way: only to find that what he is really learning is "Pali grammar in Burmese dress!" The result is what could be expected - the failing grade!

My remark is from Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 , by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899
- BG1899-indx.htm - (link chk 160914)
"With regard to the grammatical treatises by native writers, it is no exaggeration to say that there is not one which can be properly called a Burmese grammar. These writers, not content with merely borrowing the grammatical nomenclature of the Pali language, also attempted to assimilate the grammatical principles of  the uninflected Burmese to those of the inflected Pali; so that they produced, not Burmese grammars, but modified Pali grammars in Burmese dress ... [complete with] case-inflexions".

Chapter 11. Cumulative Review - ch11.htm

Chapter 12. Balanced Sentences - ch12.htm
01. Understanding Correct Sentence Structure

Chapter 13. Punctuation - ch13.htm
01. End Mark
02. Comma
03. Common Comma Errors.
04. Semicolon

Chapter 14. Cumulative Review - ch14.htm
01. Style and Clarity
02. Quotation Marks
03. Other Marks of Punctuation.
04. Capitalization


UKT Notes
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Noam Chomsky

Contents of this page


TIL Motivation
What makes us human is our Innate linguistic knowledge,
and there is every reason to present the grammars of Burmese and English together.
Our Innate linguistic knowledge is our inborn knowledge
of how to communicate with another human being.

We do this by uttering sound in a sentence pattern -- not just calls
as the animals do.
Thus our study is about sentences and the rule governing
the make up of sentences.

(Based on theories of Noam Chomsky

UKT 121201, 150731: According to A. W. Lonsdale, "rules concerning the necessary relations of words in a sentence is called {ka-ra.ka.kp~pa.}. However, because this term is too unwieldy, TIL has come up with {wa-kya.s:} - which I will use throughout my work after noting that it is not recognized by MLC (Myanmar Language Commission). There are other coined words which I hope will help little "Peanut" explain his childhood friend "Daisy" what Grammar really is. Actually, Grammar presented in this program, whether it be Burmese or English is not difficult.

In order to incorporate the Bur-Myan grammar, I have to rely on:
- Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm - update 160430
  by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in two parts. 
  Part 1. Orthoepy (pronunciation) and orthography (spelling); Part 2. Accidence and syntax
- BG1899-indx.htm > BG1899-1-indx.htm > BG1899-2-indx.htm (link chk 160911)

#2. Burmese Grammar, unnamed authors, MLC -- in Bur-Myan.
- BG-MLC-indx.htm (link chk 150717) (link active only on TIL computers)
TIL library has a set of three volumes (for middle school, high school and university), published during the days of U N Win's Burmese Way to Socialism government. Some have been digitized in WinInnwa font by DawThetThetTheintHan and her assistant. Their work could be read only on MS FrontPage, provided you had WinInnwa font installed on your computer.  The three volumes have been combined into a single volume since the turn of the century. TIL library has a copy each of ink-on-paper books:
First printing in 2005 June, and
Second printing in 2013 March - inset shows its cover. I have made references to it giving the page numbers.

Contents of this page


American Heritage Talking Dictionary (AHTD) - CD. You can have it loaded on your computer hard disc, but if you would like to listen as well you will have to have the CD in your computer.

Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis (Lonsdale 1899)
by A. W. Lonsdale, Education Department, Burma. British Burma Press, Rangoon, 1899, pp. 459.
Photocopy available in TIL library. Original from which the photocopy was taken is in the TIL library of
my brother-in-law U Ba Khin an avid book collector

MLC Burmese Grammar (in Bur-Myan)
  Vol 1. For Middle school; Vol 2. For High school; Vol 3. For University
  Available online from Wordpress.com. from
  - https://whiteboylearningburmese.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/bg-mlc-1-1.pdf 160405
  See downloaded pdf files in TIL SD-Library : links to TIL SD-Library
  SD-Library<> 1. bg-mlc-1-1. 2. bg-mlc-1-2. 3. bg-mlc-1-3. 4. bg-mlc-1-4. 5. bg-mlc-2-5. 6. bg-mlc-2-6. (link chk 160911)
  bkp<> -------- 1. bkp1. ------- 2. bkp2. ------- 3. bkp3. ------  4. bkp4. ------ 5. bkp5. ------- 6. bkp6. (link chk 160911)

English Pronouncing Dictionary, 16th ed. (DJPD16) - by Daniel Jones, ed. P. Roach, J. Hartman, and J. Setter, Cambridge University Press, 2003

. Thalun English-Myanmar Dictionary - Thalun-EMD2003-xxxx
  UKT 160922: TIL Library has not acquired a digitized copy yet, and I am still relying on the ink-on-paper copy.

Glossary of English Grammar Terms (UseE) www.usingenglish.com/glossary.html 150706

The Little Brown Handbook (LBH), 8th, Addison-Wesley-Longman  (AWL-Glossary)

{mrn-ma sa-lon:paung: t-pon kym:} Myanmar Orthography (MOrtho)
   by MLC (Myanmar Language Commission, Ministry of Education), 1986, pp 292
Myanmar English Dictionary (MED-1993) Published in other years also.
   {mrn-ma n~ga.laip a.Bi.Daan} by MLC, 1993, pp 635
{hka.ri:hsaung mrn-ma a.Bi.Daan} Travelling Pocket Myanmar Dictionary (MMD)
   in Bur-Myan, by MLC, 1999, pp 401.
Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary (UHS-BEPD) - by U Hoke Sein, 1980

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Notes on individual words, usage, and culture and history of the English speaking people from Bur-Myan perspective, will accompany individual files. Previously, it was intended that they will be grouped together at the end of the lessons, but it was found that since I have to write one file at a time, and there is sometimes considerable interval between each writing, the previous plan was not practical.

Contents of this page

Doggie's Tale

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
 Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Root sign √
Skt-Deva : श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/;
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA symbols: ə ɪ ʌ ʊ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɹ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

Contents of this page

Noam Chomsky

Chomsky, Noam . Born 1928 . American linguist who revolutionized the study of language with his theory of generative grammar, set forth in Syntactic Structures (1957).

Go back N-Chomsky-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file