Update: 2016-09-20 12:11 AM -0400

TIL

English Grammar in Plain Language

ch05.htm

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning).
Based on Barrons Educational Series, Grammar In Plain English, by Diamond, H. and Dutwin, P., Barrons Educational Series, Inc., Woodbury, New York. Copyright 1977. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : 
http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm |Top
EGPE-indx.htm

Contents of this page

Adding Descriptive Phrases
01. Descriptive Phrases: Adding Meaning
     Exercise 0101
02. Descriptive Phrases: Correct Placement
     Exercise 0201

UKT notes
adverbial
adverbs (additions to words)
dealer

Contents of this page

Adding Descriptive Phrases

UKT: The dictionary meaning and the origin of the word adverb shows that it simply means an additional word to add more meaning a root word.

Adverbs can be quite complicated as the following shows. The following is from UseE, which classifies the adverbs into:
1. adverbs of manner, place or location, time, degree, and
2. adverbs modifying adjectives, adverbs, nouns, noun phrases, determiners, numerals and pronouns.

Contents of this page

01. Descriptive Phrases: Adding Meaning

You have just been working with descriptive words which help to make the sentence much more meaningful and interesting. Frequently, one descriptive word is not enough. We need a group of words (a phrase) to expand the meaning. These words or phrases are known as adverbs of place or location, and they show where the action is done.

The coffee cup fell on the floor.

The group of words that functions in the same way as an adverb is also known as an adverbial. -- UseE

Before the play, we met up in a pub near the theatre.

Before the play functions in the same way as an adverb of time such as Yesterday, etc.

Before you look for descriptive phrases, you must be sure that you understand the core of the sentence. Ask yourself these questions:

1. Which is V (the action word) in the sentence? -- (fell)
2. Which is S (performer, N)? -- (cup)
3. What do words <the> and <coffee> describe? -- (cup)
4. Finally, what does adverbial phrase (Adv.) on the floor describe? -- (fell) 

Consider another sentence:

They live locally.

UKT remark: locally modifies where they live.

There can be more than one descriptive word for the performer S, and action word V.

 

Contents of this page

Exercise 0101

Each of the sentences below contains at least one descriptive phrase (adverbial) which Ive underlined. What is the word it describes?
UKT note: Many usages in these questions involve the North American way of life and need explanations for Myanmar students.

1. The company solved its financial problems through efficiency techniques.

<company> hso th mha si:pwa:r: loap-ngan: hpric pri: <financial problems> pa th. a.twak ngw-kr: pra.tha.na pau n pon ra. th// hto loap-ngan: th <efficiency techniques> to. ko thon: hkring: hpring. ngw-kr: a.kyp a.t: ko hpr rhing: leik th//

Ans.: (solved)

2. The fire in the fireplace (1) crackled into the night (2).

<fire> nhing. <fireplace> to. twing <fire> ka. hting:mi: ko hso lo th// <fireplace> th a.hkyam: daN ko ka kw p: th. hting:mi:hpo ko hso lo th// sa-kraung: r. a.Daip~p ka. {hting:mi:hpo ka. hting:ton: to. th tic-a. lon: tic-hprauk-hprauk nhing. laung kywam: n th//}

Ans.: 1. (fire), 2. (crackled)

3. The dentists ultrasonic cleaner sped along the surfaces of his patients teeth.

thwa: <teeth> than.rhing: r: a.loap hkn n t. lu-na r. thwa: mya: ko , thwa:hsa.ra-wun keing hta: thau <ultrasonic cleaner> ka.  lying-mran swa than.rhing: p: n th//

Ans.: (sped)

4. Shrubbery grew around the house.

lu-n aim r. pt wun:kyin twing hkron-nw to. pauk lyak rhi. th//

Ans.: (grew)

5. A contestant with a soprano voice won the talent competition.

tak-n nhin. i-hso au a.n-shn a.hso-pren-pw: twn a.nen ra. wa: //

Ans.: (contestant)

6. During the training session, the recruits crawled under the fence.

sic-l.kying. hkam: tic-hku. twing , tp-tha:laung: mya: th mha. mi.hkyaung:thwa: twa: thwa: kra. th//

Ans.: (crawled)

7. A lonely figure waited on the bridge.

Ans.: (waited)

8. Everyone except him cheered.

Ans.: (everyone)

9. The dealer divided the cards among the four players.

Ans.: (divided)

10. An argument raged between the two teams.

ka.sa:preing-pw: twing a.thing: nhic thing: th pring:htan swa ngring:hkon kra. th//

Ans.: (raged)

 

Contents of this page

02. Descriptive Phrases: Correct Placement

A descriptive phrase (adverbial) should be placed next to the word which it describes. Misplacement of a descriptive phrase results in confused meaning. As an example, lets take an incorrect sentence:

* The congressman made an unfavorable comment at a White House reception about rising prices.

{a.htak pa sa-kraung: twing <phrase> nhic-hku. pa n th ko tha.ti. pru. pa// l-kaung: to. mha
1. <at a White House reception>
2. <about rising prices.>

You should note that there are two phrases in the above sentence:
1. <at a White House reception> and
2. <about rising prices>

The reception was not about rising prices. However, since phrase is next to <reception>, it appears that the reception was held to discuss the rising prices. The sentence should read:

The congressman made an unfavorable comment about rising prices at a White House reception. 

A proper use of commas would have helped, but the modern trend is to use as little of the commas as possible.

The congressman made an unfavorable comment about rising prices, at a White House reception

 

Contents of this page

Exercise 0201

The underlined descriptive phrase in each of the following sentences is correctly placed. What is the word which it describes?

1. The American way of life changes constantly.

Ans.: (way)

2. The economy will grow through the 1970s.

Ans.: (will grow)

3. This course of action is intolerable.

Ans.: (course)

4. The prosecutor spoke to Steve.

Ans.: (spoke)

5. John Canady writes about art.

Ans.: (writes)

6. Several angry commuters walked to the bus stop.

Ans.: (walked)

7. Representatives of the different factions spoke.

Ans.: (representatives)

8. The actors dine after the show.

Ans.: (dine)

9. The panelist at the end (1) of the table (2) spoke decisively.

Ans.: 1. (panelist), 2. (end)

{tha.ti. pru. pa// di-m:hkwan: ka. nhic peing: pa t//
  1. The panelist at the end (1) of the table spoke decisively.
{l-kaung: a.hpr ka. <panelist> hpric t//}

  2. The panelist at the end of the table (2) spoke decisivelyy.
{di a.phr ka. tau. <end> hpric t//}

10. Mr. Simmons spoke at length.

Ans.: (spoke)

Frequently, a descriptive phrase separates the performer (S, N) and the action (V). You must remember that the action agrees in number with the performer. For example:

1. The man walks .
2. The man in the black boots walks .
3. The man in the black boots walks slowly.

Notice that the performer (S, N) man and the action word walks (V) remain unchanged in each sentence. The number of the action word is not affected by any word in the descriptive phrase. Thus, in the third sentence, the action word does not change to agree with boots .

{sa.ka: prau: t. n ra mha hpr: hpr: prau: pri: a.n hprat prau: pa// na.mu-na

The man in the black boots, walks slowly.

{<boots> nauk twing a.thn hprat pa// <comma> ht. r: neing: thau l: ma.r: kra. ta ka. mya: pa t//

 

Contents of this page

UKT notes

adverbial

From: AHTD
adj. Abbr. adv. Grammar 1. Of, relating to, or being an adverb.

From: LBH
A term sometimes used to describe any word or word group, other than an adverb, that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a whole sentence. Common adverbials include:

nouns:
     This little piggy stayed home.

phrases:
     This little piggy went to market.

clauses
     This little piggy went wherever he wanted.

From: UseE
An adverbial is a group of words that functions in the same way as an Adverb:
     Before the play, we met up in a pub near the theatre.
'Before the play' functions in the same way as an adverb of time such as Yesterday, etc.

Go back adverbial-note-b

Contents of this page

adverbs or additions to words

UKT: It seems that the words "adverb", "adverb phrase", and "adverbial" are used by grammarians interchangeably.

From: AHTD
n. Abbr.
adv. Grammar 1. A part of speech comprising a class of words that modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. 2. A word belonging to this class, such as rapidly in The dog runs rapidly. [Middle English adverbe from Old French from Latin adverbium ad- in relation to; See ad- verbum word; See wer- 5 in Indo-European Roots.]

UKT: Adverbs can be quite complicated as the following shows. The following is from UseE, which classifies the adverbs into:
1. adverbs of manner, place or location, time, degree, and
2. adverbs modifying adjectives, adverbs, nouns, noun phrases, determiners, numerals and pronouns.
Since, these belong to the realm of experts, which I am not, it is best to simply make the remark that "adverbs usually ends in -ly." However, for curiosity sake, I will give below what UseE has given (with remarks by a non-expert).
   UVic explained in other words. "An adverb may be a single word, such as quickly, here or yesterday. However, adverbs can also be phrases, some made with prepositions, others made with infinitives. This page will explain the basic types of adverb phrases (sometimes called "adverbial phrases") and how to recognize them."
   The examples given below are from UseE and UVic .

Adverb of manner: -- UseE
Adverbs of manner modify a verb to describe the way the action is done.

She did the work carefully. -- UseE
Remark: Carefully modifies the verb to describe the way the work was done, as opposed to quickly, carelessly, etc.

It rained hard yesterday. -- UVic

The woman stared at me with an angry expression. -- UVic

Adverb of place or location: -- UseE
Adverbs of place show where the action is done.

They live locally. -- UseE
UKT remark: Locally modifies where they live.

Janice placed the chair next to the window. -- Adv. of place -- UVic

Elephants are found in Africa and India. -- Adv. of place -- UVic

Adverb of time: -- UseE
Adverbs of time show when an action is done, or the duration or frequency.

He did it yesterday. (When) -- UseE
They are permanently busy. (Duration) -- UseE
She never does it. (Frequency) -- UseE

Mika usually gets up early. -- Adv. of frequency -- UVic
Joe buys flowers for his wife every week. -- Adv. of frequency -- UVic
We hardly ever use the microwave. -- Adv. of frequency -- UVic

Surfing is a popular sport in the summer. -- Adv. of time -- UVic
I'll meet you on Friday. -- Adv. of time -- UVic

Adverb of degree: -- UseE
Adverbs of degree increase or decrease the effect of the verb.

I completely agree with you. -- UseE
Remark: Completely increases the effect of the verb, whereas partially would decrease it.

Adverbs modifying adjectives: -- UseE
An adjective can be modified by an adverb, which precedes the adjective, except 'enough' which comes after.

That's really good. -- UseE
UKT remark: In 'That's good.', good is the adjective. Really is the adverb that is modifying the adjective good.
   Again, consider the following sentences:
1. That's good.
2. That's really good.
3. That is good.
4. That is really good.
Though these sentences mean almost the same, they had different 'shades' of meanings. The difference between the first two, and the second is in the emphasis on is .

  It was a terribly difficult time for all of us. -- UseE
  It wasn't good enough. ('Enough' comes after the adjective.) -- UseE

Adverbs modifying adverbs: -- UseE
An adverb can modify another. As with adjectives, the adverb precedes the one it is modifying with 'enough' being the exception again.

She did it really well. -- UseE
UKT remark: The sentence 'She did it well.' would have shown how she had done it as opposed to 'She did it badly.' Here well and badly are adverbs. These adverbs can be further modified by really, sort of, etc.

He didn't come last night, funnily enough. -- UseE

Adverbs modifying nouns: -- UseE
Adverbs can modify nouns to indicate time or place.

*The concert tomorrow. -- UseE
*The room upstairs. -- UseE
UKT: These two phrases from UseE are not complete sentences and I have shown that they are so with an *.

Adverbs modifying noun phrases: -- UseE
Some adverbs of degree can modify noun phrases.

We had quite a good time. -- UseE
They're such good friends. -- UseE
What a day! -- UseE
Remark: quite, rather, such can be used similar to what (What a day!).

Adverbs of purpose: -- UVic
UKT: Those marked out as "Adv. phrase" these are described Adverb phrases made with infinitives

I write computer programs for fun. -- Adv. of purpose -- UVic
I bought the glue to fix my broken lamp. -- Adv. of purpose -- UVic
I wear wooly socks to keep my feet warm. -- Adv. of purpose -- UVic
Jack bought the flowers for his mother. -- Adv. phrase of purpose -- UVic
I'm saving my money to buy a car. -- Adv. phrase of purpose
The students all showed up to support the team. -- Adv. phrase of purpose
Sally bought a painting home from school to show to her mother. -- Adv. phrase of purpose.

Adverbs modifying determiners, numerals and pronouns: -- UseE
Adverbs such as almost; nearly; hardly; about, etc., can be used:

Almost everybody came in the end. -- UseE

Go back adverb-addn-to-words-note-b

Contents of this page

dealer

From: AHTD
n. Abbr. dlr. 1. One that is engaged in buying and selling: a used-car dealer; a drug dealer. 2. Games The one who distributes cards.

From: UKT
{hp: deing //}

Go back dealer-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file