Update: 2016-01-16 06:27 PM -0500


Computer Assisted Teaching of English
- Canada

Classics Canada Book 1
Authentic Readings for ESL Students

Chapters 01, 02, 03

by Patricia Brock (Dawson College) and Brian John Bushy, Prentice Hall Regents Canada, Scarborough, Ontario: copyright 1995. ISBN 0-13-328972-9

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

01. The Loup-Garou
-- A French-Canadian legend - 001
  Text  Glossary  Activities

02. Laura Secord
-- An English-Canadian legend - 010
  Text  Glossary  Activities

03. Jerry Potts, Plainsman
-- A Western-Canadian legend - 019
  Text  Glossary  Activities

UKT notes
Demographic history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas
First Anglo-Burmese War 1824-1826

Contents of this page

01. The Loup-Garou
The Legend from Beausejour, Quebec



Look at the picture. How would you feel if you encountered such an animal, especially on a dark and lonely night?

Introduction to the Story

This is a legend, that is, a story told by people a long time ago. It is about two men, but one turns into a loup-garou, which is the French word for werewolf. According to some stories and legends, a werewolf is a person who sometimes becomes a wolf or a dog-like creature.

UKT 141120: The counterpart of werewolf in Myanmarpré is weretiger {þa.mûn:kya:} - n. man turned into a tiger by black magic -- MLC MED2006-490.
See also THE NATURE OF WERE-TIGERS, by Sein Tu, Ph.D., Professor and Head (retd.), Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Mandalay -- weretiger.htm (link chk 141120)

One man is a miller, a person who owns or works in a mill. The miller in this legend owns a flour mill, which is a building that contains a large machine for crushing corn or wheat or grain into flour. Try to explain in your own words what other kinds of mills do: pepper mills, coffee mills, paper mills, cotton mills, and windmills.

The second man becomes the miller's assistant and his friend. Then a frightening thing happens on Christmas Eve, the day before Christmas Day, which is on December 25th (or January 6th). Christmas Eve and Christmas Day are religious and public holidays in many places.

Think about these questions as you read the story: Who turns into a werewolf, the miller or his assistant? How and why does he become a werewolf? What happens at the mill on Christmas Eve? What happens to the miller and his assistant after that ?


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The Loup-Garou

You probably think werewolf stories are pretty far-fetched.° But there are still people in Quebec who will tell you about their personal experiences with werewolves, or loup-garous as they are called. Many of them will also tell you what happened to Joachim Crête, the old miller from Beausejour.

Poor old Crête. No one really liked him very much. For one thing, he snubbed° the villagers -- except when they brought him grain to mill. For another, he broke the rules of the Church. He hadn't been to mass° or confession° in years, and on Sundays° almost always kept his mill turning.

One day, a stranger from the mountains named Hubert Sauvageau knocked on Crête's door looking for work. The man was rough and dirty in appearance and speech, and looked too young to do a good day's work°. However, Sauvageau promised to work hard for very little money. Best of all, he loved to play checkers° as much as Crête. The old man was delighted with his new assistant. The neighbours, however, were shocked by Sauvageau's foul language° and irreligious° ways and came to dislike him even more than they did Crête.

Soon everyone in the area began to spread terrifying rumours about a loup-gorou. No one had actually seen the beast but there was evidence everywhere -- a sheep with its throat torn out, and a child that had been mangled° to death. Crête and Sauvageau were the only ones who didn't live in constant fear of the loup-gorou. In fact, they laughed at their neighbours for being so (p001end-p002begin) superstitious°. Though most of the villagers were afraid even to open their doors at night, young Sauvageau would often go out late after his drunken boss had fallen asleep, slumped over the checker board.

On Christmas Eve, everyone ventured outside to go to midnight mass -- everyone, that is, except Crête and Sauvageau. Not only were the two men celebrating wildly, they were keeping the mill turning. After the church bells rang at midnight, however, their celebrations were interrupted.

Crête put down his glass and listened. "Did you hear that?" he asked.

 "I don't hear a thing," said Sauvageau.

 "That's what I mean -- the mill just stopped dead!"

Swearing as they went, they descended into the mill room with a lantern. They tried to get the mill turning again but it wouldn't budge.

"The devil with it!°" Crête cursed. "Let's get out of here."

At that very moment, the lantern went out and left them in a silent darkness. As they groped° their way up the stairs, Sauvageau fell. Crête ignored him, however, and weaved° his way back to the kitchen.

Just then, he heard a groaning sound behind him. When he turned around, he almost died of fright. Standing there was a huge black dog with long fangs°, staring savagely at him.

"Help! Hubert!" he called out.

There wasn't a sound except for the animal's panting°.

"Hubert! "

Just as the beast was about to pounce°, the church bell rang again and Crête fell to his knees.

"My God," he cried. "Please save me from the loup-gorou!"

Fortunately, there was a sickle° within easy reach. He struck the loup-gorou with it and fainted.

When Crête awoke the next day, Sauvageau was splashing water on his face. Before he could ask what had happened, he noticed a gash° on the young man's ear. In a flash, he realized that Sauvageau was the loup-gorou.

"It was you!" he cried and fainted once again.

The old miller apparently never regained his senses° after that and died some years later.

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* far-fetched (adj)
  -- improbable or difficult to believe
* snubbed (people) (v)
  -- treated them rudely, paid no attention to them
* mass (n)
  -- an important religious service in many Christian religions (p002end-p003begin)
* confession (n)
  -- a religious practice in which a person tells his or her sins to a priest
* on Sundays ( exp )
  -- according to the rules of the Christian Church, Sunday is the day when people do not work;
  they rest and relax
* a good day's work (exp)
  -- working hard for the whole day
* checkers (n)
  -- checkers in North American English; draughts in British English;
  a game played by two people, each with 12 round pieces on a checker board of 64 squares
* foul language (n)
  -- swear words or curses
* irreligious (adj)
  -- not obeying the rules of a religion very carefully
* mangled ( v)
  -- torn or cut into pieces; crushed
* superstitious (adj)
  -- believing in things that are not based on reason or logic, but on magic and old ideas
* The devil with it! (exp)
  -- a swear or a curse that means send something to the devil or Satan,
  the most powerful evil spirit
* groped ( v)
  -- searched about with the hands, in the dark or as if in the dark
* weaved ( v)
  -- moved along, turning and changing direction frequently
* fangs (n)
  -- long, sharp teeth, such as those of a snake, a dog, or a wolf
* panting ( v)
  -- taking quick, short breaths, especially after great effort or great heat
* pounce ( v)
  -- fly down or spring suddenly in order to seize something
* sickle (n)
  -- a farm tool with a short handle and a curved blade used for cutting tall grass and weeds
* gash (n)
  -- a deep cut
* regained his senses (exp)
  -- became conscious; got his powers of thinking back (p003end-p004begin)

There may be other words and expressions in the story that are not familiar to you. Write each one in your journal. Then look it up in a dictionary, ask another student, or ask the teacher for a definition. Write the definition on the line beside the word or expression. Try to use the new word or expression in a sentence.

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Inference Questions

Sometimes you can find information in a story that is not stated clearly in the words. You infer the information -- that is, you make a logical guess -- from either what is in the text, or your knowledge of the world, or both.

Try to infer the probable answers to the questions below by looking at the story. Be ready to give your reasons.
01. How did Crête and Sauvageau celebrate Christmas Eve?
02. Why did the mill suddenly stop turning?
03. Why did Crête's lantern go out?
04. Why did Sauvageau fall down the stairs?
05. Why did Crête ignore Sauvageau when he fell?
06. Why did Sauvageau ignore Crête when he called for help?
07. Why did Crête faint or lose consciousness?
08. Why was Sauvageau splashing water on his face the next morning?
09. How did Sauvageau get a gash on his ear ?
10. Why did Crête faint again?




How much do you know about werewolves? Try to guess the answers to these questions. Be ready to give your reasons.
1. What do werewolves do to people and animals?
2. Why do people tell legends about werewolves?
3. When did people begin to tell legends about werewolves? (p004end-p005begin)
4. How do people destroy werewolves?
5. What do werewolves look like?
6. Why does a person turn into a werewolf?
7. How does a werewolf become a person again?

First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and fill in the blanks in your journal. Third, listen to the text and correct and complete the blanks. Now discuss the answers to the questions about werewolves with the teacher and other students.

Werewolves are one of the most frightening of beasts -- real or imagined -- ever to roam the earth.

Not only do they viciously attack and kill their ( 1 ) _____, they are particularly fond of human flesh. And, as Joachim Crête (2) _____, a friend by day may turn out to be a (3) _____ by night.

There are many reasons why people the (4) _____ over have been taken for werewolves. One explanation is (5) _____; another is a rare disease that causes long hair (6) _____ grow over all parts of the body, including the (7) _____.

Regardless of the current theories, stories about werewolves date (8) _____ to Greek and Roman times.

By the Middle Ages, (9) _____ throughout civilized Europe lived in terror of the (10) _____. The French, for example, took werewolves so seriously that (11) _____ executed them! As recently as 1720, a [ person believed to be a ] werewolf discovered (12) _____ Austria was hanged, mutilated, and burned to prevent it (13) _____ coming back as a vampire.

UKT 141120: Compare the above passage with Salem Witch Trials (1692 - 1693) instigated by the Christian religionists. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salem_witch_trials 141120

According to French-Canadian (14 ) _____ , a loup-garou may take the form of another animal (15) _____ as a dog or a bear. Whatever the animal, (16) _____ person becomes a loup-garou for failing to go to (17) _____ --
especially at Easter Mass -- for seven years.

The only (18) _____ this person can permanently return to human form is (19) _____ have someone strike the beast forcefully enough to draw (20) _____ . Once delivered, the victim is left with a permanent scar, the only evidence of a murderous past. (p005end-p006begin)



My Favourite Board Game
Talk or write about your favourite board game with the teacher and other students. Which game do you like to play? Why? How is it played? How often do you play? Who wins?

Werewolf Stories
Talk or write about a werewolf story with the teacher and other students. Here is one way to begin your story.
     You probably think werewolf stories are pretty far-fetched. But there are still people who will tell you about their personal experiences with werewolves. Many of them will also tell you what happened to ...

The "Poor Old" Person
Talk or write about a story of a "poor old" person with the teacher and other students. Here is one way to begin your story.
     Poor old X. No one really liked him / her very much. For one thing, he / she snubbed everyone. For another, he / she broke the rules that everyone else followed.

UKT 141120: The way we in the East - Asia and Africa - look upon "Old Age" is diagonally opposite to that of the West - Europe and Europeanized Americas. "Old Age" brings on white hair a sign of Wisdom and Gentleness. So my story would begin like this:
   Old and wise X. Everyone loves and respects him / her and likes to listen to his / her stories. He / She is not really religious but because of his / her wisdom and gentleness everyone would call him / her Grandfather / Grandmother.

The Stranger at the Door
Create a legend of a stranger who comes knocking at your door. Talk or write about it with the teacher and other students. Here is one way to begin your story.
   One day, a stranger knocked on the door looking for work. He / she looked too young to do a good day's work. However, he / she promised to work hard for very little money. Best of all, he / she loved to. ..

The Terrifying Rumour
Complete this story about a terrifying rumour. Talk or write about it with the teacher and other students.
   Everyone in the area began to spread terrifying rumours. No one had actually seen anything, but there was evidence everywhere. The rumour was ... (p006end-p007begin)

The Blackout
Complete this story about a blackout at midnight. Talk or write about it with the teacher and other students.
   Everyone was having a good time at the party. At midnight, however, their celebrations were interrupted. The electricity went off.
   Some of them descended into the basement with a flashlight. They tried to get the power on again but there was a total blackout. At that very moment, the flashlight went out and left them in a silent darkness .
   As they groped their way up the stairs, they heard a groaning sound behind them. When they turned around, they almost died of fright. Standing there was ...



Do creatures such as werewolves really exist or are they pure fiction? And what about other monster-like creatures in Canada, such as Kraken from the ocean waters around Newfoundland, Ogopogo from Okanagan Lake in British Columbia, and Sasquatch or Bigfoot from the West Coast? You can read about them in the following books.

Legendary Creatures -- Créatures Légendaires
(Ottawa: Canada Post, 1990). Available at most post offices in Canada.

Jim Haskins (New York: Watts, 1981). Uses legends of different countries to discuss actual cases of werewolves, ways to protect oneself against these creatures, and how to cure an afflicted person.

If you would like to read about wolves, look for these books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore.

Arctic Wolf
David L. Mech (Toronto: Key Porter, 1985). An introduction to the life of the Arctic wolf . (p007end-p008begin)

In Praise of Wolves
R. D. Lawrence (Toronto: Key Porter, 1990). Sympathetic account of the true nature of wolves covering hunting methods and social structures of packs. Another of Lawrence's books on the same subject is Trail of the Wolf (Toronto: Key Porter, 1993).

Never Cry Wolf
Farley Mowat (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1963). A humorous and informative book arguing that wolves are not the vicious animals of legend, but are necessary and useful in the natural cycle.

With Ptarmigan and Tundra Wolves
Cy Hapson (Victoria: Orca, 1991). Discusses animal behaviour in Arctic regions.

L. P. Pringle  (New York: Scribner's, 1983). A career biography of a wildlife biologist who spent 25 years studying the wolf.

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02. Laura Secord
A Legendary Canadian Hero -- An English-Canadian legend


Look at the picture carefully. This is Laura Ingersoll Secord. According to the clothes she is wearing, when and where do you think she lived?

Laura Ingersoll Secord became a famous Canadian patriot. What do you think she did to deserve that distinction?

Read the questions below. The answer to each question can be found in the story about Laura Secord. Read the story quickly, looking for the information that will (p009end-p010begin) answer each question. You do not need to understand everything in the story. However, you must read carefully enough to find the answer to each question. This kind of reading to find information is called scanning. Try to answer each question in 30 seconds or less.
1. Who came to the Secord house?
2. What plan did he talk about?
3. Who heard about the plan?
4. Where and when did this happen?
5. What happened the year before that?
6. What did Laura decide to do?

Introduction to the Story
Think about these questions as you read the story: Why did the American soldiers talk openly about the plan? How did Laura feel about the Americans? How did she feel about the British? Why did the Indians (First Nations aka Amerindians) help her ? What happened to her after they helped her ?

UKT 141117: To the people of Myanmarpré, the indigenous peoples of the North-, Central-, and South Americas are Red Indians. Because of the feather head dresses of their chiefs, they are also known as Wild Men {lu-reing:}. These derogatory names were the ones used by the Europeans (British, French, Portuguese, and Spaniards) who colonized the Americas, forcibly converted the natives to Christianity and stole their gold and silver. They imported into their countries cultivated plant species developed by the natives such as Red pepper, Corn (on cob), Potato, Tobacco, and Tomato to feed their peoples.

At present, the natives of the Americas before Christopher Columbus landed on their shores are known as the First Nations aka Amerindians.  The word Indians is also used - a term used by Christopher Columbus who had thought he had landed in the country of India.
See my note on Demographic history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas


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Laura Secord

One warm summer evening in 1813, there was a loud knock at the door of Laura and James Secord's home, in the town of Queenston on the Niagara River. Ever since the Americans had declared war on the British a year earlier, Laura had been wary° about opening her door. [UKT ¶]

Several months before, invading American troops had ransacked° the Secord home, stealing or destroying anything of value. To add to this hardship°, her husband James had been wounded in battle and still could not walk. The Americans now occupied the town and no one's home was safe. [UKT ¶]

UKT 141117: Since this is a Canadian story, the Americans have been painted in an ugly light. It was the European custom of the soldiers of the occupying army, in company of 4 or 5, to be fed by a civilian home.

There was another knock, louder than the first°. Laura sent her five children upstairs and went to open the door. Outside stood four American soldiers. They barged in°, sat at the dining table and demanded to be fed. Laura quickly laid out all the food she had prepared for supper, then quietly slipped out the back door. Sitting by an open window, she overheard one of the men boasting° to the others.

"FitzGibbon is finally going to get what he deserves!" he chortled°. "In two days, I'll be leading a surprise attack on his headquarters at Beaver Dams and (p010end-p011begin) capture every blasted one of his men. The entire Niagara Peninsula will be ours, and you'll have me, Cyrenius Chapin, to thank for it!"

Laura was stunned.. She knew that FitzGibbon was the British lieutenant who commanded a nearby outpost° and had recently captured several Americans, much to Chapin's annoyance. It now appeared that Fitz Gibbon and his men were in grave° danger.

Laura waited in the shadows until the soldiers had left, then ran upstairs to tell her bedridden husband what she had learned.

"Someone has to warn FitzGibbon," said James, "but it can't be me..."

"I'll go!" Laura said,

and despite her husband's objections, she made preparations to leave the next morning. Just before dawn, Laura departed without a sound. She first stopped in St. David's to see if her half-brother° Charles, who had been ill, was well enough to accompany her. Charles unfortunately was still not fit to move, but Laura's niece Elizabeth was eager to go with her.

The two women had to keep to° the woods to avoid being stopped by the American guards, though it meant a much longer and more difficult journey than the fifteen-kilometre route along the main road. Soon they were wading through swampland and baking in the sweltering° heat. It all proved too much for Elizabeth. Weak and exhausted, she stayed behind with friends while Laura pressed on. alone.

Laura was soon following a creek that she knew flowed past FitzGibbon's outpost. Her blistered° feet pained her at every step. By nightfall, however, she had managed to cross over on a fallen tree almost within sight of the outpost when suddenly she was surrounded by a group of Indians.

"Woman! Woman!" they began shouting,

as startled° by her presence as she was by theirs. Frightened though Laura was, she managed to persuade the chief to take her to FitzGibbon.

Before long, she was standing barefoot° and bedraggled° before the famous lieutenant. He listened intently to her story, quite taken by. her remarkable courage.

"Madam°°, I believe that we owe you a great deal. Let me begin by offering you food and rest."
[UKT 141121- °° marks are my additions]

With that, the relieved but exhausted Laura fainted at the lieutenant's feet.

Two days later, when Laura was back safe at home, she learned it was the Americans who were taken by surprise at Beaver Dams, and all 462 men had surrendered to FitzGibbon. (p011end-p012begin)

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* wary (adj)
  -- careful; looking out for danger
* ransacked (v)
  -- searched through and robbed
* hardship (n)
  -- difficult conditions of life, such as a lack of money or food
* barged in (v)
  -- rushed in rudely; interrupted
* boasting (v)
  -- saying or talking too proudly; expressing self-praise
* chortled (v)
  -- gave a laugh of pleasure or satisfaction; chuckled
* stunned (adj)
  -- shocked; very surprised
* outpost (n)
  -- a group of people or a settlement at some distance from the main group or settlement
* grave (adj)
  -- serious or solemn
* bedridden (adj)
  -- unable to get out of bed because of illness, injury or old age
* half-brother (n)
  -- a brother related through one parent only
* keep to (v)
  -- move or stay in a certain position
* swampland (n)
  -- an area of soft, wet land
* sweltering (adj )
  -- very hot
* pressed on (v)
  -- continued; advanced; went forward without delay
* blistered (adj)
  -- thin, watery swellings under the skin, caused by rubbing or burning
* startled (adj) -
  - suddenly surprised or frightened
* barefoot (adj )
  -- with no shoes or socks or other covering on the feet
* bedraggled (adj)
  -- with clothes and hair in disorder
* taken by (v) -- impressed by
°° Madam (n) -- a respectable way of address a stranger woman.
  But be careful, it can also mean the owner of a brothel. Never use
  the word Lady in addressing a woman who you respect.

There may be other words and expressions in the story that are not familiar to you. Write each one in your journal. Then look it up in a dictionary, ask another student, or ask the teacher for a definition. Write the definition on the line beside the word or expression. Try to use the new word or expression in a sentence. (p012end-p013begin)

Contents of this page



True or False
You may want to look back and scan the text during this activity. When you scan, you read quickly to find certain bits of information. Beside each number in your journal, write Tif the sentence is true according to the text, F if the sentence is false according to the text, and DS if the text doesn't say. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.
1. The Americans declared war on the British in 1812.
2. Laura's brother walked with her to St. David's.
3. Cyrenius Chapin was an American soldier.
4. James Secord was shot when the Americans ransacked the Secord home.
5. Lieutenant FitzGibbon's headquarters was at Beaver Dams.
6. The British soldiers helped Laura get back home.
7. Elizabeth was Laura's sister.
8. The Indians (First Nations) thought Laura was an American.

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Laura Ingersoll Secord
This is a summary of important dates in the life of Laura Ingersoll Secord. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and fill in the blanks in your journal. Third, listen to the text and complete the blanks. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

1775     Laura Ingersoll was born in Massachusetts Colony.
1783     _________________________
1795     Laura's father took the family to the Niagara Peninsula in Upper Canada.
1797     _________________________
____     The Americans declared war on Britain and Canada.
1813     _________________________
____     Laura lived in poverty with her invalid husband and seven children.
1841     _________________________
____     The public learned of Laura's role in the victory against the Americans.
1860     _________________________ (p013end-p014begin)

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Laura Ingersoll Secord: Canadian Hero
Use the information in the Listening Activity above to write a summary of the life of Laura Ingersoll Secord.

War of 1812 Heroes
The people mentioned below were also involved in the War of 1812. Choose one name and find out some information about this person and the times in which he lived. Then talk or write about your information with other students.
 • General Isaac Brock
 • John Richardson
 • Lieutenant Colonel Charles Michel de Salaberry
 • Tecumseh
 • William "Tiger" Dunlop

War of 1812 Battles
The battles mentioned below were important in the War of 1812. Choose one of them and find out some information about the battle and the people who were involved in it. Then talk or write about your information with other students.

Battle of Chateauguay
Queenston Heights
The Capture of Detroit

Think about a person or a group of people who performed a heroic act for a cause that the individual or the group believed in. Talk or write about that person or group with the teacher and other students.

Chocolate Candy
The name of Laura Secord is used by the Laura Secord Candy Company today. It is famous for the chocolate candy that it makes and sells throughout Canada. Talk or write about chocolates and chocolate candy with the teacher and other students. (p014end-p015begin)

Laura Secord Inc.
Write a letter to one of these organizations: Laura Secord Inc. or Nestle Canada Inc. Ask the organization for information about
1. the history of Laura Ingersoll Secord,
2. the restoration of the Laura Secord Homestead, and
3. the history of the Laura Secord Candy Company.
When you receive the information, read it carefully. Did you learn any other facts about Laura Secord? What are they?

Contents of this page

If you enjoyed reading about the War of 1812 patriot Laura Secord, you may wish to read about the adventures of other Canadian heroes from the 19th century: Jos Montferrand, legendary lumberjack, and Captain William Jackman, sea rescuer. In
the following book, you can read some fascinating facts about the lives of these remarkable people who showed courage and bravery in the face of danger.

Legendary Heroes - Héros Légendaires
(Ottawa: Canada Post, 1992). Available at most post offices in Canada.

If you would like to read more about Laura Secord herself, look for these books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore.

Laura Secord
John Bassett (Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1974). An illustrated book for young adults.

Laura Secord
Ruth McKenzie (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1971). An illustrated biography of Laura Secord. (p015end-p016begin)

If you would like to read more about the times in which Laura Secord lived, look for these books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore.

At Home in Upper Canada
Jeanne Minhinnick (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1970). An illustrated look at the life of the early settlers.

The Capture of Detroit
Pierre Berton (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1993). The story of the first Canadian victory of the War of 1812. Several famous Canadians took part in this surprise victory, including General Isaac Brock, Shawnee war chief Tecumseh, and novelist John Richardson.

The Death of Isaac Brock
Pierre Berton (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1993). An illustrated look at the battle of Queenston Heights, in which a small force of regular soldiers, Mohawks, and settlers defeated a much larger American army. The most important battle of the war.

John Ibbotson (Toronto: Macmillan, 1991). A novel for young adults about a boy's adventures during the War of 1812.

UKT 141117: The War of 1812 is important for Myanmarpré. Before its outbreak the British forces in the guise of troops of East India Company came into contact the forces of King Bodawpaya. Realising the fighting ability of the Myanmar forces, the British made peace with the Burmese, and called back most of its senior officers to Canada. After the War of 1812 was over, the British send these officers back to India, and under one pretext or another, began the
First Anglo-Burmese War

The Invasion of Canada, 1812 - 1813
Pierre Berton (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1980). The first volume of a popular history of the War of 1812. The second and final volume is Flames Across the Border, 1813- 1814 (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1981 ).

Life in Upper Canada
Wesley B. Turner (Toronto: Grolier, 1980). An illustrated history of Upper Canada until 1841 . (p016end-p017begin)

Gregory Sass (Erin, Ontario: Porcupine's Quill, 1985). A novel about a boy who runs away from home and enlists in General Brock's regiment.

UKT 141117: Because the British soldiers were wearing red coats they came to be called the Redcoats. It was in this uniform that the British made war on the Burmese.

The War of 1812
Wesley B. Turner (Toronto: Grolier, 1982). An illustrated look at the issues and events surrounding the war. (p017end)

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03. Jerry Potts, Plainsman
-- A Legendary Canadian Hero. A Western-Canadian legend


Look at the picture carefully. This is Jerry Potts. He was born of an aboriginal mother and a Scottish father so he was a Metis, a member of a group of people in western Canada who are half aboriginal and half European. He is a legendary Canadian hero. What do you think he did to deserve that distinction?

Sometimes we want to have a general idea about a piece of writing before we read it carefully. This activity will show you one way of doing that. ( p018end-p019begin)

Take one minute (60 seconds} to read the first two sentences of each paragraph in the story. This kind of fast reading for the general idea is called skimming. Next, try to answer the following questions. Do not look back at the story to answer them.
1. When did the North West Mounted Police first meet Jerry Potts?
2. Who hired Jerry Potts to work for the North West Mounted Police?
3. Why did the North West Mounted Police come to southern Alberta?
4. What was Jerry Potts's first assignment for the North West Mounted Police?
5. What other jobs did Jerry Potts do for the North West Mounted Police?

Introduction to the Story
Think about these questions as you read the story:
1. Why were the North West Mounted Police organized?
2. How did they establish law and order in the West?
3. How did Jerry Potts feel about
 - the Americans?
 - about the First Nations (aboriginal} peoples?
 - about the Mounties?


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Jerry Potts, Plainsman°

UKT 141121: The following text was in numbered paragraphs in ink-on-paper book.

1. In September 1874, when the newly formed  North West Mounted Police° hired Metis scout Jerry Potts, they were desperate indeed. Abandoned by their own guides after a 1500-kilometre trek° from Manitoba across the hot dusty plains to Sweetgrass Hills in southwest Alberta, the 300 Mounties were starving° and near exhaustion.

2. Colonel George French, who was in command, and his assistant Colonel James Macleod, had headed° south into Montana to Fort Benton to pick up supplies and hire a guide familiar with the area. Everyone at the trading post O had said that Potts, who spoke many Indian languages, was the best guide around. When Potts shombled° in, however, the rather stern° Colonel French had his doubts. Small and bowlegged°, Potts had a wide moustache and narrow shoulders. He wore the bowler hat°, jacket and trousers of a white man, and the leggings, moccasins and knife belt of an Indian. Knowing that he could not afford to be fussy°, however, French held out his hand.

3.  "How do you do, Mr. Potts?"

said the colonel and hired him on the spot.

4. On the way back to Sweetgrass Hills, French explained to Potts that the Mounted Police had come to establish law and order in the west. Potts knew only too well about the Americans and their illegal liquor trade across the ( p019end-p020begin) Canadian frontier. Worst of all, whisky was destroying the Blackfoot Indians°, who were giving up everything or killing each other off to get it.

"It seems that the only law out here," said French,
"is the kind men carry in their holsters°."

5. Macleod's first assignment was to capture the notorious whisky trading post, Fort Whoop-Up°, in southern Alberta. Macleod took command of half the force and set out one morning with Potts as their guide. With the instincts of a homing pigeon°, Potts rode across the treeless hills well ahead of the troops. By evening, he was waiting for them at a grassy campsite with plenty of spring water and buffalo meat ready for supper.

6. For days, Potts led the weary caravan° over seemingly endless terrain, riding alone and seldom speaking a word. When they arrived at Fort Whoop-Up, Macleod and Potts rode through the gates only to find one old man inside. The whisky traders had fled the country and the Mounties were able to take over the fort without firing a single shot.

7. Potts' next task was to find a suitable site on which to build an outpost. He guided the soldiers to a 250-hectare island in the Oldman River, with plenty of trees for wood and grass to graze the horses. While the future Fort Macleod was being built, Potts visited neighbouring tribes of Blackfoot, who were suspicious of the red-coated° strangers. By explaining why they had come, he was able to persuade his Indian brothers not to attack. Later, he invited three tribal chiefs to the fort to meet Macleod. Hands were shaken, a peace pipe° was smoked and, by turns, the three chiefs spoke at length to Macleod. When they finally finished speaking, Macleod anxiously awaited Potts' translation.

8.  "What did they say?"

Macleod asked.

9. Potts shrugged his shoulders and said,

"They damn glad you're here."

Potts may not have been the best interpreter, but without him the Mountie force would not have survived that first winter. On one expedition, he guided Macleod and several others through a howling blizzard° despite the fact that he was snow bli st several kilometres. In six short months, Potts had become invaluable to the police force. He would stay loyal to them for 22 years until his death.

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* plainsman (n)
  -- a person who lives on the plains
* North West
  -- the original name of the Royal Canadian Mounted
* Mounted Police (n)
  -- Police, the federal police force of Canada; in all provinces
  except Quebec and Ontario, the RCMP also act as provincial
  police; the NWMP and the RCMP are called the "Mounties"
* trek (n)
  -- a long, hard journey, especially on foot
* starving (adj)
  -- dying or suffering from lack of food
* headed ( v)
  -- moved in a certain direction
* trading post (n)
  -- a place where people buy, sell, or exchange goods
* shambled (v)
  -- walked awkwardly, dragging the feet
* stern (adj)
  -- showing firmness towards the behaviour of others
* bowlegged (adj)
  -- having the legs curve outward at the knee
* bowler hat (n)
  -- a round hard hat, usually black
* moccasins (n)
  -- shoes made of soft leather
* fussy (adj)
  -- too much concerned about small matters and details
* Blackfoot Indians (n)
  -- the name of a First Nations group in the western part of North America
* holsters (n)
  -- leather holders for pistols (small handguns), especially ones that hang on a belt around the waist
* Fort Whoop-Up (n)
  -- a name given to a particular fort in which the people "whoop it up" or behave in a wild and crazy manner
* homing pigeon (n)
  -- a quite large short-legged bird that is able to fly to a particular destination to deliver a message
  and then flies back to its home
* caravan (n)
  -- a group of people with animals or vehicles travelling together for protection,
  especially through unfriendly areas
* red-coated (adj)
  -- wearing a red coat; the Mounties are famous for the bright red coats they wear as part of their uniforms
* peace pipe (n)
  -- a pipe filled with tobacco that First Nations peoples smoked with strangers
  as a sign of peace and friendship
* blizzard (n)
  -- a long, severe snowstorm
* snow blind (adj)
  -- unable to see because of the snow

There may be other words and expressions in the story that are not familiar to you. Write each one in your journal. Then look it up in a dictionary, ask another student, or ask the teacher for a definition. Write the definition on the line beside the word or expression. Try to use the new word or expression in a sentence. (p021end-p022begin)

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Paragraph Names
You may want to look back and skim the text while doing this activity. When you skim, you read quickly to get the general idea of the text. From the list below, choose the best title for each paragraph in the story.

UKT 141121: When text is written continuously, and you feel that it should be broken into paragraphs, use the special symbol ¶ to show where the text is to be broken. The original ink-on-paper book had used the word "paragraph" which I have replaced it with ¶.

In your journal, write the title letter next to the paragraph number. Be careful. There are only seven titles in all, so two paragraphs will not have titles. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

¶ 1    a) Loyal to the End
¶ 2    b) The Goal of the Mounted Police
¶ 3    c) Arrival at Fort Whoop-Up
¶ 4    d) Abandoned in Alberta
¶ 5    e) Building Fort Macleod
¶ 6    f)  A Guide Is Hired
¶ 7    g) Setting Out for Fort Whoop-Up
¶ 8
¶ 9



Jerry Potts
This is a summary of the life of Jerry Potts. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and complete each statement below by choosing the best response. Third, listen to the text and check your responses. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

1. Jerry Potts was born in 1840
     a) in India.
     b) in Scotland.
     c) in Montana.

2. Andrew Dawson was the man who
    a) murdered the father of Jerry Potts.
    b) adopted Jerry Potts as a baby.
    c) took good care of Jerry Potts as a boy.  (p022end-p023begin)

3. Jerry Potts's mother taught him how to
     a) speak several Indian (First Nations) languages.
     b) live in the Blood Indian culture.
     c) hunt, trap, and track game.

4. Jerry Potts was able to find a way to get to unknown places
     a) by using a map or a compass.
     b) by looking at the stars in the sky.
     c) by relying on his extraordinary talent.

5. Jerry Potts became famous as a great fighter because
     a) he scalped 16 people in one battle.
     b) he was wounded in battle only once.
     c) he possessed supernatural powers.

6. When Jerry Potts and his best friend used to drink,
     a) they would gamble and fight with each other.
     b) they would shoot at each other's moustaches.
     c) they would trade whisky with other people.

7. Jerry Potts worked with the Mounties because he wanted to
     a) bring peace back to his people.
     b) become a guide and a diplomat.
     c) shape the history of the West.



Jerry Potts had his own way of translating from one language to another. For example, he often reduced long speeches to a few short words: "He says he's damned glad to see you." Talk or write about an experience that you have had or that you have heard of which concerns the translation of something into another language. Be specific and provide concrete details about the incident so that your listeners or readers know exactly what happened. (p023end-p024begin)

People in Western Canada
Like Jerry Potts, the people mentioned below were also involved in the history of western Canada. Choose one name and find out some information about this person and the times in which he lived. Then talk or write about your information with other students.

Chief Crowfoot
Cuthbert Grant
Gabriel Dumont
George Arthur French
James Farquharson Macleod
Louis Riel

Places in Western Canada
The places mentioned below were also important in the history of western Canada. Choose one of them and find out some information about this place and the people who were associated with it. Then talk or write about your information with other students.
 • Fort Mackenzie
 • Fort Macleod
 • Fort Benton
 • Fort Saskatchewan
 • Fort Calgary
 • Fort Walsh

Events in Western Canada
The activities and events mentioned below were significant in the history of western Canada. Choose one of them and find out some information about the activities and events. Then talk or write about your infomlation with other students.
 • Bison hunt
 • Fur trade
 • North-West Rebellion
 • Battle of Grand Coteau
 • Red River Rebellion
 • Metis Betterment Act (p024end-p025begin)

Plains First Nations
The aboriginal peoples are the original inhabitants of Canada. They are thus called the First Nations, and they lived in every region of Canada. Each group adapted to the land or sea in its own way. Each was affected by its neighbours and was constantly changing.

Despite the diversity of the First Nations. they are still referred to in three broad categories: the Inuit (aka Eskimo), the Indians (aka Red Indian), and the Metis (aka Half-Breed). (UKT ¶)

UKT 141120: Do not use the names I have given in (...). These are insulting terms the people of Myanmarpré were taught by the colonial British.

The Inuit are First Nations people who live in the Arctic. The Indians are First Nations people who are members of Indian bands. The Metis are people of mixed aboriginal and European ancestry. For example, Jerry Potts was part Plains Indian and part Scottish.

Choose one of these groups of Plains First Nations:
1. Assiniboine, 2. Blackfoot, 3. Gros Ventre,
4. Plains Cree, 5. Plains Metis, 6. Sarcee, or
7. Saulteaux.

Find out some information about the group, such as its history, territory, language, food, shelter, clothing, transportation, social and political organization, religion, art and leisure, or contemporary life.

Talk or write about the First Nations people that you have researched. In your opinion, what is the most interesting aspect of their culture ?

Write a letter to either the local branch of the RCMP or to the RCMP in Ottawa. Ontario. Ask the organization for information about the origins of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the history of Jerry Potts, and the "Force" in the Yukon. When you receive the information, read it carefully. Did you learn any other facts about the RCMP or Jerry Potts? What are they?



If you would like to read more about Jerry Potts, look for these books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore.

Jerry Potts
D. Bruce Sealey (Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1980). A short, illustrated biography. (p025end-p026begin)

Jerry Potts, Plainsman
Hugh A. Dempsey (Calgary: Glenbow-Alberta Institute, 1984). An illustrated biography.

If you would like to read more about the Metis people or the Mounties, look for these books in the class, school, or local library, or in a bookstore.

Hold High Your Heads
A. H. De Tremaudan (Winnipeg: Pemmican, 1982). A comprehensive history of the Metis people written from the Metis perspective. First published in French in 1935. Translated by Elizabeth Maguet.

D. Bruce Sealey (Winnipeg: Pemmican, 1975). A history of the Metis people with special emphasis on the current hardships that they face. Illustrated by Real Berard.

Riel's People
Maria Campbell (Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre, 1983), An illustrated history of the Metis.

Soldier Boys
David Richards (Winnipeg: Thistledown, 1993). An adventure story about two Metis teenagers who become involved in the Riel Rebellion.

Best Mounted Police Stories
Dick Harrison, editor (Edmonton: University of Alberta, 1983). A collection of short stories about the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (p026end)

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Demographic History
of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas

-- UKT 141117

The word American is easily misunderstood. It specifically means a citizen of the U.S. aka United States, aka United States of America. It does NOT stand for the peoples of two large landmasses, the North America and the South America. Here, the word North and South are not adjectives. They are part of the compound noun which stands for the names of the huge landmasses. The United States of America is JUST the smaller of the two countries of North America. I was surprised that MOST inhabitants of the do not know that they are living in a smaller country. MANY do not know that our postal code is made up of letters as well as numbers, e.g. K0J 1P0CANADA is the larger country -- in fact, the second largest country in the whole world.

People in Myanmarpré knew next to nothing of the natives of the Americas. Most of us thought they were all savages {lu-reing} who had to be "tamed" by their European masters: the British, the French, the Spanish and the Portuguese.

The-then Pope of the Roman Catholic Church was generous to "distribute" parts of the two large continents and the central region to the Catholic religionists: North America to the French, Central America to the Spaniards, and South America to the Portuguese and Spaniards. The British (English) were left out because the Christian religion of Britain - known as Church of England (now known as Anglican) had broken away from the Church of Rome. They were rebels. The English had no choice but to encroach on the French territories. The above is a gist of what many and I have come to understand during the days when Myanmarpré was under the British colonizers.

Now a personal note: My mother, with Chinese ancestry, was admitted to the best (and most expensive) school exclusively ran for the children of Europeans (colonial administrators and merchants) and rich Chinese and Indians, the Diocesan Girls School. It was ran by the Church of England. The school was part of the St. Mary's Cathedral (near Rangoon General Hospital) under the direct supervision of the Bishop of British-Burma, and the British Governor-General. All the teachers were from Britain.

With maiden name Mary Lwè, she almost became a Christian. No Burmese were allowed. When her father's business empire suddenly collapsed due to his death of plague in Pegu, and her mother's death, within a period of 40 days, of cholera in Rangoon. My mother was about age 10. Her mother's younger sister became her legal guardian. Both my grandparents were in their early 40s when they died, and there had been no plans for someone to take charge of the business in such a situation, and it simply collapsed.

Though my mother went with all the family's fortune and jewelry into her aunt's care, her aunt changed her school to a less expensive one, St. Mary's School. This second school was also ran by Church of England, but it admitted children of Anglo's (Burmese, Chinese, Indians) and Burmese.

Excerpts from Wikipedia:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographic_history_of_the_indigenous_peoples_of_the_Americas

The population figure for Indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus has proven difficult to establish. Scholars rely on archaeological data and written records from settlers from the Old World. Most scholars writing at the end of the 19th century estimated the pre-Columbian population at about 10 million; by the end of the 20th century the scholarly consensus had shifted to about 50 million, with some arguing for 100 million or more.[1] Contact with the New World led to the European colonization of the Americas, in which millions of immigrants from the Old World eventually settled in the New World.

The population of African and Eurasian peoples in the Americas grew steadily, while the number of the indigenous people plummeted. Eurasian diseases such as smallpox, influenza, bubonic plague and pneumonic plagues devastated the Native Americans who did not have immunity. Conflict and outright warfare with Western European newcomers and other American tribes further reduced populations and disrupted traditional society. The extent and causes of the decline have long been a subject of academic debate, along with its characterization as a genocide.[2]


Pre-Columbian Americas

Main article: Indigenous Amerindian genetics

Genetic diversity and population structure in the American landmass using DNA micro-satellite markers (genotype) sampled from North, Central, and South America have been analyzed against similar data available from other indigenous populations worldwide.[16][17] The Amerindian populations show a lower genetic diversity than populations from other continental regions.[17] [UKT ¶]

Observed is both a decreasing genetic diversity as geographic distance from the Bering Strait occurs and a decreasing genetic similarity to Siberian populations from Alaska (genetic entry point).[16][17] Also observed is evidence of a higher level of diversity and lower level of population structure in western South America compared to eastern South America.[16][17] A relative lack of differentiation between Mesoamerican and Andean populations is a scenario that implies coastal routes were easier than inland routes for migrating peoples (Paleo-Indians) to traverse.[16] The overall pattern that is emerging suggests that the Americas were recently colonized by a small number of individuals (effective size of about 70), and then they grew by a factor of 10 over 800 – 1000 years.[18][19] The data also show that there have been genetic exchanges between Asia, the Arctic and Greenland since the initial peopling of the Americas.[19][20]


Deliberate infection

One of the most contentious issues relating to disease depopulation in the Americas concerns the degree to which Europeans deliberately infected indigenous peoples with diseases such as smallpox.

Letters exist between two British officers, General Jeffrey Amherst (later Lord Amherst) and Colonel Henry Bouquet, that explicitly advocate the idea of using smallpox-infested blankets to kill Indians at the Siege of Fort Pitt.[29] [UKT ¶]

UKT 141117: Because of his service to the British Crown, General Amherst was made an Earl and his grandnephew, the Governor of India. It was this Governor of India who initiated the
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826). The town of {kyeik-hka.mi} was name Amherst to honour the Governor and our native flower Thawka {þau-ka.}-flower named after his wife. Because this tree is grown in pagoda and monastery precincts, the British colonizers thought it was a sacred plant. What they did not know was if the word is not properly pronounced, it becomes {þau:ka.} "- n. anxiety, grief" -- MLC MED2006-501

Probably because of this mishap, the Governor was immediately recalled because his Burmese campaign was a financial loss, and the name "Amherst" is now held in shame - the General who used the highly infectious "small pox" as a biological weapon committing genocide.
See: ¤ MMPD Bur-Myan Akshara index -- MMPD-indx.htm (link chk 141119
entry: 59-1566- {þau-ka.kri:}, Queen of the flowering plant, Amherstia nobilis , fam. Caesalpiniaceae

Bouquet suggests the distribution of blankets to "inocculate the Indians. " Amherst approves this plan and suggests "to try Every other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race." Also cited by this source is an entry in the Journal of William Trent, who was the local militia commander: "we gave them two Blankets and an Handkerchief out of the Small Pox Hospital. I hope it will have the desired effect."

While no existing evidence supports that this attempt was successful, a preponderance of documented evidence suggests that the smallpox among the natives preceded the exchange, was contracted from a different source, and the attempt to "inoculate" the recipients, Turtle's Heart and Mamaltee,[30] was unsuccessful.

Cook asserts that there is no evidence that the Spanish attempted to infect the American natives.[31] The cattle introduced by the Spanish polluted the water reserves which Native Americans dug in the fields to accumulate rain water. In response, the Franciscans and Dominicans created public fountains and aqueducts to guarantee access to drinking water.[5] But when the Franciscans lost their privileges in 1572, many of these fountains were not guarded any more and deliberate well poisoning may have happened.[5] Although no proof of such poisoning has been found, some historians believe the decrease of the population correlates with the end of religious orders' control of the water.[5]

Go back Demographic-note-b

Contents of this page

The First Anglo-Burmese War.

- UKT 141117: The following is an excerpt from an account of the War by U Hla OO.

http://hlaoo1980.blogspot.ca/2012/03/first-anglo-burmese-war-1824-1826-part_29.html 141117

First Encounter with the Burmese Troops (28 May 1824)

On the morning of 28th of May, the enemy [Burmese], having stockaded an advance corps within little more than musket-shot distance from our piquets, Sir Archibald Campbell, with four companies of Europeans from His majesty thirteenth and thirty-eighth regiments, two field-pieces, and four hundred native [Indians from India: Hindus and Muslims] infantry [Indians], moved out to reconnoitre; it having been reported, that the stockade immediately in our front was supported by the governor of Shudaung (Shwe-daung), with a considerable force, stationed for the purpose of carrying on a desultory warfare with pour posts, and preventing the inhabitants  of Rangoon [supposedly Mon-Myan], who were said to be kept in the jungle in his rear, from returning to their homes.

UKT 141117: The British were pretending that they had come to liberate the Mon-Myan from the power of the Burmese king: the "inhabitants of Rangoon" were supposed to be these people.

What they did not know was that both the Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan were staunch Theravada Buddhists, who immediately closed rank to save the Buddhist religion from the "heathens" - the White Indians (the British). The British also made the mistake of turning Shwédagon Pagoda into a fort, digging under the stupa to look for the pagoda's treasures, and treading on the sacred platform fully shod.

A few minutes’ march brought our advance-guard in contact with the first stockade, erected upon the pathway by which the troops advanced, with its shoulders thrown back into the jungle on either flank.

Go back Angl-Bur-War-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file