Update: 2020-05-29 11:25 PM -0400

Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A compilation from:
1. A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell (Mac), 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
  link: uchicago
Skt-Doc Glossary online:
- https://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.html 190701
  Downloaded (unedited) in TIL non-PDF & non-SD libraries,
  Web-Archive section.

2. The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200501) 

3. Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin), (UPMT-PED) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)

4. Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD), by U Hoke Sein, 1954, with English translation by U Kyaw Tun (UKT)
This dictionary in ink-on-paper form is in TIL research library at 35 Thantada St., Sanchaung, Yangon, Myanmar.

UKT 200503:
The individual entries from all the above are being cut, and stored under a directory named CUTS, which will not be uploaded to the Internet. Because of this Internet version of this dictionary will have empty spaces.

The TOC of this dictionary follows the Sonority Scale, from Consonants to Vowels

I've a sneaky suspicion that BHS, Nepali, and Burmese speeches are closely associated. I'll enter words from all the three into my dictionary to either reject or confirm my suspicion. I'll first concentrate on Nepali with words in Devanagari from:
A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner (ref: Turn-Nepxxx ) - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
Files from Univ. Chicago in TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
- Turn-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200328) 
I hope to include Latin into my compilation. But I may not live that long: I'm already a very old man, aged 86. However, I'm pinning my hope on the work of my assistants.

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

   Velar, Palatal, Retroflex, Dental, Labial
   Semi-consonants aka Semivowels,
   Fricatives (Sibilants & Thibilant)
   Lisping-consonants, H-deep, Aspirate, or

Contents of this page

UKT notes :
Argument for argument sake
Base consonants and vowels of BEPS
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
What this dictionary is about 
UKT 200426: This TOC is a collection from older TOCs of various groups of:
Consonants, Approximants, and Vowels each with their own notes. The notes
given here are a part from old notes. The remainder has been moved into a
separate file -


---- notes from the old file

Hanging-on consonants
Inherent vowel
Older form of Devanagari
Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za
Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit
Salient Points of consolidated TOC
Sanskrit and Pali roots: downloaded
The Velars - row #1 of the Akshara matrix

Contents of this page


p000.htm : Introduction by UKT
contains old notes from various old TOCs. This page is with Vowels at present: to be moved to Consonants later.
Link to CUTS not available online:
Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists (BHS) by F. Edgerton - Edger-indx.htm  BHS-vol02-indx.htm
Pali-Myanmar Dictionary for Buddhists by U Hoke Sein - UHS-indx.htm
   UKT 200505: Since I'm inadequate in Pali to English translation, the above is to be checked with UPMT
Student's Pali-English Dictionary,by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin) - PMT-indx.htm


/ MC060-3.htm MC060-4.htm MC061-1.htm 
  MC061-3.htm MC062-1.htm
  MC062-2.htm MC063-1.htm 
  MC063-3.htm MC064-1.htm MC064-2.htm MC065-1.htm (new linking)

MC065-2.htm  MC066-1.htm  MC066-2.htm  MC067-1.htm  MC067-2.htm  MC068-1.htm 
/ MC068-2.htm MC068-3.htm 
/ MC068-4.htm  MC069-1.htm 
MC069-2.htm  MC070-1.htm  MC070-2.htm MC071-1.htm  MC071-2.htm
MC071-3.htm MC072.htm  
MC072R.htm  MC073.htm  MC074.htm
MC076.htm MC076C.htm*
MC077.htm  MC077F.htm MC078.htm MC079-1.htm

MC079-2.htm Nep* MC079-2B.htm MC080.htm

UKT 200116: Nep*. I'll eventually have to include selections from Bur-Myan. However, I must first look into another Tib-Bur language that can be easily related to Sanskrit. Nepali is such a language because it uses Devanagari script. Refer to an excerpt from A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner (ref: Turn-Nepxxx )
- Turn-NepalDic-indx.htm

UKT 190406: I've started to include Roots from Whitney, downloaded txt in TIL PDF libraries:
Single-page format - WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200115)
Double-page format - WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200115)
   Whitney's work is intended especially as a Supplement to his Sanskrit Grammar (Leipzig, 1879). I'm including his work in Macdonell's Dictionary to serve me in my study of Sanskrit Grammar.

UKT 190304: I'll have to note more on Repha and "Lepha" :
Repha-forms: Short-vowel Repha & Long-vowel Repha, and BEPS vowel-diagram:
Concentrate on the pages:
- MC063-2.htm (note on Repha and "Lepha")
- MC066.htm ( {kaar~})
- MC085.htm ( {gur~} & {guur~})

MC081.htm MC082-1.htm MC082-2.htm MC083.htm MC084.htm 
MC085.htm MC085R.htm MC086.htm MC086E.htm MC087.htm MC087C.htm

MC088-2.htm Nep MC088-2B.htm MC089.htm MC090-1.htm

/ MC090-1B.htm : an additional page on Nepali, to include Gna the semi-nasal.

Contents of this page

Palatal stop & affricate

The second section of p090, p090-2.htm, is on row#2 of Bur-Myan akshara. The first member of r2c1 is {sa.}/ {c}. It is a Palatal-stop in Bur-Myan, which is pronounced as Palatal-affricate in Mon-Myan. Its neighbours are also pronounced as affricates. Since Sanskrit and Mon are close in pronunciation in row#2 aksharas, I have to include Affricates in the -row introducing my inventions (I'm getting sick of them myself !):
 - r2c1 {Ca.}/ {C};  r2c2 {hca.}/ {hc}; r2c3 { ja.}/ { j}
and safely write English <church> as {chaach} or {chuuch}. However, at present I will leave the glyphs as they are -- , , -- but pronounce them as affricates when needed. See my note on Argument for argument sake

MC090-2.htm MC091.htm  MC092.htm  MC093.htm 
MC094.htm MC095.htm

MC096-2.htm MC097-1.htm 

MC097-2.htm MC098.htm MC099.htm  MC100.htm

MC103-2.htm MC104-1.htm

/ MC104-1A.htm
/ MC104-1B.htm

UKT 170808:: there is no page on either Nya-minor / , nor Nya-major /.  The True-Za {Za.} झ, ends here, followed by {Ta.} ट on next page. The sources for missing aksharas are from Npali/Nwari-Dev and Bur-Myan.

/ p104-1A.htm on Pali, is an additional page to include Nya-minor aka Nya-l the plosive-stop
/ p104-1B.htm on Burmese, is another additional page to include Nya-major aka Nya'gyi the approximant-fricative

See also Judson Burmese-English Dictionary,
by R. C. Stevenson, Burma Commission, Govt. Printing Press, Rangoon, 1893
- RCStevenson-JudsonBurEngDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180531)
by F. H. Eveleth, ed., ABM Press, Rangoon, 1921
- FHEveleth-JudsonBurEngDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180531)


Contents of this page



Contents of this page


MC105.htm , MC106.htm , MC107.htm, MC108.htm , MC109.htm
MC110.htm, MC111.htm, MC112.htm , MC113.htm , MC114.htm
MC115-1.htm ,

MC115-2.htm , MC116.htm , MC117.htm , MC118.htm , MC119.htm   
MC120.htm , MC121.htm , MC122.htm , MC123.htm , MC124.htm , (cf. p124 to p072R.htm)
MC125.htm , MC126.htm , MC127.htm , MC128.htm , MC129-1.htm ,
MC130.htm , MC131-1.htm , MC131-2.htm , MC132.htm , MC133.htm , MC134.htm , MC135-1.htm 

MC135-2.htm , MC136.htm , MC137.htm , MC138.htm , MC139.htm 
MC140.htm , MC141.htm , MC142.htm , MC143.htm , MC144.htm 
MC145.htm , MC146.htm , MC147.htm , MC148-1.htm,

Contents of this page


MC148-2.htm, MC149.htm
MC150.htm , MC151.htm , MC152.htm , MC153.htm , MC154.htm ,
MC155.htm , MC156.htm , MC157.htm , MC158.htm , MC159.htm
MC160.htm , MC161.htm , MC162.htm , MC163.htm , MC164.htm 
MC165.htm  MC166.htm  MC167.htm  MC168.htm  MC169.htm
MC170.htm  MC171.htm  MC172.htm  MC173.htm  MC174.htm
MC175.htm  MC176.htm  MC177.htm  MC178.htm  MC179.htm
MC180.htm  MC181.htm  MC182.htm  MC183.htm  MC184.htm
MC185.htm  MC186.htm  MC187.htm  MC188.htm  MC189.htm 


MC191.htm  MC192.htm  MC193.htm  MC194.htm
MC195.htm  MC196.htm  MC197.htm  MC198.htm  MC199.htm

MC200-2.htm  MC201.htm  MC202.htm  MC203.htm  MC204.htm
MC205.htm  MC206.htm  MC207.htm  MC208.htm  MC209.htm 
MC210.htm  MC211.htm  MC212-1.htm 

MC212-2htm  MC213.htm  MC214.htm
MC215.htm  MC216.htm  MC217.htm  MC218.htm  MC219.htm 
MC220.htm  MC221.htm  MC222.htm  MC223.htm  MC224.htm 
MC225.htm  MC226.htm  MC227.htm  MC228.htm  MC229.htm
MC230.htm  MC231.htm  MC232.htm  MC233.htm  MC234.htm 
MC235.htm  MC236.htm  MC237-1.htm 

Contents of this page


UKT 200422: I've observed that, the way the killed approximant change the preceding vowel is not well known in Bur-Myan phonology, except {} as in words like {k}; {t}; {p}. An exception may be {wa. t) {w} from the way we spell {bo} and {bol}: noting that {bol} is pronounced with the coda L sound. I need to check my observation, before I can claim it as a fact.
See also Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) by U Tun Myint, p519-520.

Contents of this page

Semi-consonants aka Semivowels

UKT 200425: Thought lumped together, each -- {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.} -- is unique from the point of view of pronunciation. For instance, {ya.} is not rhotic. {ra.} is non-rhotic in Bur-Myan, but slightly rhotic in Pali-Myan and the western dialect of Bur-Myan which has led me to write {Ra.} for Pal-Myan. {la.} depends highly on the shape of the tongue, and there can be many fine variations, such as {la.}, {lha.}, {lwa.}, {lhwa.}, etc. See my note on R

MC237-2.htm  MC238.htm  MC239.htm  MC240.htm  MC241.htm  MC242.htm  MC243.htm 
MC244.htm  MC245-1.htm
MC245-3.htm: no entry in Mac - empty file
MC245-4.htm  MC246.htm  MC247-1.htm
MC247-2.htm : 12 entries in Mac
{y} ये MC247-3.htm : 3 entries
{y:} यै MC247-4.htm : no entry in Mac - empty file
{yau:} यो  MC247-5.htm  MC248-1.htm 
{you} यौ  MC248-2.htm : rhymes with English <how>

 MC248-3.htm  MC249.htm  MC250.htm  MC251.htm  MC252.htm
MC253.htm  MC254.htm  MC255.htm
MC256.htm  MC257.htm 

MC259-2.htm MC260.htm  MC261.htm  MC262.htm 
MC264.htm  MC265.htm  MC266-1.htm 

UKT 191224: , , seems to form a family, different from {wa.}.

One reason for {wa.} standing out alone may be due to (व) being mixed up with {ba.} (ब). I conjecture that Sanskrit-speakers did not have until it came into contact with Tibeto-Burman languages, and it has to coin a symbol:

व + diagonal --> ब

Even then, they could not pronounce bi-labial sounds and have to settle for labial-dentals. The reason is they cannot round their lips properly. They can get by with this defect until they came to the very closed vowel /i/ and {wi.} (short vowel). They can only say vi.
See p294-1.htm on {wi} changing into {wRRi.} in p294-2.htm .

This defect also exist with the Tib-Bur in the opposite way, who can only say {wi} (long-vowel) for English-letter V as in the word <Victory>.

MC266-2.htm  MC267.htm  MC268.htm  MC269.htm MC270.htm  MC271.htm  MC272.htm  MC273.htm  MC274-1.htm
MC274-2.htm  MC275.htm  MC276.htm  MC277.htm  MC278.htm  MC279-1.htm
MC279-2.htm  MC280.htm  MC281.htm  MC282.htm  MC283.htm  MC284.htm 
  MC285.htm  MC286.htm  MC287.htm  MC288.htm  MC289.htm
  MC290.htm  MC291.htm  MC292.htm  MC293-1.htm
MC293-2.htm  MC294-1.htm
MC294-2.htm  MC295.htm  MC296.htm  MC297.htm  MC298-1.htm

MC298-2.htm  MC299-1.htm
MC299-2.htm  MC300.htm  MC301-1.htm
  MC301-4.htm  MC302.htm  MC303-1.htm
MC303-2.htm  MC304-1.htm
MC304-2.htm  MC305-1.htm 

Contents of this page

Fricatives: Sibilants in Sanskrit

MC306.htm  MC307.htm  MC308.htm  MC309.htm  MC310-1.htm
MC310-2.htm  MC311.htm  MC312.htm  MC313-1.htm
MC313-2.htm  MC314.htm  MC315-1.htm
MC315-3.htm  MC316.htm  MC317-1.htm
MC318.htm  MC319.htm
MC320.htm  MC321.htm 
  MC322.htm  MC323.htm


Fricative : Thibilant in Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan

 MC324-2.htm MC325.htm 
MC326.htm  MC327.htm  MC328.htm  MC329.htm MC330.htm 
MC331.htm  MC332.htm  MC333.htm 
MC335.htm  MC336.htm  MC337.htm  MC338.htm  MC339.htm
MC341.htm  MC342.htm  MC343.htm  MC344.htm  MC345.htm
MC346.htm  MC347.htm  MC348.htm  MC349.htm
MC350.htm  MC351.htm 
MC352.htm  MC353.htm  MC354.htm 
MC355.htm  MC356.htm  MC357.htm  MC358.htm  MC359.htm 
MC360.htm  MC361-1.htm 

Contents of this page

Lisping-consonants: {Ska.}, {Sta.}, {Spa.}, etc.

UKT 200323: Before you begin the Lisping consonants, take a quick jump to p369.htm
See how I discover the Lisping consonants: - https://www.tuninst.net/SED-MCvowcon/MC-BEPS-vow/MC-BEPS-vow.htm 200323

MC361-2.htm  MC362.htm  MC363.htm  MC364.htm 
MC365.htm  MC366.htm  MC367.htm  MC368.htm  MC369.htm 
MC370.htm  MC371.htm  MC372.htm  MC373.htm  MC374-1.htm 

Contents of this page

H-deep {ha.} ह

 MC374-2.htm  MC375.htm  MC376.htm  MC377.htm  MC378.htm  MC379.htm
MC380.htm  MC381.htm  MC382.htm 

Addenda & Corrigenda

MC383.htm  MC384.htm 

Contents of this page


UKT 200422: I've observed that,
#1. {a.} as a prefix can signify negation, in which case I'll show it in red {a.}.

#2. {a.} in a prefix, such as {a.ti.}, {a.Di.}, {a.nu.}, {a.pa.}, {a.Bi.}, {a.wa.}, {U.pa.}, ... -- there are some 20 {U.pa.a-ra.} "prefixes" -- is not a negation. (see UHS PMD0233c2) Also, when {a.} is checked by a killed consonant, it does not mean a negation but something else.

#3. However, when the killed consonant is a nasal such as {ng} (in which case it become {n} or {kn:si:}, and {n}, it can be a negation. The killed nasal usually changes the preceding vowel: - {n} and - {n}.
Remember, I need to check my observations, before I can claim them as facts. See, Nasal Endings.

/ MC001-1.htm MC001-2.htm MC001-3.htm MC001-4.htm   MC002.htm  MC003.htm  MC004.htm
MC005.htm  MC006-1.htm MC006-2.htm  MC007.htm  MC008.htm MC009.htm
MC010.htm  MC011-1.htm  MC011-2.htm MC012.htm  MC013.htm  MC014.htm
MC015.htm  MC016.htm  MC017.htm  MC018.htm  MC019.htm
MC020.htm MC021.htm  MC022.htm  MC023.htm  MC024.htm
MC025.htm  MC026.htm  MC027.htm  MC028.htm  MC029.htm
MC030.htm  MC031.htm  MC032.htm  MC033.htm  MC034.htm 
MC035.htm   MC036-1.htm

MC036-2.htm MC037.htm  MC038.htm  MC039.htm
MC040.htm  MC041.htm  MC042.htm  MC043.htm  MC044-1.htm MC044-2.htm*
MC045.htm  MC046.htm  MC047-1.htm  MC047-2.htm  MC048.htm  MC049.htm 
MC050.htm  MC051.htm  MC052.htm  MC053.htm  MC054.htm 
MC055-1.htm  MC055-2.htm  MC056-1.htm MC056-2.htm MC057-1.htm MC057-2.htm
  MC058.htm MC059-1.htm MC059-2.htm MC059-3.htm
MC060-1.htm  MC060-2.htm
p060-3.htm on {ka.} belonging to Consonants


Contents of this page

UKT notes

UKT 200425: These notes are from an old file which I have written in very early days of my study of Sanskrit, and are in need of constant update.

  Plosive-stops Nasals Approximants
  Tenuis-Nasals-Approximants of Bur-Myan
BEPS consonants : failure of IPA to represent them for everyday use
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Hanging-on consonants
Inherent vowel
Older form of Devanagari
Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za
Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit
Salient Points of consolidated TOC
Sanskrit and Pali roots: downloaded
The Velars - row #1 of the Akshara matrix
What this dictionary is about 

Argument for argument sake

UKT 170706, 200425: 

In English, Mon and Sanskrit, palatals are pronounced as affricates. The cell r2c5 is controversial with two contenders nasal Nya'minor {a.}, and non-nasal Nya'major {a.}.

Ancient intellectuals, mostly Brahmins {poaN~Na:} (Buddhists as well as Hindus) and modern ones and religionists, ever fond of controversy and argument for its own sake*, wrote and rewrote "history" and "hagiography" of gods and goddesses to suit their purposes. An example being Mahabrahma {ma.ha brah~ma.} : (excerpt from Wikipedia) "Brahma, along with Vishnu and Shiva, is part of a Hindu Trimurti; however, ancient Hindu texts mention other trinities of gods or goddesses which do not include Brahma."
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahma 170708
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erawan_Shrine 170709.

UKT note 200419: Be careful not to get mixed up in spelling and rhotic pronunciation between "Brahmin" {poaN~Na:} - who are humans. There is only one "Brahma" {bRah~ma} (rhotic pronunciation) the Axiomatic male god of Hinduism (who has 4 faces and a mouth on each face). He has a wife. He is sometimes known as "Maha Brahma" {ma.ha bRah~ma}, and his wife is "Brahmi" {bRah~mi}. He needs to have 4 faces with 4 mouths to constantly recite the 4 Vedas to his favourite Brahmin {poaN~Na:}, who claim that they can hear the {ma.ha brah~ma.} recite the Vedas. Unlike the Buddhist Brahmas {brah~ma} (non-rhotic pronunciation), he doesn't need a separate world: he is just a glorified "Deva" and resides in the Deva world {d-wa. lau:ka.} with his wife. 

On the other-hand the Buddhist Brahmas {brah~ma} (non-rhotic pronunciation) are neither males nor females and I suggest that they not even have sex-organs. I prefer to spell them {brah~ma} (non-rhotic pronunciation). They occupy 20 planes of existence divided into 2 kinds: Rupa {ru-pa.} Brahma Loka {brah~ma lau:ka.} (material worlds - world of Forms) 16 in number, and Arupa {a.ru-pa.) Brahma Loka (immaterial worlds - such as Energy - Formless) 4 in number.

*UKT 170709, 200419: I must admit being accused of being an argumentative individual myself!
See Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, first published Thu Feb 17, 2011; substantive revision Tue Feb 3, 2015 -
- https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/buddha/ 200419
"The Buddha (fl. circa 450 BCE) is the individual whose teachings form the basis of the Buddhist tradition. These teachings, preserved in texts known as the Nikāyas or Āgamas, concern the quest for liberation from suffering. While the ultimate aim of the Buddha's teachings is thus to help individuals attain the good life, his analysis of the source of suffering centrally involves claims concerning the nature of persons, as well as how we acquire knowledge about the world and our place in it. These teachings formed the basis of a philosophical tradition that developed and defended a variety of sophisticated theories in metaphysics and epistemology."
[the following is a TOC under the above]
1. Buddha as Philosopher / 2. Core Teachings / 3. Non-Self / 4. Karma and Rebirth / 5. Attitude toward Reason
Bibliography (Primary Sources / Secondary Sources
Academic Tools Other Internet Resources Related Entries

TIL PDF libraries have a copy of Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (SEP) - Book4You, with 6510 pdf-pages.
- StandfordEncyloPhilo<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171127: broken link on 200419)
See: - https://plato.stanford.edu/contents.html 200419
Unfortunately, I could not find the above excerpt. What I found on "Buddha" is on p.6163-6164/6510 in section on "Comparative Philosophy, Chinese and Western" on p.6154/6510. I came on Incommensurability 'lacking a common quality on which to make a comparison' when we try to compare what the Buddha taught on Non-axiomatic Anatta in the face of the common notion of Axiomatic Atta beliefs. Atta stems from our false perception of indestructibly of ourselves even after death: at least something must survive death! What I've read:

Samuel Fleischacker (1992) proposes a more moderate version of incommensurability -- sometimes we can understand others just well enough to know that we don't understand them. - p.6156/6510

What I found on "Buddha" , p.6163-6164/6510:

Our bodily attributes, various feelings, perceptions, ideas, wishes, dreams, and in general a consciousness of the world display a constant interplay and interconnection that leads us to the belief that there is some definite I that underlies and is independent of the ever-shifting series. But there is only the interacting and interconnected series. This metaphysical concern, of course, had deep practical implications for the Buddha. It points toward the answer to human suffering, which ultimately stems from a concern for the existence and pleasures and pains of the kind of self that never existed in the first place.

Now let's back to our problem of r2c5 cell. Of the 2 contenders, Nya'major {a.} and Nya'minor {a.} which is the rightful owner? Now, both are basic consonants, being stable under Virama (or Viram for short) {a.t}. If what you take to be a consonant is just a medial or any other conjunct - either horizontal (e.g. {~a.}) or vertical (e.g. {k~ka.} - it will break down.

The problem of r2c5 cell is mainly due to how the IE speakers (English and Sanskrit) pronounce the Palatal row r2. Whilst, Burmese speakers pronounce the row as Palatal-stops aka Palatal plosive-stops, the IE speakers pronounce the row as Palatal-affricates. This means that I'll have invent a set glyphs for Palatal affricates which are now represented by Ya'pin {ya.pn.} medials: {kya.}, {hkya.}, {gya.}. I've invented a new set of corresponding glyphs, {ca.}, {cha.}, {ja.} with the understanding that these will be used only when absolutely necessary, to avoid upsetting the present custom of transcribing Burmese into English with respect to {sa.} /s/. An added problem is between English and Sanskrit. Though Skt-Dev has tenuis-voiceless, voiceless (vl) and voiced (vd) vowel sounds, Eng-Lat does not have tenuis. Luckily Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan agree in having the tenuis.

I now realized another problem in transcribing English to Burmese. I must now recognize the existence of Dental /s/ and /ʃ/. For /ʃ/ Bur-Myan has been using medials such as {hya.} and {rha.}. These are basic consonants in Skt-Dev. And there's no way of transcribing English words like <sister>. The result is I have to invent another basic consonant for Burmese: Dental-S {Sa.}/ {S}. This is in addition to Palatal-S {sa.}/ {c}. 

Pali:  {a.} + viram --> {}~ {a.}.

English speakers, following the Lankan Theravada philologists, have difficulty pronouncing Bur-Myan words with {a.}/ {}, as in the words for {n-pr-tau} 'capital of the country', and {pi~a} 'knowledge, art, science, education'.

Go back argument-note-b

Contents of this page

Base consonants and vowels of BEPS

-- UKT 120526, ... , 171127, 200419

Definitions in BEPS:
1. The akshara in an ideal situation means a one-to-one correspondence between phoneme and grapheme. The marking on paper to represent the grapheme is a glyph.
2. Both consonants and vowels are pronounceable and are termed syllables. For example, a consonant, {ta.} त (Myanmar-Romabama-Devanagari) is pronounced as IPA /ta/. Because of /a/, {ta.} is pronounceable. The /a/ in consonant is known as inherent vowel .
3. Words in BEPS are of the canonical form  CV , where C is the onset , V the nuclear vowel, and is the coda.
4. The consonant {ta.} त in BEPS is pronounceable. However when it is under a Virama (shortened to Viram) {a.t} "killer" becomes unpronounceable or mute. Thus, {t} त् , is mute.
5. Consonants can be joined together, vertically as well as horizontally as Conjuncts. In Bur-Myan a conjunct can be monosyllabic (one sound) when it is called a medial. e.g. {kya.} which is formed from [ {ka.} + viram + {ya.} ] is monosyllabic.
6. In Eng-Lat and Skt-Dev, conjuncts are usually disyllabic. Thus, [ {ka.} + viram + {ya.} ] forms {k~ya.} /kəya/.
Note: Lack of proper definitions Bur-Myan makes my work impossible, and I'm trying to come up with a list of definitions such as the one shown here.

Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan are so interwoven that they can be spoken seamlessly.

Watch and listen a video in Bur-Myan with Pal-Myan words:{m~boad~D}
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYyTBTjW26E 140211
The first three lines from the video are given. You can watch the video if you are on TIL research computer. It is in TIL ~~HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries, in Burma section:
- ThanBoadDe<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180419)
Or just listen: it is under MCpp-indx.htm in SND section:  ThanBoadDe<)) (link chk 200419)
The first two lines are in Pal-Myan, but the third line is Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan integrated.

The instrument for comparison of BEPS languages is Romabama (Burmese-Myanmar transcribed into extended-Latin script). The following is the table of base consonants.

Columns #2 and #4 have been described as "aspirated", and an <h> is added to the names of the consonants. For example, (row#5), the columns are traditionally described as:

c1 - voiceless, {pa.} प pa
c2 - voiceless-aspirated, {hpa.} फ pha
c3 - voiced,  {ba.} ब ba  
c4 - voiced-aspirated, {Ba.} भ bha

In my table shown here, I have named the columns differently removing the English notion of "aspiration". The notion of aspiration is best illustrated in the Cockney dialect of British English, where the <h> is dropped: "Henry Higgins" becomes  'enry 'iggins . This phenomenon has been caricatured by George Bernard Shaw (1856-1960) in his play Pygmalion with the principal character "Professor Henry Higgins" based on real-life phonetician Henry Sweet (1845-1912).

Listen and watch: Just you wait 'enry 'iggins':
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vbdVvIbB1KU 140327

I am not satisfied with my description of column c4. I had called it "voiced pharyngeal" at one time because the POA seems to be way back in the throat - the pharynx. Since the pharyngeals are connected with IPA /h/, I am now calling it deep-H. I do not think it is a simple case of voice lag and aspiration.

My intermediary script, Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}, has its beginnings in my (U Kyaw Tun's) childhood dream in 1940s. In my pre-teen years I tried to type the Myanmar script on my father U Tun Pe's English typewriter. It was a total failure. Romabama in the present form was launched only in the late 1990s on the Internet from Canada.

I realized that I must have training in phonetics and linguistics, but I was already advanced in age to go back to school. I have to learn these subjects online using my analytical skill as a scientist and engineer. I was assisted by my wife Daw ThanThan Tun who was also a chemist. She had been my classmate and life-long companion since our teenage years, until she died in 2004.

To come up with comprehensive glyphs, I have to improvised more than once, such as the one shown for Romabama glyphs in r2c4 cell.

My aim in integrating IPA into BEPS is to come up with a reliable transcription between Burmese and English speeches. What we are using now is transliteration, which many think is transcription.

I am finding that I cannot apply the IPA, and transcriptions such as // & /ʝ/ for palatal fricatives, and /ʂ/ & /ʐ/ for retroflex fricatives, are just tokens which are meaningless unless you are a trained phonetician. Moreover, they are non-ASCII - meaning not suitable for e-mail and internet. 

For the fricatives, I have taken only /θ/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/ as pronounceable. The English affricates /ʧ/ & /ʤ/ are not easy to articulate. Moreover, Westerners are not capable of distinguishing the tenuis {ka.}, {sa.}, {ta.}, {pa.} from the voiceless {hka.}/{Ka.}, {hsa.}, {hta.}, {hpa.}/{Pa.}.

One of the obstacles, facing me, was to find a place for Bur-Myan Nya'major {a.}, & Nya'minor {a.}. I had push them into one cell r2c5. Until, I realized that monosyllabic medials are found only in Bur-Myan, and not in Skt-Dev, I could not make any progress. When I looked into Skt-Dev conjuncts closely I realized that they are disyllabic conjuncts. I need to come to this understanding to explain the medial-conjunct problem in Pal-Myan, where Nya'major  {a.} is deemed to be the horizontal conjunct of two Nya'minor {a.}:

Pal-Myan: {a.} + viram -->  {} + {a.}
{a.} as a conjunct cannot be killed without split
Bur-Myan {a.} + viram --> {} 
{a.} as a base consonant can be killed without split
Similar to {ya.} + viram --> {}

Then looking into the killed Bur-Myan Nya'major {a.}, & Nya'minor {a.}, I found that killed Bur-Myan Nya'major {a.} is almost the same as killed Ya'palak {ya.}. This shows that Nya'major {a.} is a non-nasal, and should be placed by the side of {ya.}. To do this, I'vd to move Ya'palak {ya.} to velar position, and make room for Nya'major {a.} in the palatal position.

Most of the Westerners, such as French and Germans, are sibilant speakers. However, English speakers are used to non-hissing thibilant /θ/ sounds in words like <thin> /θɪn/. Sanskrit speakers mix up this sound with /s/. Romabama has to make allowances for all these conflicting patterns of sounds, and has to come up with a compromise.

In order to present a comprehensive picture, the IPA table itself has to be extended to include, what the Westerners hear as "aspirated sounds" - those of c2 & c4 consonants such as {hpa.} & {Ba.} sounds shown below.

Now that I am including Mon-Myan into my study, I am putting in another perspective. My references for vocabulary in script and sound are given in my collection:
Mon-Myan Language: Script - MonMyan-indx.htm (link chk 200426)
Mon-Myan Language: Speech - spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 200426) 
My attempt to include Mon-Myan is a failure because, BEPS languages are of the northern type and there are many similarities. Mon-Myan, on the other hand is the southern type, or more properly Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) and differs markedly from both IE and Tib-Bur. Moreover, Mon basic aksharas have 2 kinds of inherent vowel, /a/ and //. And, I cannot speak Mon - the mother-tongue of my great grand-mother Daw M Ma .

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Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic: The Doggie Tale
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what am I to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher Sha श /ʃ/ and hisser Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

Contents of this page

What this dictionary is about

This dictionary is a learning tool for myself. However, it might be useful for others. Macdonell's entries in older form of Devanagari, are cut into individual entries for ease of comparison to entries from other sources. The scanned images from the Univ. of Cologne, dictionary from the Univ. of Chicago and ink-on-paper copy of Nataraj ed., have been indispensable for Sanskrit; F. Edgerton's, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, and R. C. Childer's Pali dictionary form the linking bridge from Pali or more properly Magadhi to Sanskrit. The downloaded pdf are in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- FE-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 161231)
UKT 170111 to TIL editor: Bookmarks for entries from FE-BHS must be standardized as per entries on p001.htm . Capitals for proper names are allowed, and diacritics removed.

The TOC is in Akshara order, which is very difficult to follow unless you know the Akshara matrices of vowels and consonants.

The intermediary language is Romabama (Bur-Latin) {ro:ma.ba.ma} based on Pali-Myanmar & Sanskrit-Myanmar. Romabama is based on Bur-Myan phonology and is primarily aimed to aid transcription (pronunciation) between spoken Burmese and spoken English languages.


Phonology is heavily based on the parent linguistic group. Thus Bama speech and Rakhine speech both belonging to Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) linguistic-group, are mutually understandable, whereas Mon speech belonging to Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) linguistic-group is mutually non-understandable. However, if the subject matter, for instance Pali of Buddhism, then you know the meanings of many words on hearing the pronunciation. A Bama-speaker can follow the Pali chant of a Mon Buddhist monk, or that of a Shan Buddhist monk. When aided by looking the written-script - the circularly-rounded Myanmar-script, the unifying instrument of Myanmarpr - there is more understanding. When looking the written Romabama which uses the Latin script of English, then you can even follow the chant of Sri Lankan monk. Now listen to  the Five Precepts from the Sri Lanka monk - bk-cndl-LankaPali<)) .  

For reference to Pal-Myan words, I rely on  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary by U Hoke Sein (UHS-PMD, and The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD). 

Go back what-about-note-b





Contents of this page

End of TIL file