Update: 2020-05-29 12:14 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page


Contents of this page

----- on line 171122
UKT 171115: I'm noticing the PIX programme getting slower and getting confused over commands. After a trial, I've moved all grouped files and ungrouped (free) files to ~~Macdonell-cuts, including those which needs more copying. Now that Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012 is in TIL , you can always copy from the ink-on-paper book. Caveat: Don't be impatient going over old or grouped files. The process is a necessity.

I've begun with {ka.} - the first letter of the consonants, and have start from p060-3.htm - similar to p105.htm which begins with {ta.}. Note: what I get from Univ. of Chicago are still actively link to its website.

Contents of this page

UKT notes :
Kinnara {kain~na.ra}
Symplocos racemosa - fam: Symplocaceae
Tilottama - the goddess-enchantress of gods
Tirhut - the country bounded by three rivers : {mait~hti-la mro.n}
Tishya - the celestial archer
Tukhara - the name of a people: the problem of transcription

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p110c1-b00/ p077-006
तिलकार्षिक [ tila-krshika ]
-- a. cultivating sesamum; -khal, f. oil-cake of sesamum; -grma, m. N. of a village; -krna, n. pounded sesamum seeds; -taila, n. sesamum oil; -dvdas, f. a certain twelfth day; -parna, -parnika, n. sandal-wood; -parn, f. sandal tree (Pterocarpus santalinus); -pda, m. oil grinder; -pushpa, n. sesamum blossom = the nose.
6) तिलकार्षिक (p. 77) tila-krshika


p110c1-b01/ p077-005
तिलशस् [ tila-sas ]
-- ad. in little fragments as small as sesamum seeds.
5) तिलशस् (p. 77) tila-sas


p110c1-b02/ p077-004
तिलांश [ tila‿amsa ]
-- m. patch of land as small as a grain of sesamum; -‿ambu, n. water with sesamum.
4) तिलांश (p. 77) tila̮amsa



p110c1-b03/ not online
[tiliṅga] {ti.lan~ga.} --> {ti.lan~ga.}
-desa , m. N. of a country


p110c1-b04/ p077-003
तिलोत्तमा [ tila‿uttam ]
-- f. N. of an Apsaras; N.; -‿udaka, n. water with sesamum.
3) तिलोत्तमा (p. 77) tila̮uttam

See my note on Tilottama - the goddess-enchantress, Apsara, of gods


p110c1-b05/ p077-002
तिलोदन [ tila‿odana ]
-- n. pap [soft or semiliquid food, as for infants. - AHTD ] with sesamum.
2) तिलोदन (p. 77) tila̮odana


p110c1-b06/ not online
तिल्वक [tilvaka]
Skt: तिल्वक [tilvaka] - m. a tree (Symplocos racemosa ) - Mac110c1
Skt: तिल्वक - m. Symplocos racemosa - MWilliams:SktDict

See my note on Symplocos racemosa

p110c1-b07/ p077-001
तिल्विल [ tlvila ]
-- a. fertile, rich.
1) तिल्विल (p. 77) tlvila


UKT 171123: The entry below is spelled with vya, which in Bur-Myan is almost always {bya.}

p110c1-b08/ not online
-- m. N. of a Brahman


p110c1-b09/ not online
[tishy] (or ya)
-- m. N. of a celestial archer; N. of a lunar mansion (the sixth or eighth); a tree; N.

See my note on Tishya - the celestial archer


p110c1-b10/ not online
-- f. base of tri , three

Contents of this page


p110c1-b11/ p077-017
तीक्ष्ण [ tk-shn ]
-- a. [√tig+sna] sharp, pointed; hot, burning; pungent (taste); violent, energetic; stern, harsh; severe; subtle, acute; n. harsh speech; m. N.
17) तीक्ष्ण (p. 77) tk-shn


p110c1-b12/ p077-016
तीक्ष्णकर [ tkshna-kara ]
-- m. (hot-rayed), sun; -t, f. sharpness; -tva, n. burning heat; -damsh- tr, a. sharp-toothed; m. N.; -danda, a. punishing severely; -dhra, a. keen-edged; m. sword; -mrga, m. (whose path is sharp), sword; -rasa, m. burning draught, poison: -dyin, m. poisoner; -rpin, a. harsh-looking; -vipka, a. causing a burning during digestion; -vrishana, m. N. of a bull; ()-sriṅga, a. sharp-horned; -hridaya, a. hard-hearted: -tva, n. -ness.
16) तीक्ष्णकर (p. 77) tkshna-kara


p110c1-b13/ p077-b015
तीक्ष्णांशु [ tkshna‿amsu ]
-- a. hot-rayed; m. sun; fire; -‿agra, a. sharp-pointed; -‿arkis, a. hot-rayed.
15) तीक्ष्णांशु (p. 77) tkshna̮amsu


p110c1-b14/ p077-028
तीर tira [ tr-a ]
-- n. [crossing: √tr] shore, bank; -ga, a. growing on the bank (tree); -bhg, a. standing on the bank; -bhuktya, a. coming from Tirhut.
28) तीर (p. 77) tr-a

See my note on Tirhut - the country bounded by three rivers, identified as Mithila in India/Nepal
and compare with Meiktila Township {mait~hti-la mro.n} in Myanmarpr.


p110c1-b15/ p077-027
तीरय [ tra-ya ]
-- den. P. go through with, settle.
27) तीरय (p. 77) tra-ya


p110c1-b16/ p077-026
तीररुह [ tra-ruha ]
-- a. growing on the bank.
26) तीररुह (p. 77) tra-ruha 


p110c1-b17/ p077-072
तीर्ण [ trna ]
-- pp. of √tr.
72) तीर्ण (p. 77) trna √tr.


p110c1-b18/ p077-014
तीर्थ [ tr-th ]
-- (m.) n. [crossing-place: √tr] ford; landing-stair; bathing-place, esp. one to which pilgrimages are made for the expiation of sins; approach to the sacrificial altar, between the trench (ktvla) and the mound of earth (utkara); right place or moment; suitable opportunity; customary or right manner (in. duly); instruction, guidance; teacher, instructor; certain (four) lines or parts of the hand; venerable or sacred object; worthy person; kind of court official.
14) तीर्थ (p. 77) tr-th


p110c1-b19/ p077-033
तीर्थक [ trtha-ka ]
- a. worthy; holy; m. ascetic, sectary; -kara, a. making a ford through life, delivering (Vishnu or Siva); religious pioneer, reformer, founder of a sect; -ytr, f. visiting sacred bathing-places, pilgrimage; -rg, f. series of sacred bathing-places, ep. of Benares; -vat, a. abounding in landing-stairs or sacred bathing-places; -sil, f. stone stair to the water; -sevana, n. frequenting sacred bathing-places; -sev, f. id.
33) तीर्थक (p. 77) trtha-ka

( end p110c1 )

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p110c2-b00/ not online
-- hallow; -bh , be hallowed.


p110c2-b01/ p077-032
तीर्थोदक [ trtha‿udaka ]
-- n. water from a sacred bathing-place.
32) तीर्थोदक (p. 77) trtha̮udaka


p110c2-b02/ p077-031
तीर्थ्य [ trth-ya ]
-- a. relating to a Trtha; m. ascetic, sectary.
31) तीर्थ्य (p. 77) trth-ya


p110c2-b03/ p077-030

तीवर [ tvara ]
-- m. hunter (mixed caste).
30) तीवर (p. 77) tvara


p110c2-b04/ p077-029
तीव्र [ tv-r ]
-- a. sharp; hot; violent, intense, severe, great, excessive, bad: -t, f. severity, violence, intensity; -gati, f. great pace; a. being in an evil plight; -dyuti, m. sun; -‿atitvra, a. excessively severe.
29) तीव्र (p. 77) tv-r

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p110c2-b05/ not online

[TU] II. P
-- tav-i-ti , be powerful, prevail


p110c2-b06/ not online

तु tu [ t ]
-- pcl. (never commences a sentence): with impv. pray (V.); but: sts.=ka or v, or a mere expletive; api tu, but rather; kim tu, but yet, nevertheless; na tu, but not; na tu‿eva tu, never at all; param tu, yet, nevertheless, however; tu--tu, indeed--but; ka--na tu, although--yet not; na or na ka api tu, not--but rather; kmam (ka) -tu or kim tu, although--yet; kmam, bhyas, or varm--na tu, rather--than.


p110c2-b07/ not online

-- m. N. of a people

See my note on Tukhara
UKT: Reading my note will make the reader appreciate my remark on the unreliability of transcriptions of a word by non-natives. Because of this I am trying out akshara-to-akshara transcription which can be done only for languages with written scripts which are based on phonemic principles. Since English-Latin is not a phonetic script, it can be expected to introduce transcription errors which are bound to be copied from writer to writer. In the present instance, I must add that I am not sure whether I am referring to the people mentioned by Macdonell. -- UKT 120319


p110c2-b08/ p077-24

तुक् tuk [ tuk ] m. child, boy.
24) तुक् (p. 77) tuk child, boy.


p110c2-b09/ not online

-- m. N.


p110c2-b10/ p077-23

तुङ्ग tunga [ tuṅga ]
Skt: -- a. high, prominent, lofty; m. height; hill; N.; -dhanvan, m. N. of a king; -bala, m. N. of a warrior; -‿tman, a. eminent. -- Mac110c2
23) तुङ्ग (p. 77) tuṅga high, prominent, lofty; m. height; hill; N.; -dhanvan, m. N. of a king; -bala, m. N. of a warrior; -̮tman, a. eminent.

BPal: {ton~ga.} [the vowel {o} is not met in Bur-Myan, and may have to be changed -- UKT120320]
- - UHS-PMD0446

UKT from UHS: mfn. what is high, prominent. m. Rottleria tinctoria
However UHS gives the name of the plant in Bur-Myan as {poan:ak} which is 'Alexandrian laurel' Calophyllum inophyllum  fam: Guttiferae according to
Botanical names of Myanmar plants of importance by Agri.Dept. (Planning), Govt. Union of Myanmar, 2000, 39-1027 .
-- http://www.tuninst.net/MyanMedPlants/Agri-Dept-2000/r5c1pa/r5c1.htm 120320
   Wikipedia adds: "In Sanskrit this tree is known as punnaga.[1] Punnai and Ponnaakam are the names for the tree in Tamil, found in Cankam Tamil literature (Kuruntokai 5:2; kurincippaattu 91). Punnai in Tamil and its cognates found in other Dravidian languages such as Punna (Malayalam), Ponne, Honne (Kannada), Ponne (Tulu), and Ponna (Telugu) as names of this tree are listed as words of Dravidian etymology (Dravidian Etymological Dictionary, entry No: 4243). The other name Pun-naakam has come in Tamil because the tree is a small variety of the Naaka tree. Punnaga is not a name of Sanskrit origin and the word is not even found in the Sanskrit dictionary of Monier Williams. Pinnai is a colloquial name for the tree in Tamil. The tree is abundantly found in the coastal stretches of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Sri Lanka and in the Maldives Islands. -- excerpt from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calophyllum_inophyllum 120320

p110c2-b11/ p077-22

तुङ्गिन् tungin [ tuṅg-in ]
-- a. lofty; culminating (planet).
22) तुङ्गिन् (p. 77) tuṅg-in lofty; culminating (planet).

p110c2-b12/ p077-21

तुङ्गिमन् tungiman [ tuṅg-i-man ]
-- m. height, loftiness; eminence.
21) तुङ्गिमन् (p. 77) tuṅg-i-man height, loftiness; eminence.

p110c2-b13/ p077-20

तुच्छ tuccha [ tukkha ]
-- a. empty, void, vain; n. vain thing: -tva, n. emptiness; vanity; -daya, a. unmerciful; -prya, a. rather insignificant.
20) तुच्छ (p. 77) tukkha empty, void, vain; n. vain thing: -tva, n. emptiness; vanity; -daya, a. unmerciful; -prya, a. rather insignificant.

p110c2-b14/ p077-19

तुच्छय tucchaya [ tukkha-ya ]
-- den. P. make empty or poor.
19) तुच्छय (p. 77) tukkha-ya P. make empty or poor.

p110c2-b15/ p077-19

तुच्छ्य tucchya [ tukkh-y ]
-- a. empty, vain; n. emptiness.
18) तुच्छ्य (p. 77) tukkh-y empty, vain; n. emptiness.

p110c2-b16/ not online

-- tug or tug , strike; push; incite, stimulate; cs. tugya , P. move swiftly (int.).


p110c2-b17/ not online

-- m. N. of various kings


p110c2-b18/ p077-13

तुण्ड tunda [ tunda ]
-- n. beak; snout, trunk; mouth (used contemptuously); , f. kind of cucumber.
13) तुण्ड (p. 77) tunda beak; snout, trunk; mouth (used contemptuously); , f. kind of cucumber.


p110c2-b19/ p077-12

तुण्डिभ tundibha [ tundi-bha ]
-- a. having a prominent navel; -la, a. id.
12) तुण्डिभ (p. 77) tundi-bha having a prominent navel; -la, a. id.


p110c2-b20/ p077-11

तुत्थ tuttha [ tuttha ]
-- n. blue vitriol.
11) तुत्थ (p. 77) tuttha blue vitriol.

p110c2-b21/ not online

[TUD] VI. P.
-- tud , strike; push; pound; sting; goad; pp. tunn ; cs. todaya , goad; ...

p110c2-b22/ p077-10

तुद tuda [ tud-a ]
-- a. striking, chafing, galling (--).
10) तुद (p. 77) tud-a striking, chafing, galling (--).

p110c2-b23/ p077-10

तुदाय tudaya [ tud-y ]
-- den. vi, pierce.
9) तुदाय (p. 77) tud-y vi, pierce.

p110c2-b24/ p077-08

तुन्द tunda [ tund-a ]
-- n. paunch; -ila, a. fat-bellied.
8) तुन्द (p. 77) tund-a paunch; -ila, a. fat-bellied.

p110c2-b25/ p077-07

तुन्नवाय tunnavaya [ tunna-vya ]
= त ु न ् न व ा य
-- m. tailor.
7) तुन्नवाय (p. 77) tunna-vya tailor.

p110c2-b26/ p077-44

तुबर tubara [ tubara ]
-- a. astringent.
44) तुबर (p. 77) tubara astringent.

p110c2-b27/ not online

-- = inf. ending - tum


p110c2-b28/ p077-43

तुमुल tumula [ tum-ula ]
-- a. noisy, tumultuous; n. noise, din, tumult.
43) तुमुल (p. 77) tum-ula noisy, tumultuous; n. noise, din, tumult.

p110c2-b29/ p077-42

तुम्ब tumba [ tumba ]
-- m., , f. long gourd ( Lagenaria vulgaris ).
42) तुम्ब (p. 77) tumba long gourd (lagenaria vulgaris).

p110c2-b30/ not online

-- tur , hasten, press onward, race; cs. turya , id.


p110c2-b31/ p077-41

तुर tura [ 1. tur- ]
-- a. quick; ready, willing.
41) तुर (p. 77) 1. tur- quick; ready, willing.

p110c2-b32/ p077-40

तुर tura [ 2. tu-r ]
-- a. strong, mighty, superior; rich, abundant.
40) तुर (p. 77) 2. tu-r strong, mighty, superior; rich, abundant.
( end p110c2 )

Contents of this page


p110c3-b00/ p077-39

तुरग turaga [ tura-ga ]
-- m. horse: , f. mare; -pari- kraka, m. groom; -mukha, m. (having a horse's face), a Kimnara; -vhyl, f. course for horses.
39) तुरग (p. 77) tura-ga horse: , f. mare; -pari- kraka, m. groom; -mukha, m. (having a horse's face), a Kimnara; -vhyl, f. course for horses.

See my note on Kiṃnara aka Kinnara
तुरगमुख turagamukha
- m. horse-faced, kiMnara -- SpkSkt
किंनरी kiṃnarī
- f. female kiMnara -- SpkSkt

Inset pix: {kain~na.ra} m. and {kain~na.ri} f.

p110c3-01/ p077-38

तुरंग turanga [ turam-ga ]
-- m. (swift-goer), horse.
38) तुरंग (p. 77) turam-ga (swift-goer), horse.


p110c3-02/ p077-37

तुरंगम turangama [ turam-gama ]

-- m. () horse: -tva, n. abst. n.; -medha, m. horse-sacrifice.
37) तुरंगम (p. 77) turam-gama () horse: -tva, n. abst. n.; -medha, m. horse-sacrifice.

p110c3-03/ not online

-- be turned into a horse


p110c3-04/ not online

-- (nm. -shat ; -sh , before vowels), a. quickly conquering (Indra); m.ep. of Indra


p110c3-05/ p077-103

तुरी turi [ tur ]
-- f. weaver's brush; weaver's shuttle.
103) तुरी (p. 77) tur weaver's brush; weaver's shuttle.

p110c3-06/ p077-86

तुरीय turiya [ 1. tur-&isharp;ya (also t- and -y ] SB.)],
-- a. fourth; consisting of four; n. fourth state of Vedntist's soul (complete union with Brahma).
87) तुरीय (p. 77) 1. tur-ya (also t- and -y fourth; consisting of four; n. fourth state of Vedntist's soul (completeunion with Brahma).

p110c3-07/ p077-86

तुरीय turiya [ 2. tr-ya ]
-- a. [ka-turya] fourth (part); n. quarter.
86) तुरीय (p. 77) 2. tr-ya quarter.

p110c3-08/ p077-74

तुरीयक turiyaka [ turya-ka ]
-- a. fourth (part).
74) तुरीयक (p. 77) turya-ka fourth (part).

p110c3-09/ p077-73

तुरुष्क turuska [ turush-ka ]
-- m. Turk; olibanum (kind of resin).
73) तुरुष्क (p. 77) turush-ka Turk; olibanum (kind of resin).


p110c3-10/ not online

-- a. [ka-tur-ya] fourth


p110c3-11/ not online

तुर्यवह् turyavah [ turya-vh ]
-- a. (strong st. -v&asharp;h, nm. -v&asharp;t) being in its fourth year (ox); m. ox --, f. turyauh&isharp;, cow in its fourth year.
36) तुर्यवह् (p. 77) turya-vh -vaNh, nm. -vaNt) being in its fourth year (ox); m. ox --, f. turyauh, cow in its fourth year.


p110c3-12/ not online

[TURV] I. P.
-- trva , overcome, overpower; help to victory, deliver


p110c3-13/ not online

-- m. N.

Contents of this page


p110c3-14/ not online

[TUL] X. P.
-- tolaya and tulaya , lift; weigh; ponder; scrutinise; suspect; compare with, make equal to (in); counterbalance, equal, attain (ac.); pp. ...


p110c3-15/ p077-35

तुलन tulana [ tul-ana ]
-- n. raising; weighing, estimating; , f. equality with (in., --): -m , gam, or -y, become like, equal, resemble, compare with (in. or --).
35) तुलन (p. 77) tul-ana raising; weighing, estimating; , f. equality with (in., --): -m , gam, or -y, become like, equal, resemble, compare with (in. or --).


p110c3-16/ p077-34

तुला tula [ tul-&asharp; ]
-- f. balance, scale; weight; simi larity, equality (with, in., --); Libra (sign of the zodiac): -ruh or sam--ruh, ascend the scales with=bear comparison with, resemble, equal, be a match for (in.), -m adhi ruh, id.; be weighed; enter the sign of Libra; -m with cs. of adhi-ruh etc., place on the balance, weigh; hazard, stake; ps. -m ropya, be endangered; tulay dhri, weigh in the balance, compare (ac.) with (in.).
34) तुला (p. 77) tul-aN balance, scale; weight;


p110c3-17/ p077-55

तुलाकोटि tulakoti [ tul-koti ]
-- m. end of the beam of the balance; anklet; -dhra, a. bearing the balance; -dhrana, n. weighing; -‿adhiroh ana, a. comparable to (--); -purusha, m. man's weight in gold etc.; kind of penance; -yashti, f. beam of the balance; -yoga, m. pl. uses of the balance; -vat, a. furnished with a balance.
55) तुलाकोटि (p. 77) tul-koti end of the beam of the balance; anklet; -dhra, a. bearing the balance; -dhrana, n. weighing; -̮adhirohana, a. comparable to (--); -purusha, m. man's weight in gold etc.; kind of penance; -yashti, f. beam of the balance; -yoga, m. pl. uses of the balance; -vat, a. furnished with a balance.


p110c3-b18/ p077-54

तुल्य tulya [ tl-ya ]
-- a. balancing, equal, similar (to, in., g., --; in, in., lc., or rarely --); of the same caste; of like account, indifferent; -m or --, ad.
54) तुल्य (p. 77) tl-ya balancing, equal, similar (to, in., g., --; in, in., lc., or rarely --); of the same caste; of like account, indifferent; -m or --, ad.

p110c3-19/ p077-53

तुल्यकक्ष tulyakaksa [ tulya-kaksha ]
-- a. equal (--); -kulya, a. of the same family; m. relative; -guna, a. of similar qualities, equally good; -gtya, a. of the same kind, like; -t, f. equality with (in. or --), in (in.); -tva, n. equality, with (in. or --); -darsana, a. looking at every thing with indifference; -naktam-dina, a. to whom night and day are alike; -nind-stuti, a. indifferent to blame and praise; -bhgya, a. having a like fate; -yoga‿upam, f. a rhetorical figure in which dissimilar objects are ( end p110c3 ) (p111c1-top  )
treated alike; -vayas, a. of equal age; -sas, ad. alike, in equal parts; -sla, a. acting similarly: -t, f. abst. n.
53) तुल्यकक्ष (p. 77) tulya-kaksha equal (--); -kulya, a. of the same family; m. relative; -guna, a. of similar qualities, equally good; -gtya, a. of the same kind, like; -t, f. equality with (in. or --), in (in.); -tva, n. equality, with (in. or --); -darsana, a. looking at everything with indifference; -naktam-dina, a. to whom night and day are alike; -nind-stuti, a. indifferent to blame and praise; -bhgya, a. having a like fate; -yoga̮upam, f. a rhetorical figure in which dissimilar objects are treated alike; -vayas, a. of equal age; -sas, ad. alike, in equal parts; -sla, a. acting similarly: -t, f. abst. n.


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Kinnara aka Kiṃnara

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinnara 120321

In Buddhist mythology and Hindu mythology, a kinnara [ {kain~na.ra} m. / {kain~na.ri} f. ] is a paradigmatic lover, a celestial musician, half-human and half-horse (India) or half-bird (south-east Asia). Their character is clarified in the Adi parva of the Mahabharata, where they say:

We are everlasting lover and beloved. We never separate. We are eternally husband and wife; never do we become mother and father. No offspring is seen in our lap. We are lover and beloved ever-embracing. In between us we do not permit any third creature demanding affection. Our life is a life of perpetual pleasure.[1]

They are also featured in a number of Buddhist texts, including the Lotus Sutra. An ancient Indian string instrument is known as the Kinnari Veena.

In Southeast Asian mythology, Kinnaris, the female counterpart of Kinnaras, are depicted as half-bird, half-woman creatures. One of the many creatures that inhabit the mythical Himavanta. Kinnaris have the head, torso, and arms of a woman and the wings, tail and feet of a swan. She is renowned for her dance, song and poetry, and is a traditional symbol of feminine beauty, grace and accomplishment.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article. Also see:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinnara_Kingdom 120321
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_Tribes_of_Ancient_India 120321

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Symplocos racemosa - fam: Symplocaceae

UKT 171123: According to http://botany.si.edu/myanmar/searches/showdata.cfm?myID=4383 171123
Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Symplocaceae)
Habit: Small tree
Distribution: Wide
Common Names: Dauk-yut, Mwet-kang, Nle-prangkau, Pya
It is unfortunate that the website does not indicate which is Burmese, Kachin, Kayin or some other indigenous names. My guess is the Burmese name is Dauk-yut {dauk-yt}.

From http://www.motherherbs.com/symplocos-racemosa.html 120318

Bark is astringent, refrigerant, ophthalmic, expectorant, anti-inflammatory, hypothermic, astringent, depurative, febrifuge, haemostatic, stomachic and suppurative. Bark is used to treat haemorrhage, acne and pimples, eye diseases, spongy and bleeding gums, leucorrhea, wounds, ulcers, tumors, leprosy, skin diseases, asthma, bronchitis, dropsy, arthritis, fever, menstrual disorders, liver diseases, menorrhagia, diarrhea, dysentery, and bowel complaints. A decoction of the bark or wood is used as a gargle for giving firmness to spongy and bleeding gums. It is one of the constituent of a plaster used to promote maturation of boils and other malignant growth.

Habitat: It is found in the plains and lower hills of north and east India and in Himalayas up to 1,400-m altitude.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symplocos 171123

Symplocos is a genus of flowering plants in the order Ericales. It contains about 300 species distributed in Asia and the Americas. Many species grow in humid tropical regions. This is sometimes considered to be the only genus in family Symplocaceae. [1] Plants in this family are shrubs and trees with white or yellow flowers. [2].

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Tilottama - the goddess-enchantress of gods

From Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilottama 120318
UKT 170825: Dvas and Asuras are both celestial beings. They were treated in early Vedas as gods. The term "demon" was dubbed on the Asuras by the Ponnar {poaN~Na:}.

Tilottama (Skt: तिलोत्तमा, Tilottamā) is an Apsara (celestial nymph) described in Hindu mythology. "Tila" is the Sanskrit word for sesame seed or a bit and "uttama" means better or higher. Tilottama therefore means the being whose smallest particle is the finest or one who is composed of the finest and highest qualities.

In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Tilottama is described to have been created by the divine architect Vishwakarma, at Brahma's request, by taking the best quality of everything as the ingredients. She was responsible for bringing about the mutual destruction of the Asuras (demon-gods), Sunda and Upasunda. Even dva-gods like Shiva and Indra are described to be enamoured of Tilottama.

While a legend talks about a pre-birth as an ugly widow, another narrates how she was cursed to be born as a Daitya (demon-god) princess Usha by sage Durvasa.

Birth and destruction of Sunda and Upasunda

In the Adi Parva (Book 1) of the epic Mahabharata, the divine sage Narada tells the Pandava brothers the story of destruction of demon brothers Sunda and Upsunda due to the apsara Tilottama, and warning them that their common wife Draupadi could be a reason of quarrel between them. [UKT ]

The tale states Sunda and Upasunda were sons of the asura-god (demon) Nikumbha. They are described as inseparable siblings who shared everything: the kingdom, the bed, food, house, seat. Once, the brothers practiced severe austerities on the Vindhya mountains, compelling the creator-god Brahma to grant them a boon. [UKT ]

They asked for great power and immortality, but the latter was denied, instead Brahma gave them the boon that nothing but they themselves can hurt each other. Soon, the Asuras (demons) attacked heaven and drove the gods out. Conquering the whole universe, the demons started harassing sages and creating havoc in the universe. [1] 

Bur-Myan should note that the English words <heaven>, <gods> and <demons> are misleading in our culture. These words mean:

<heaven> is meant {nt pr} (MED2006-236),
<gods> are {d-wa. nt} aka {nt d-wa} (MED2006-210), and
<demons> are {a.u.ra. nt} (UHS-PMD0149).

To the Theravada Buddhists, all {nt}s (MED2006-236) are sexual beings - no better than humans -- and some are drunkards, adulterers and murderers.

The Hindu Trinity, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva are Mahadevas and must be included in the class of {nt}. Maar {maar-nt} [locally mis-pronounced as {maan-nt}] is also a {nt} and is much higher in standing and power than Indra {AIn~da} (MED2006-628). Though equated to {i.kra:}, the Hindu {AIn~da} is totally different from Theravada {i.kra:} in disposition.

Similarly the Hindu Mahadeva Brahma is totally different from the Theravada Brahmas the latter belonging to the worlds of a-sexual beings. -- UKT120318

The gods and seers sought refuge with Brahma. Brahma then ordered the divine architect Vishvakarma to create a beautiful woman. Vishvakarma collected all that was beautiful from the three worlds (heaven, earth, underworld) and all the gems of the world and created an alluring woman - with unrivaled beauty - from them. As she was created bit by bit from the gems, Brahma named her Tilottama and directed her to seduce the demon brothers to the extent that she would become an issue of contention between them. [1]

As Sunda and Upasunda were enjoying dalliance with women and engrossed in drinking liquor along a river bank in the Vindhya mountains, Tilottama appeared there plucking flowers. Bewitched by her voluptuous figure and drunk with power and liquor, Sunda and Upasunda took hold of Tilottama right and left hands respectively. As both of the brothers argued that Tilottama should be his own wife, they grabbed their clubs and attacked each other, ultimately killing each other. The gods congratulated her and Brahma granted her the right to roam freely in the universe as a boon. Brahma also decreed that no one would be able to look at her for a long time due to her luster. [1]

Enchantress of the gods

The Mahabharata (Book 1: Adi Parva) narrates: Though Brahma was unaffected by Tilottama's beauty, the other gods were spell-bound by her beauty. [UKT ]

Initially, Shiva and Indra remain unperturbed, [1] [2] So great was the desire of the great god Shiva (referred to Sthanu - the firm one) to see her, a head developed on both his sides and back of his head as she circumambulated him as a mark of reverence. The god-king of heaven, Indra, however, developed thousand red eyes on his body to see her. [1] [3] [UKT ]

Another legend describes sage Gautama cursing Indra for seducing his wife Ahalya. Gautama decreed that Indra would develop thousand vaginas on his body, but they change to thousand eyes once Indra lays his eyes on Tiliottama. [4]

Another tale in the Mahabharata (Book 13) narrates that Tilottama comes to tempt him. Eager to see her as she circumambulated him, Shiva developed four visible faces, another interpretation states that Shiva revealed himself to Tilottama as the five Brahmans, with his five faces (4 visible, 1 invisible). The east face signifying his sovereignty over the world, the north face to sport with Parvati, the west to ensure the happiness of creatures; the south face, to destroy the universe and the fifth face was invisible as it was beyond the comprehension of Tilottama. [2] [5] [6] Another legend from the Puranas says Brahma created Tilottama and was aroused by her. Brahma lusts for his own daughter Tilottama and makes five heads in order to see her. Then Brahma sends Tilottama to Mount Kailash, the abode of Shiva, to pay her obeisance to him. Shiva glances at her, but avoids to carefully look at her as his consort Parvati was seated besides him. As Tilottama circumambulated Shiva, he develops a head in each direction to see her. The divine sage Narada taunts Parvati, "You can image what Shiva is thinking about this prostitute who is reviled by wise men". Agitated, Parvati covers Shiva's eyes with her hands submerging the universe in darkness. Shiva then develops a third eye to bring light to the universe. [4]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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Tirhut - the country surrounded by three rivers

UKT 171123: Compare the Mithila in India/Nepal to Meikhtila-township in Myanmarpr.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meiktila_Township 171123
"Meiktila Township {mait~hti-la mro.n} is a township of Meiktila District in the Mandalay Division of Burma."

What is not well known is that the only river running from south to north, the Samon Chaung runs through it. The word Chaung 'creek' does not do justice to the northern part of Proto-Irrawaddy which was broken in two with the upheaval of land accompanied by the eruption of Mount Popa volcano in ‎442 BCE [Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Popa 171123]. The local legend has that when Gautama Buddha visited the country, he foretold the rise of the volcano. The event broke up the Proto-Irrawaddy: the northern portion becoming the Samon River, and the southern the Salween River.

The second fact that was brought to my attention by one of my staff , Maung N Hpyo, in Yangon TIL research station. He said that in his village and other villages in the surrounding area would say {hta.mn: shak} instead of {hta.mn: hkyak} for "cooking of rice". It would be interesting for the study of language variation.

The area is the homeland of the ancient Pyus. According to Australian archeologist Bob Hudson, it was the homeland of the ancient Pyus. See Bob Hudson's papers in TIL PDF libraries:
- BHudson-OriginPagan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171123)
- BHudson-SuvannabhumiVol06<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171123)
See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyu_city-states 171113


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tirhut 120319

Tirhut (Dev: तिरहुत Tirhuta: তিরহুত) is simplified equivalent of Tirbhukti (তিরভুক্তী/तिरभुक्ती) (a Sanskrit word), which means a land surrounded by 3 rivers. Tirhut is surrounded by 3 rivers: [River] Gandak on West, [River] Kosi on east and [River] Ganga on South. [1] (Note: Kosi River has tendency of shifting her course. The original course of Kosi was through Purnea, NOT through Saharsa). [2]  Mithila, Videha, Tibhukti, Republic of Vajji and The great Vajji Union are alternative names of Tirhut. [3] 

The city of Mithila has been identified as modern day Janakpur in Dhanusa district of Nepal. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithila 120319

Mithila was the capital of Videha, now identified with Janakpur, a town in Southern Nepal. The rulers of Vidheha were called Janakas and in Hindu tradition are thought to have been great scholars. It is believed that they were the oldest among the clans migrated from the river Saraswati as the river started drying up. -- 120319

Ancient history

Ramayana King Sirdhwaj Janaka was ruling Videha. He was the 21st king of Janaka Dynasty. Sitamarhi, a place in this region, bears a value of sacred Hindu belief where, Seeta (other name Vaidehi: The Princes of Videha) sprang to life out of an earthen pot while Rajarshi Janak was tilling the land. There had been 57 kings in this dynasty.[6]

After the end of Janaka dynasty, Videha/Tirhut was made into 8 states and power was decentralized to the local representatives elected by the people. [UKT ]

Tirhut takes the credit of being first Democratic republic ever on the earth. During this period, Tirhut was know by the name VAJJI REPUBLIC or the GREAT UNION OF VAJJI. Out of the 8 states of Union, Licchavis were the most powerful and influential.

Even the powerful kingdom of Magadh had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B.C. with the neighboring estates of the Licchavis. Ajatshatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Tirhut. It was at this time that Patliputra (the modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred river Ganga and Ajatshatru built an invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side of the river. Ambarati, 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali, the famous Royal court dancer of Vaishali. Vaishali, a center of religious renaissance, Baso Kund, the birth place of Mahavir, the 24th Jain Tirthankar and a contemporary of Lord Buddha continue to attract visitors from across the international boarders.

From the visit of the Hieuen Tsangs till the rise of the Pala dynasty, Tirhut was under the control of King Harsha Vardhan. [UKT ]

Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: Xun Zng; WadeGiles: Hsan-tsang Skt: ह्वेनसांग) (c. 602 664) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. -- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xuanzang 120319
   UKT note: The late U Lay Maung, an official interpreter of the Burmese government who participated in the demarcation of border between Burma and China had told me that he had read in the works on a Chinese monk of the 7th century (written in Chinese) that Burma was a country full of 'astrologers' [meaning 'magicians']. The monk-traveler did not visit Burma but went back from India to China by sea. Unfortunately I have forgotten the name of the monk and my friend is no more. -- 120319

After 647 A.D., the region passed on to the local chiefs. In the 8th century A.D. the Pala kings continued to have their hold over Tirhut until 1019 A.D. Later Chedi kings of Central India ruled till they were replaced by the Sena dynasty in 11th century.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.
Refer to the following links: Mithila Maithili Language : I suspect that this language - different from Bengali - would have links to Bur-Myan. Maithili language, is a language spoken in the eastern part of India and south - eastern part of Nepal and it is a second national language of Nepal. It belongs to the ancient Kingdom Mithila. Mithilakshar, the script traditionally used for the Maithili language

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Tishya - the celestial archer

UKT 171123: The Nakshatra 08. Pushya: The Star of Nourishment (Cancer 3 20 to 16 40):
Pushya is considered to be the most auspicious of the twenty-seven lunar mansions. The symbols for this asterism are a lotus, circle, arrow and the udder of the sacred cow. The ancient name of Pushya in the Rig Veda was Tishya, the Celestial Archer. It has a deva temperament with the primary motivation of dharma or right action. The ruling planet is Shani or Saturn which grounds the energy of this powerful nakshatra. The chief deity is Brahaspati, the High Priest of the Gods. The shakti of Pushya is the ability to create spiritual energy. It is formed by North and South Aselli, the two donkeys which reflect the manger and the birth of the Christ child that occurs under the spiritual energy of this benefic lunar mansion:.

O wise Maruts, let us carry off the wealth of food which you have bestowed on us; give us, O Maruts, such thousand fold wealth as never fails, like the star Tishya (Pushya_ from heaven Rig Veda, V.55.13"

See downloaded paper, dated 1999, in TIL PDF libraries:
- DMHarness-VedicNakshatra<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171123)


From: Avestan: Tishtry , Vedic: Tishy , Norse: Tyr, Constellations and stars,
Orthodox Zoroastrianism :
http://orthodoxzoroastrianism.wordpress.com/2010/07/12/tishtrya/ 120319

July the 1st marks the feast of rain and the great celebration of Tishtry; the brightest star associated with rain in the Zoroastrian calendar. Also, on July the 3rd, the maid-y-sham or mid-summer thanksgiving festival is celebrated in the seasonal Zoroastrian calendar.

In the Mazdean/Zoroastrian reckoning; the 4th month of the year (first month of summer,) and the 13 day of each month is dedicated to Tishtry, the brightest star in the sky, the forerunner of rain, abundance and plenty.

The occasion is a happy festival, celebrated outdoors by a stream, waterfall, river or lake; and is marked by sprinkling each other with water. Another feature of this festival is wearing of a colorful bracelet/ribbon made out of seven threads for almost 2 weeks.

But what is exactly Tishtry??? Many of the reverences in the Zoroastrian prayers in the Yasna and Yashts are made to cosmological energies of the various constellations. And the most brilliant and auspicious of those in firmament is Tishtry. The eighth hymn in the Yashts of the Avesta are dedicated to Tishtry. Plutrach identifies it with SIRIUS. However, Avestan Tishtry seem to be the same as the Vedic Tishy and ancient Norse Tyr.

It should be added that Avestan Astronomy/Astrology is very similar to the Rig Veda. Vedic Tishy appears in the 5th and 10th book of the Rig Veda in the following passages RV Book 5.54.13 and Book 10.64.8. Just as the Avestan Tishtry is the most brilliant and the luckiest of all stars/constellations, so is the Vedic Tishy considered to be the most auspicious of the twenty seven constellations. Just as Tishtry according to verse 44 of the hymn dedicated to him is the most learned counsel of the stars; so is Tishy associated with Brahaspati, the High Scholar/Priest of the Gods.

Tishy is the Celestial Archer in the Rig Veda. The symbolic link with the astral theme of the heavenly arrow is strongly present in Avestan, Vedic and Nordic accounts, particularly with respect to the most brilliant star in firmament, which in Vedic India was shot by the archers Tishy or Rudra, but which in Ancient Iran corresponds to Tishtry himself. In fact, according to Avestan Ysht. 8.6-7 and 37-38, Tishtry flies in the sky as the arrow shot by the most valiant archer of the Aryans, the hero erekhsh or iranian rash.

It is worthwhile to add that in later times Tishtry was called Tir or arrow in farsi. The farsi Tir meaning arrow, is derived from Old Iranian Tigr, but a close connection nevertheless exists between Tishtry and celestial arrow.

This close connection could be structurally and functionally compared with that of Vedic Indra Vṛtrahān; the parallel passages in Avestan Tishtar Yasht 8.56-61 and Avestan Vahrm Yasht 14.48-53 have been discussed in this Indo-Iranian framework by Benveniste.

In Norse Mythology Tyr is related to the north star around which the fixed stars in the night sky appear to rotate. Ancient Viking seamen used Polaris/Tyr as their main navigational aid in their long journeys, and the symbol as an arrow pointing upward is perhaps made in reference to this. It might be interesting to add that the Avestan Tishtryā according to the shāyest na shāyest 22.3, is also the protector of travelers (Kotwal, 1969, p. 91).

Tyr symbolizes the celestial compass. The belief that courage and a right cause carries the day is governed by divine Tyr. Tyr is all about the common justice of the people rather than the use of law by tyrants (a word that uses Tyr as a root.) The same exact parallel is found in the Avestan hymn to Tishtry, concerning the most valiant archer of the Aryans, the hero erekhsh or Iranian rash whose tale is all about the common justice of the people rather than the law of the tyrants.

UKT: The modern English word <tyrant> implies a 'cruel ruler', however, in ancient times the word simply means a 'ruler'. [from stories of Greek mythology which I have read in my pre-teen years nearly 70 years ago. ] - UKT120319

An insight we can draw from Tishtry or Tyr is that we must target our energies for the benefit/justice of the common people and the fertility of the land.

The other great insight we can draw from stanzas 13-34 of the Avestan hymn to Tishtry, where Tishtrys battles Du.yāiryā/difficult year and Ap.ash/drought or literally the ruin/demise of the waters; and stanza 8 in which the divine star combats the str kerem, the worm stars or shooting galactic showers is: that all life-possibilities are indicated like a hieroglyph in the graph of the stars. But, the stars and constellations are only INDICATORS. There is a higher power of spiritual energy, of Consciousness and Will which can override the material fate of which the stars are indicators of several possibilities.

UKT: End of post

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Tukhara - the name of a people: the problem of transcription

Excerpt from: The original home of the Tukharians , by M. Rohi Uighur, Pakistan Historical Soc., Karachi-5, 1965 http://www.uyghurweb.net/En/r_english.html 120319

The original home of the Jukharians

Among the many striking discoveries of historical importance by the well-known archeologist, Sir Aurel Stein, during his three successful expeditions in Eastern Turkistan in the beginning of this century, was the excavation of the site at Endere, an ancient town in east of Khutan, The significance of this discovery lies in the identification of the site, which was probably the original homeland of the Tukhariams. The celebrated Chinese pilgrim, Hsuan-tsang, who visited it on his way back from his itenarary in the subcontinent in 644 A.C. has referred to it as the "Old Tu-huo-lo" country. He found this country covered with wastes, and called it by the same name "Tu-huo-lo (Tukhara)" which was borne by the early conquerors of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom, and which survived down to mediaeval times [1] . 

Hsuan-tsang's reference to the site as "Tu-huo-lo," has given rise to a great deal of speculation and discussions regarding the ethnic origin of the Tukharians and the relation between them and conquering hordes from Central Asia, such as the Scythians and Yueh-chihs. However it is now established beyond doubt that the Jukjiarians were an ancient people who had settled and lived not only in Endere (Khutan) and other parts of Eastern Turkistan, but had spread all over Central Asia, viz: right from the neibourhood of Kansu and Issyk-Kul upto the valley of Hindu-kush in the south ; they were mentioned in the Chinese chronicles in the second century B. C,, as a nomadic horde living around Kansu, and were known to the Tibetans. They were also known to the Indians, Greeks, the Persians and the Arabs [2]. We would like to assess the important role played by them in the early history of Central Asia and Bactria along with the Sakas (Scythians) and Yueh-chih.

Early mention of Tukhara

Tukhara is first mentioned by the Greek author S<rabo along with the nomadic hordes which wrested Bactria from the Greeks in the second century B. C. [3]; their name however occurs in different forms. Even they themselves pronounced their name in different ways [4].

Ptolemy has given five notices of the Tochari belonging to different times and places and with different spellings, representing unaspirared Hellenistic forms, for example : "Thogouroi" in Kansu, "Tokoraioi" in north Imaos, "Taghourio" in Sogdiana, "Tocharoi" in Bactria. However as Tarn suggests, it is not clear whether Ptolemy knew that he was recording the odyssey of one and the same people. It would be interesting to know that this odyssey, according to Tarn, is that of Yueh-chih as given by the Chinese sources, and it makes the identification of Tochari and the Yueh-chih certain ; Pliny also knew the Tochari as "Tagorae", or "Ta-kor (aioi)", or "Tagour (aooi)" [5],

This form occurs again, as Tiaugaru and Ttaudagara in two Khotan-Saca documents of c. A. C. 800, along with the names of some Turkish tribes who lived in the neighbourhood of Kansu [6]. It is said, Apollodorus (c. 100 B. C.) has mentioned it as Tocharoi (Tokharoi) and it is believed that this was the form which was popularised by Strabo and has passed into common use as the name of this tribe in Bactria and also the form (T'akhoroi)T'achoroi, in connection with Sogdiana [7].

We have also the form, "Tokhari" or "Togari""Tojari" which is found later in Central Asia (Turfan) in fragments of Ephthalite coins as the name of the Saca speech of the Kushans of Tocharistan (Tu-huo-lo) of Hsuan-tsang [8]. In Tibetan documents the people who lived in and around Kan-Su occurs in the form of "Thod-kar", "Phod-Kar" in the east and "Tho-gar", "Tho-dkar", "Tho-kar" in the West [9]. In Sogdiana the name occured as "Tgw'r'k" also. In Armenian "T'uchari-k" , "To'c-haraston"[10]. It is also said, that the name "Tochar" was also applied to the Turks of Eastern Turkistan by the Tibetans,[11] The "Tokhar" or "Tochar" figures in Sanskrit literature since the time of Mahabharata in the form of Tuhkhara, Tukhara, and also Tushara,[12] and is repeatedly mentioned in the Rajataran-gini [13] .

In Turkish and Manechian and Buddhist texts of Central Asia it occured in the form "Twchry", (Twgry) and "Twqry", [14] but this has been a subject of controversy [15] .

"The term "Tukhar", according to Walters and Lesson means frost, snow, cold, and mist or vapour, [16] in which, should it be correct, we can easily trace the origin of the Turkish word "kar"-qar-(snow) the first element "To" or "Ta" might represent "Tagh" meaning mountain, the letter "g" of "Tagh" and "k" of "Kar", both being aspirated letters, have been amalgamated into one. It may also be noticed in the name of another Turkish tribe, Karluq, the successors or the remnant of the Tukharians, who lived in the territories of the old Tukharistan (Kattaghan and Badakhshan of today). The legend of Oghuz also attests this theory, according to which the name Qarluq was given by him, when they lived in the mountains [17]. In the light of these assertions we can safely conclude that these people might have been called so, when they still were living in mountainous regions as nomads.

The name "Tochari" was known to the Chinese, with different transcriptions or wording; in the second century B. C. it was applied to the remnant of a people who lived in Kan-su [18]. But the name in the form "Tu-huo-lo" also in slightly different transcription, appears prominently in the annals and records of the T'ang period [19]. However, in the time of Hsuang-tsang it was properly not the name of a country, but of a great tribe or people occupying an extensive territory [20] in Bactria and on the banks of Oxus. It seems to have lasted almost up to the conquest of Khurasan and Central Asia by the Arabs who knew the territory which they occupied as Tukhari (طخارى) and Tukharistan (طخارستان) also Jukhayristan (طخيرستان) or Mamalik- al-Tukhar ( ممالك الطخار)[21].

The people or the tribe of Tukhdn.

The Tukharis were a people or tribe widely spread all over Central Asia right from Kansu up to Rha (Volga) in the west and from Issyk-Kul to the valley of Hindukush in the south, a fact established by both, the early Chinese and Greek sources. We notice in Pliny and Ptolemy as saying that a people called Togarae crossed the Tanais-Don (Jaxartes) from east to west with other "Scyths"[22]; they even knew the sojourn of Tochari in the lake Issyk-kul and of their crossing the Jaxartes southward. [23]The Chinese knew, the remnant of a people in second century B.C. who lived in a city on the 'Silk Route' with the same name in and around Kansu and had moved to the west [24], and, according to Tibetan documents, there lived a people called Thod-kar, or Phod-kar, identified by F. W. Thomas and others with the same 'Tukhari'[25]. The occurance of the one name in the form "Ttaugara", "Tho-kar" in the east and of "Tokhara" or "Tochara" in the west used by one people, would suffice to prove that they were a widely spread people and they carried the name with themselves wherever they went. As the name is found in places too remote for it to be possible of a foreign origin, it was evidently their native name brought from their original home (Eastern Turkistan)[26].

However, the form "To-huo-Io" meaning Tukharistan appears in the Chinese annals first in the fifth century A.C. In the History of the T'ang we read about the country of Tukhari that it was situated of the Ts'ng-ling mountains (Pamir), south of the rver wu-hu (Wakhan-Oxus). The Chnese also dentify it with the country of Ta-Hia-Da-Hae (Great Hia) of the time of the Han period. In the seventh and eight centuries the kingdom of Tu-huo-lo repeatedly sent embassies to the Chinese Court [27]. St. Martin and Julien identify Tukhara of the later period with Ephtahalites (Haital), the Chinese Yatha, [28] a branch of Yue-ti (Yueh-chih); according to "Shu" and "Sui-shu" Tukharas have been the small Yue-ti and the Yatha and Tukharians lived together, but the former were nomads, while the later town dwellers [29].

The country of Tukhhari to which the Chinese records, as well as Hsuang-tsang give the remarkable name "Tu-huo-lo," either by the name of lukhara or Tukharistan, or by that of Haitals continued for centuries as fragments of an extinct kingdom, the former name surviving the later up to the Muslim periods; it became almost obsolete about the the time of the Mongol dominion in the thirteenth century [30].

UKT: More in the original article.

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