Update: 2020-05-29 11:45 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

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The following are entries of {a.} with Awag-consonants {a.wag by:} which do not have well defined POA (Place of Articulation). They are sometimes called Semi-consonants, or Semivowels. A typical example is {wa.}/ {w} /w/ present in Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat, but not in Skt-Dev. The grapheme Bilabial {wa.} but is pronounced in Skt-Dev as Labial-dental /v/ .

Note: Bilabial -
   {nhoat-hkm: nhic-hku.lon: pa-wn} "involves both lips"
Labial-dental -
   {auk-nhoat-hkm: nhn. a.htak-a.sh.wa: pa-wn} "involves lower-lip and upper-front teeth".

Awag-consonants {a.wag by:} are subdivided into 3 groups. The following shows both the onsets and codas:
semi-consonants {by:wak}: {ya.}/ {}, {a.}/ {} , {ra.}/ {r}, {la.}/ {l}, {wa.}/ {w}
fricatives: {sha.}/ {sh}, {Sa.}/ {S}, {a.}/ {}
deep-H, etc.: {ha.}/ {h} :
The term deep-H is not applicable to Mon-Myan. Just listen to row#1 {ka.} consonants:
   - bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) 
: they sound like /ka./, /hka./, /k/ or /g/, /hk/, /ng/,
not the regular the regular Bur-Myan /ka./, /hka./, /ga./, /Ga./, /nga./ .
How I wish my great-great grand-mother Daw M Ma. (pure Mon speaker of Peguan dialect) were alive to help me with pronunciation. The Peguan dialect is now extinct. What you are hearing is the Martaban dialect which pronounces r1c3 as /g/ instead of /k/. In both Mon dialects, there is no "deep-H".

{ a.ka.ya.} vs. {a.k}
{a.ka.ra.} अकर
  {a.kar} : {a.kaRR~} - Rpha form

  {a.ka.la.} : cf. {a.k}
  {a.kal} : {a.kal~} - Lpha form

  {a.kaS~} - mispronunciation of {a.} as dental-fricative {Sa.}/ {S} produces this form
    Remember, both {Sa.} and {sa.}, has the same pronunciation as onsets. They differ only as codas.

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UKT notes
Rhoticity Scale for BEPS
Super-consonants : discovery of Lisping Consonants


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 {a.ka.ya.} vs. {a.k}

UKT 200421: {a.k} is a typical Bur-Myan word, and it does not mean "negation of something". We know how it is pronounced. The coda {} is a well known glyph which follows basic consonants in many Bur-Myan words, e.g. {hk-ma.} 'younger sister-in-law', {u-gn} 'male child', {t-li-hpoan:} 'telephone'.
The effect of other codas, {r}, {l}, {w}, {}, and {h},  on the preceding basic consonants are not well-known or ill-defined.

{a.ka.ra.} अकर

p001c1-b39/ p007-अकरण

अकरण [ . a-karana ]
Skt: अकरण [a-karana] - . - n. omission to do. -- Mac0001c1
Skt: अकरण akaraṇa - n. absence of action -- SpkSkt
BPal:   {a.ka.ra.Na.} - UHS-PMD0002
   UKT from UHS: mfn. what should not have been done. n. non-action, non physical action


p001c1-b40/ p007-अकरण

अकरण [ . a-karana ]
- a. unartificial, natural.


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p001c2/ p007- अकरुण


अकरुण [ a-karuna ]
- a. pitiless; -tva, n. -ness.

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{a.kar} : {a.kaRR~} - Rpha form 

BHS: Akardama  - N. of a Buddhakṣetra - FE-BHS001c2b07


p001c2-b01/ p007-अकर्ण

अकर्ण [ -karna ] --> {a.kar~Na.}
Skt: अकर्ण [ -karna ]- a. deaf; without Karna -- Mac001c2
BPal antonym: {kN~Na.} -- UHS-PMD0282
  UKT from UHS: m. ear, ear-lobe, edge, corner

UKT 141222, 200418: "Karna" was a hero in Kurukshetra War {ku.ru.hkt~ta.ra sic~pw:}. To represent his name in BEPS, which is spelled with a Repha, I've to define a Rhoticity Scale for BEPS.


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p001c2-b02/ p007-अकर्णधार  

अकर्णधार [ a-karnadhra ]
- a. pilotless.

UKT 130605: Why is कर्ण = क र ् ण = {kar~Na.} 'ear' translated as 'pilot'? Its equivalent in Pal-Myan is {kN~Na.}. It is often alleged in Bur-Myan culture that what you see (with eyes) can misled you: you need to hear good counsel (with ears) to correct your path.


p001c2-b03/ p007-अकर्तव्य

अकर्तव्य [ a-kartavya ]
- fp. not to be done; n. misdeed.


p001c2-b04 not online

अकर्तृ akartṛi = अ क र ् त ृ  = {a.ka.tRRi.}
Skt: अकर्तृ [a-kartri] - m. non-agent -- Mac001c1
Skt: अकर्तृ akartṛ - m. not an agent, not active, name applied to the puruSa -- SpkSkt


p001c2-b05/ p007-अकर्मक

अकर्मक [ a-karma-ka ]
- a. objectless, intransitive.


p001c2-b06/ p007-अकर्मकृत्् 

अकर्मकृत्् [ a-karma-krit ]
- a. inactive.


p001c2-b07/ p007-अकर्मण्य

अकर्मण्य [ a-karmanya ]
- a. ineffectual, useless.


p001c2-b08/ p007-अकर्मन्् 

अकर्मन्् [ a-karman ]
- n. inaction; a. (-mn) doing nothing, idling; wicked.


p001c2-b09/ p007-अकर्मप्राप्ति 

अकर्मप्राप्ति [ a-karma-prpti ]
- f. non-intervention of fate.


p001c2-b10/ p007-अकर्मशील

अकर्मशील [ a-karma-sla ]
- a. inactive, idle.


p001c2-b11/ p007-अकर्मश्रान्त

अकर्मश्रान्त [ a-karma-srnta ]
- pp. untiring in ritual.

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{a.ka.la.} / {a.kl}  {a.kl~} - Lpha form

UKT 160319, 180705, 200421: From {a.kar}, I have arrived at the Repha form  {a.kaRR~}. A similar situation is what I will term the Lpha form, {a.kl~}, derived from {a.kl}.  Note that /a/ is more open than //.
I'd thought on 160319, that the ordinary conjunct {a.kl~} would be more suitable. However I later came to know that the highly lateral vowel is present in Vdic, but rare in Classical Sanskrit.
See video lessons by Dr. Pankaja Rajagopal , Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature
- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL-ZRhg4pEMrNHVgVUKqpqKJ2FWBbusosK 170520

On Skt vowels, see in SktDevGramm01 section in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries: 
- SktVow<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180821)

See my note on Laterals-Rhotics-BEPS-note-b

See my note on Super-consonants

p001c2-b12/ p007-अकलङ्क

अकलङ्क [ a-kalaṅka ]
Skt: a. spotless. -- Mac001c2
BPali antonym: {ka.ln~ka.} - UHS-PMD030
  UKT from UHS: m. identification spot, stain, mistake (in recitation or writing)


p001c2-b13/ p007-अकलि

अकलि [ a-kali ]
Skt: अकलि [a-kali]  -- a. not quarrelling, concordant. -- Mac001c2
BPal antonym: {ka.li.} - UHS-PMD0300
  UKT from UHS: m. mistake, wrong attitude towards another person, wrong deed, filth, loss, sputum, an wrong doer

UKT 180628: I am avoiding the word "sin" to avoid any connotation to the Christian idea of Original Sin. I maintain that a language must be religion-neutral. However, those who are interested in the idea of "Original Sin" should read: Wikepedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Original_sin 150118
" ... is the Christian doctrine of humanity's state of sin resulting from the fall of man, stemming from Adam's rebellion [against the Creator or God - by not obeying him] in [the Garden of] Eden. "


p001c2-b14/ p007-अकलित

अकलित [ a-kalita ]
- pp. unknown; undefinable.


p001c2-b15/ p007-अकलिप्रसर

अकलिप्रसर [ akali-prasara ]
- a. where no quarrelling occurs.


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{a.kl} : {a.kal~} - Lpha form

{a.kl~la.} 'disease' - UHS PMD0003,
{kl~la.} 'health' - UHS PMD0302

p001c2-b16/ p007-अकल्ककलिल 

अकल्ककलिल [ a-kalka-kalila ]
- a. free from baseness.


p001c2-b17/ p007-अकल्कता

अकल्कता [ a-kalka-t ]
- f. honesty.


BHS: akalpika
- adj. (Pali akappiya ) improper ; -dāna , gift of something that is improper - FE-BHSc2b08



BHS: a-kalpya - adj. improper - FE-BHSc2b09



BHS- adj. (Pal akamāsa) pure (lit. not variegated) - FE-BHSc2b10


p001c2-b18/ p007-अकल्य

अकल्य [ 1. a-kalya ] = अ क ल ् य =
Skt: अकल्य [a-kalya] -  . a. not healthy, ill. -- Mac001c2
*BPal: {a.kl~la.ka.} - UHS-PMD003
  UKT from UHS: mfn. hurt, not healthy


BPal antonym: {kl~la.} - UHS-PMD0302
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. suitable, appropriate, physically healthy, articulate (diplomatic). m. absence of physical illness.
  n. time of dawning [implying a fresh start]
  . mn. ash [implying wood ash or the wood at the end stage of change and no more change or illness]


p001c2-b19/ p007-अकल्य

अकल्य [ 2. a-kalya ]
- fp. not to be guessed.


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p001c2-b20/ p007-अकव 

अकव [ -kava ]
- a. not niggardly, liberal.



अकवि [ -kavi ]
- a. not wise, foolish.

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  {a.kaS~} - mispronunciation of {a.} as {Sa.} produces the Repha form

p001c2-b22/ p007-अकस्मात््

अकस्मात्् [ a-kasmt ] = अ क स ् म ा त ्
- (ab.) ad. without apparent cause; suddenly; accidentally.


p001c2-b23/ p007-अकस्मादागन्तु

अकस्मादागन्तु [ akasmd-gantu ]
- m. chance-comer.

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UKT notes

Rhoticity Scale for BEPS

UKT 141222, 200418:

"Karna" कर्ण [name spelled with a Repha] was a hero who had stood on the side of Justice in the story of Mahabharata. He sided with the Kauravas, who were supposed to be "unjust", against the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra War {ku.ru.hkt~ta.ra sic~pw:}. He was "unjustly" killed in battle by Arjuna the third Pandava brother - breaking the agreed rules of battle.

To find a clue to how to represent Repha in Romabama, I search for equivalent or near-equivalent words in Pal-Myan. UHS-PMD gives:

BPal: {a.kN~Na. nt~ta.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: mfn. extreme cruelty unfit to be heard or seen, harsh and cruel
Skt: a-karṇya - mfn. not fit for the ears Pāṇ. Sch -- MonWilliWash001c1

We are only used to Pal-Myan rhotic-Ra'ric {kRa.}: regular Bur-Myan Ra'ric {kra.} is non-rhotic-Ra'ric and it sounds like / {kya.}/. Repha is a diacritic to denote rhoticity, but it is different from rhotic-Ra'ric. Then, there is another very rhotic sound in Sanskrit, but it is closed. Because of such kinds of rhoticity, I've to define a Rhoticity Scale for BEPS

Go back Rhoticity-Scale-note-b

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UKT 130606, 180705, 200421:

I don't expect any pronouncing problem in non-rhotic Bur-Myan on {a.ka.la.} & {a.kl}. However it is probably not so in Skt-Dev - a rhotic language. It seems that {a.kl} is more related to {a.kar} and its Repha form {a.kaRR~} than to non-rhotic {a.k}. This calls for introduction of a new term Lepha form, {a.kal~}. In Repha form, {ra.} has been raised to what may be called Super-R {a.kaRR~}. In Lepha form, {a.kal~}, {la.} is the Super-L.

Super-L is a highly lateral vowel is present in Vdic, but rare in Classical Sanskrit. See video lessons by Dr. Pankaja Rajagopal , Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature:
- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL-ZRhg4pEMrNHVgVUKqpqKJ2FWBbusosK 170520
On Skt vowels, listen to Sanskrit Vowels in BkCandle-VIDEO:
- SktVow<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200421)

My introduction of Super-consonants, led me to the discovery of what I'm calling Lisping consonants, in which the super-consonant is the Dental Super-S {Sa.}/ {S}, e.g. {S~ka.}/{ska.}. Remember, the Super-S is dental-hisser and not palatal-stop.

Go back Super-consonants-note-b

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End of TIL file