Update: 2021-07-19 12:21 AM -0400


Binpathak and Romabama


by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.C., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

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See also Language and Religion, entanglement of BEPS with various religions - traditional as well as esoteric:
- lang-relig-indx.htm (update 2015Dec : link chk 180813)

Preface and Introduction - Pre-intro.htm - update 2021July 
Dominance of Script over Speech in communication - ScriptSpeech.htm - update 2021July
Translation from one script into another - Translation.htm - update 2018Nov
Collection of old material material - Old-precious.htm - update 2021July

Note: This index will lead you to many subjects which I've touched, but mostly unfinished because in the course of writing I have to divert to explain and add new materials. The only way is to group all the old materials into one file and dip into them from time to time to see what I've covered and forgotten>

Bnpathak {ba.n~pa-ak} / {bn~pa-ak} / {bn-pa.ak} is the acronym in Burmese equivalent to the acronym BEPS in English. I've no option but to use the Burmese acronym after finding that the group of 4 letters B-E-P-S has been used on the Internet to mean many things. The Burmese acronym may be further shortened to {bn~pa.ak}. The acronyms stand for - B {ba.} = Burmese speech {ba.ma sa.ka:}; - E {n} = English speech {n~ga.lait sa.ka:}; - P {pa} = Pali speech {pa-li. sa.ka:}; - S {ak} = Sanskrit speech = {n-skRRi.ta. sa.ka:} {n-skRRi.ta.} aka {ak~ka.ta. sa.ka:}

According to my MLC friend U (Dr.) Tun Tint, there are those who do not agree with the MLC's transcription of {ak~ka.ta.} for Sanskrit. Though, I am not one of those, my aks-to-aks transcription which include the highly-rhotic Sanskrit vowel has given me {n-SkRRi.ta.} संस्कृत = स ं स ् क ृ त

I've used the Myanmar akshara {ba.} in   {bn~pa-ak} to show the relationship, according to a legend, to the group of four Brahmas {brah~ma} [the sky-dwelling beings without sex differentiation] who landed from Space soon after the Earth was formed. See the legend inside. Note that the legend of Brahmas has nothing to do with what is given as history in Burmese chronicles but which is taken as legend of: Legendary four races of ancient Burma: Pyu {pyu}, Kanyan, Thak (also spelled as Thet), Myanmar.

Binpathak (BEPS) has to deal with three language groups {sa.ka:oap-su.}: Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur) / {ti.bak-ba.ma} [ Bur-Myan has no adjectival forms: {to} is unnecessary] , Indo-European (IE) {n-do U.rau:pa.} or Indraupa {n-dRau:pa.}, and Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) {au-aa-si} (formerly as {mwun-hka.ma}) with 3 different phonologies. Because of different phonologies, BEPS and its inter-transcription language, {ro:ma.ba.ma}, cannot hope for a unified spoken language, but only as a tool for understanding among different speakers. There are 16 basic vowels in BEPS to handle all the four speeches, and more than 35 basic consonants. For BEPS-Myan, I need to invent at least 9 basic consonants derived from {Sa.} ष/ {S} ष् .

Invention of new glyphs to represent unknown sounds

- UKT 190410: The invention of new glyphs or letters is not new when one has to cope with various aksharas. The British had been faced with this problem in India in the 19th century:
"It is sufficiently obvious, that if an alphabet of twenty-four letters is to express one of fifty or more, some contrivance must be had recourse to, to extend the elasticity of the former. If the sounds are wholly and radically strange, new symbols must be invented ..."
wrote H. H. Wilson, East-India Company, in his , in Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms, for British India in 1885, Preface, p.roman-008. See downloaded text in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- HHWilson-JudicialRevenueTerms<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190410)
H. H. Wilson writing in 1855, after Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852-1853) has only a few lines on Bur-Myan language in Preface, p.roman024.

I agree with the view of Mr. Wilson, but must add there must be a guidance in shaping new symbols. Any haphazard way putting a dot here, a vertical, a horizontal, or a diagonal line over there, will not do. Remember Myanmar akshara uses the circle as its basic shape, with openings, and dents on the left-over-right-under the circle. One circle can rollover, but two could not. To add stability a second circle is added to the first. The first double circle you should concentrate is Bur-Myan r4c2 {hta.}. It's immediate relation is presumably the Asokan r3c4, the single circle, signifying perfection. I've arrived at this assumption after the study of Esoteric Buddhist Sa-Da-Ba-Wa magic square
{sa.Da.ba.wa. n:}. What I've come to realize is that there is a system of showing the relation between sound {a.n} (what you hear) and shape {a.r:} (of the symbol or glyph).

The Bur-Myan r4c2 {hta.} can be modified in a number of ways by opening up the circles:
{ta.}, {ka.}, {a.}, {ya.},  {ha.}, {la.}.

In a couple of South Indian languages, I've found a basic shape being modified systematically: I wonder if there is a relation between shapes and pronunciation.
Telugu : {AU} o, {gna.}, {za.}, {ba.}, {Ba.}
Kannada: {AU} o, {gna.}, {za.},  {ba.},    {Ba.}

I've started writing an essay on this in MC-indx.htm (link chk 201025)
captioned "Sounds and Shapes" in my notes.
[UKT 200706: this essay is now lost.]

The following are BEPS consonants and BEPS vowels:
Note that except for Eng-Lat (which is an alphabet), the other three are abugidas containing an inherent vowel {mw-hkn a.ra.} which is likened to an English short a // , usually written as {a.} अ. Therefore these consonants - "live-consonants" - may be legitimately called vowels {a.ra.}. To convert a live-consonant - an abugidic consonant - into a mute Letter of an alphabet, you need a Virama "vowel-killer" {at} with the signs (Bur-Myan) and ् (Skt-Dev). Because Bur-Mya sign looks like a "flag" it is called {tn-hkwun}


UKT 210702: In order to transliterate English, I've to have devise new aksharas like {Ska.} (cf. English <skin>), {Sta.} (cf. English <stand>), and {Spa.} (cf. English <spin>}, and even {SkRRi.} & {StRRi.} for Skt-Dev. Because of them I have to recognize dental {S} as a special diacritic giving somewhat stable conjuncts. To make things simpler, the upper-case S is now written as lower-case s .

Few make distinction between interpretation, translation, transcription, and transliteration. I was one of those until I take up this study. When the delegates make speeches in the United Nations assemblies (with 6 official languages), each speaker speaks in his native official tongue (or speech). Interpreters then interpret each speech to the speech of the listening delegate. But interpretation is not official - it has to be followed by official translation. For the listening delegate from Canada which has two official languages the official translation must be in English and in French.
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Interpretation_Service 201029

UKT 181106: I've wonder whether it would be appropriate to translate and compare the first four Laws of Buddhism, Anatta Principle, Twenty-four basics "thoughts" of Theravada Buddhism and classify the group as Analytic Buddhism .
See Analytical Buddhism : The Two-Tiered Illusion of Self -  by Miri. Albahari, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006
- MAlbahari-Analytical Buddhism<> / Bkp<> (link chk 210702)
"For over two millennia, Eastern traditions such as Buddhism and Vedanta have claimed extraordinary capacities for the human mind. They have held that it is possible, through rigorous practices involving meditation, to attain nibbāna (Sanskrit, nirvāna), an exalted and irreversible mode of conscious existence. Some commonly reported characteristics of nibbāna include an end to all mental suffering. The capacity to feel negative emotion is completely burnt out. There is immense happiness, peace, equanimity and mental agility."

See also Rise of Analytic Philosophy, by G. Frost-Arnold, 2017 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- GFrostArnold-RiseOfAnalytPhilo<> / Bkp<> (link chk 210702)

UKT 181108, 210702: After going through the above two works, I ponder on the question "What is Buddhism". No one has asked me this question, but I am asking myself. Can there be Buddhism, before the time Gautama Buddha? It is said that that had been innumerable Buddhas before "as many as grains of sand on the banks of Ganges River". If so, they must have appeared in times and places with different peoples speaking and writing innumerable speeches and scripts. And they would all be living in different environments such as terrain and climate. They may not even be Homo sapiens as we are. Yet, they must all be beings capable of suffering mental and physical pain. Then what are the common trait or traits of all the Buddhas who themselves may not be Homo sapiens? I therefore arrive at the conclusion that a Buddha is one who understands the cause of suffering - at least the mental suffering. If so, by removing the cause of suffering, one would arrive at a stage when mental suffering would cease.

UKT 210702: The following are to be reviewed later.

Continuation from Translation from one Alphabet-Letter Script into another - LiteraryTranslation.htm - update 2018Nov
  See also Literary translation and its indefinable nature, by J. Thangamariappan, 2016, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
--- JThangamariappan-LiteraryTranslation<> / Bkp<> (link chk 181112)
--"The act of translating a text from one language into another language is an age old activity.
  So far, many linguists, translators, and translation theorists have tried to form a define that act,
  but, there is no authentic description has been drawn so far." 

Abugida-Akshara System of Transcription - AbugidaAkshara.htm - update 2018Sep

Rhotic accent of the Indo-Europeans - Rhoticity.htm

Devanagari hand-strokes - Dev-hand.htm

Travels of Ta თ /t/ from Burma to Georgia - Paradigms.htm - update 2018Sep

BEPS vowels - Vowel.htm - update 2018Sep 

Sonority of BEPS aksharas - SonoBEPS.htm - update 2018Sep
---- See also: - RBM-intro-indx.htm (link chk 180916)

Vowel lengths : Hrasva, Dīrgha and Pluta - measured in time to blink your eye

Shudras and Kiratas - the Bronze Age peoples

BEPS approximants - Approx.htm - update 2019Feb 
UKT 180915: It is unwise to complete this section until I've gone through
Section 07: Sanskrit dictionaries and grammars

BEPS nasals - Nasal.htm - update 2018Sep 
  Nasals-consonants as onset
  Nasal-consonants as coda 
  Nasal Endings and respective bookmarks

BEPS consonants - Conson.htm - update 2018Sep
  Differentiate the Abugida-Akshara system from Alphabet-Letter system
   Esoteric nature of consonants : the search for Ka'minor {ka.gn}, companion of Ka'major {ka.kri:}
   BEPS new glyphs : English <ska> =  ष्क (ष ् क) ;  <sha> ; <va> , etc.


Contents of this page

UKT notes :
Doggie's Tale : copy and paste

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:  
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher and hisser, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā ă ấ  Ē ē ĕ ế  Ī ī ĭ  Ō ō ŏ  Ū ū ŭ ː
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ ɴ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Book marks: * star, dagger (alt0134), double dagger (alt0135).
Bur-Myan: for {gna.}-onset use c ċ (U010B) - unfortunately ċ is non-ASCII
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Repha spelling: exemplified by
  dharma: ध र ् म --> धर्म 
  spota: ष ् प र ् श ा ः --> ष्पर
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: भ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ
  च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev Row #3: ट ठ ड ढ ण ; conjunct ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
IAST Dev: Repha & Viram-position, e.g. तर्ज tarj [ targ ] = त र ् ज
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa क ् ष = क्ष
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Using ZWNJ (ZeroWidthNonJoiner), e.g. , क्‌ष (code: क्&zwnj;ष)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-width_non-joiner 150630
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ɲ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::tn}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols:
 ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /ʰ/ /ʳ/ /ː/
  <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) 
  <kick> /kɪc/ (DJPD16-299 gives /kik/) and <kiss> /kɪs/ (DJPD16-301)
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ
Subscripts: ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ : CO₂
Special brackets: 〈...〉 U+2329. U+122A

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