Update: 2020-05-29 12:05 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top


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{s-tau:} :


{sau:a.} : the first member of this row is not realized
{sau-a.} : the first member of this row is not realized
{sya.} /

UKT notes :
Chaitanya Mahprabhu (14861534)
 - a priest of Vaishnavite-Hinduism
Coromandal Coast : my homage to Saya Solomon
Month of Caitra :

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p096-1c1-b00/ p069-004

चेतोभू [ keto-bh ]
- m. love; Kma; -mukha, a. whose mouth is understanding; -vikra, m. mental derangement.
4) चेतोभू (p. 69) keto-bh love; Kma;


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p096-1c1-b01/ p069-003

चेद् [ k‿id ]
- pcl. (never beg. sentence or half-verse) and (V.); when (V.); also, even, with api (E.); if (the apodosis commonly has tad, tatas, tad, tarhi, or atha); atha ked, but if; na or no ked, if not, elliptical = if it were not so, otherwise; ken na, if --, not (apodosis); iti ken na, if this is objected, it is not so.
3) चेद् (p. 69) ka◡́id and (V.); when (V.); also, even, with api (E.);

apodosis - n. pl. apodoses . The main clause of a conditional sentence, as The game will be canceled in The game will be canceled if it rains. -- AHTD


p096-1c1-b02/ p069-002

चेदि [ kedi ]
- m. pl. N. of a people in Bundelkund; -pati, m. king of Kedi; -rga, m. id.
2) चेदि (p. 69) kedi -pati, m. king of Kedi;


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p096-1c1-b03/ p069-001

चेय [ ke-ya ]
- fp. to be piled or accumulated.
1) चेय (p. 69) ke-ya to be piled or accumulated.


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p096-1c1-b04/ p069-048

चेल [ kela ]
- m. garment; raiment; -ka, m. a good-for-nothing (--); -‿saka, m. clothes-moth.
48) चेल (p. 69) kela garment; raiment;


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[ kesht ],
- I. kshia, move the limbs, kick, struggle; be stir oneself, be busy; act, do; frequent: pp. -ita; cs. keshtaya, set in motion, impel to action. ati, exert oneself overmuch, , do, perform. pari, welter; wander about. vi, struggle; bestir oneself, act, towards (lc.); effect, produce; cs. set in motion; impel to action. pra-vi wander about. sam, grow restless; proceed, act.


p096-1c1-b06/ p069-036

चेष्ट [ kesht-a ]
- n. motion, gesture; action; , f. id.; activity; performance; conduct, behaviour, doings, goings on; -ana, n. motion; performance; -ita, pp.; n.=kesht.
36) चेष्ट (p. 69) kesht-a motion, gesture; action;


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p096-1c1-b07/ p069-020

चैतन्य [ kaitan-ya ]
- n. consciousness, intellect, mind, soul; m. N. of a prophet born in 1484 AD.: -kandra‿udaya, m. T. of a play (moon-rise of Kaitanya).
20) चैतन्य (p. 69) kaitan-ya consciousness, intellect, mind, soul;

See my note on Chaitanya Mahaprabhu  (14861534)
was a Vaishnavite-Hindu reformer-priest.
See also a video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wI649U6jnoY  141029


p096-1c1-b08/ p069-019

चैत्त [ kaitta ]
- a. belonging to the province of thought (kitta), that which is thought; mental.
19) चैत्त (p. 69) kaitta belonging to the province of thought (kitta), that which is thought; mental.



[ kaitya ]
- . m. individual soul; . a. relating to the funeral pile; ...


p096-1c1-b10/ p069-018

चैत्र [ kaitra ]
- m. N. of the second spring month (March-April); N.; -ratha, n. (sc. vana) N. of Kuvera's forest laid out by Kitraratha.
18) चैत्र (p. 69) kaitra (March-April);

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p096-1c2-b00/ p069-017

चैत्री [ kaitr ]
- f. day of full moon in the month Kaitra.
17) चैत्री (p. 69) kaitr day of full moon in the month Kaitra.

See my note on Caitra


p096-1c2-b01/ p069-016

चैद्य [ kaidya ]
- m. pat. descendant of Kedi; prince of Kedi (esp. Sisupla).
16) चैद्य (p. 69) kaidya descendant of Kedi;


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p096-1c2-b02/ p069-015

चैल [ kaila ]
- m. clothes-moth; n. cloth, garment: -dhva, m. washerman; -‿saka, m. demon feeding on moths.
15) चैल (p. 69) kaila clothes-moth; n. cloth, garment:


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चोक [koka]
Skt: चोक [koka] -- n. kind of root - Mac096c2
Skt: चोक coka - root of wild spider flower, Cleome gynandra (Bot.) - SpkSkt


p096-1c2-b04/ p069-014

चोक्ष [ koksha ]
- a. clean, pure.
14) चोक्ष (p. 69) koksha clean, pure.


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p096-1c2-b05/ p069-013

चोच [ koka ]
- n. kind of cinnamon bark.
13) चोच (p. 69) koka cinnamon bark. 


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p096-1c2-b06/ p069-012

चोड [ koda ]
- m. ridge (on bricks); doublet: -karna, m. N.
12) चोड (p. 69) koda ridge (on bricks); doublet:


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p096-1c2-b07/ p069-011

चोद [ kd-a ]
- m. goad, whip; -, a. inspiring, stimulating; furthering; -aka, a. impelling; m. injunction, direction; invitation.
11) चोद (p. 69) kd-a goad, whip;


p096-1c2-b08/ p069-010

चोदन [ kd-ana ]
- a. urging, impelling; n., , f. incitement, invitation; command; precept, prescription; -ayi-tavya, cs. fp. to be censured or criticised; -ayitri, m., tr, f. inciter, stimulator, promoter; -i-tri, m. inciter, stimulator, promoter; -ya, fp. to be urged; -censured; -called in question; na kodya, not to be insisted on = matter of course.
10) चोदन (p. 69) kd-ana urging, impelling;


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p096-1c2-b09/ p069-009

चोर [ kor- ]
- m. thief; plagiarist: (a)-ka, m. thief; -ayitavya, fp. to be stolen.
9) चोर (p. 69) kor- thief; plagiarist: (a)-ka, m. thief;


p096-1c2-b10/ p069-008

चोरितक [ korita-ka ]
- n. stolen object.
8) चोरितक (p. 69) korita-ka stolen object.


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p096-1c2-b11/ p069-007

चोल [ kola ]
- m. jacket, doublet: pl. N. of a people (inhabitants of the modern Tanjore); sg. prince of Kola; -ka, m. pl. the Kolas; -mandala, n. province of Kola, Koromandel coast.
7) चोल (p. 69) kola jacket, doublet:

See my note on Coromandal coast
and on Saya Solomon who taught us History & Geography
for the 1950-Matriculation Exam of Rangoon University.


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p096-1c2-b12/ p069-006

चोष [ kosh-a ]
- a. sucking (--); m. burning, parched feeling, feverishness; -ana, n. sucking; -ya, fp. to be sucked.
6) चोष (p. 69) kosh-a sucking (--); m. burning, parched feeling, feverishness;


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p096-1c2-b13/ p069-005

चौक्ष [ kauksha ],
- चौक्ष्य  kaukshya  a. clean.
5) चौक्ष (p. 69) kaukshya clean.

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p096-1c2-b14/ p069-035

चौड [ kauda ]
- n. ceremony of tonsure.
35) चौड (p. 69) kauda ceremony of tonsure.


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p096-1c2-b15/ p069-034

चौतपल्लव [ kauta-pallava ]
- a. () peculiar to a mango twig.
34) चौतपल्लव (p. 69) kauta-pallava () peculiar to a mango twig.


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p096-1c2-b16/ p069-033

चौर [ kaura ]
- m. (, f.) thief, robber; stealer of (-- ); usurper; -karman, n. thieving; -danda-bhg, a. incurring the penalty of a thief; -saṅkin, a. afraid of thieves or robbers; -‿atav, f. forest infested by robbers.
33) चौर (p. 69) kaura (, f.) thief, robber; stealer of (--);


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p096-1c3-b00/ p069-032

चौरिका [ kaur-ik ]
- f. stealer of (--); theft; stealth, fraud: in. behind the back of (g.).
32) चौरिका (p. 69) kaur-ik stealer of (--); theft;



-- m. exterminator, i.e. detective of thieves 


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p096-1c3-b02/ p069-031

चौर्य [ kaur-ya ]
- n. theft; stealth, defraudation, fraud: -ka, n. id.; -bhaya, n. fear owing to one's theft; -rata, n. stealthy enjoyment of love, adultery; -vritti, a. living by theft.
31) चौर्य (p. 69) kaur-ya theft; stealth, defraudation, fraud:


p096-1c3-b03/ p069-030

चौल [ kaula ]
- n. ceremony of tonsure.
30) चौल (p. 69) kaula ceremony of tonsure. 


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UKT 160304, 170725: The conjunct च ् य --> {sya.} is unusual and seems to be out of place. It should have come much earlier after {sa.ya.} in p092.htm (link chk 170725).

Or, is it a case of special conjuncts such as Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za. If it were a conjunct its shape {sya.} would be very much like that of Bur-Myan {Za.} but unlike Mon-Myan {Za.} pronounced as {hky}
Mon-Myan pronunciation of row2: as affricates
- bk-cndl-{sa.}-row<)) :
Mon pronounce {sa.} as /{kya.}/ ; {hsa.} as /{hkya.}/, and
---------------------{za.} as /{gy}/ ; {Za.} as /{hky}/
---------------------{a.} as /{}/
However, when you note that in Skt-Dev {sa.} च is Palatal-affricate, whilst in Bur-Myan it is Palatal-stop, you can see why I'm forced to use the following differentiation

Differentiate {sya.} from by it {ya.pn.}-sign.

p096-1c3-b04/ p069-029

च्यवन [ kyv-ana ]
= च ् य व न
- a. moving (int.), shaking (tr.); N. of a demon of disease; N. of a Rishi; n. motion; loss of (--).
29) च्यवन (p. 69) kyv-ana moving (int.), shaking (tr.);



[ kyv-a-m ]
-- 1 sg. subj. of √kyu 


p096-1c3-b06/ p069-028

च्यवान [ kyv-na ]
- pr. pt. active, nimble; N. of a Rishi.
28) च्यवान (p. 69) kyv-na active, nimble; N. of a Rishi.


p096-1c3-b07/ p069-027

च्यावन [ kyv-ana ]
- cs. a. felling; n. expulsion.
27) च्यावन (p. 69) kyv-ana felling; n. expulsion. 


p096-1c3-b08/ not online

च्यु [ kyu ],
- I. . kyva (E. also P.), waver, move; depart or swerve from (ab.); be deprived of, lose (ab.); vanish, perish; fail; fall or drop, from (ab.); be ruined; sink to lower births; sink morally; put in motion, move: pp. kyut, fallen from, deserted by, free from, devoid of (ab. or -); cs. kyvya or (rarely) kyavaya, shake; cause to fall, expel or take away from (ab.); cause to lose, deprive of (2 ab.); . be shaken, ud, cs. take out, extract. pari, fall, fly, or speed from (ab.); swerve from (ab.); pp. fallen, expelled, or swerving from, deprived of (ab. or -); cs. shake; cause to fall; expel; dissuade from (ab.). anu-pra, set out after, follow (ac.). vi, depart; swerve from (ab.); be lost, fail.

च्युत cyuta
Skt: [ kyut ] - pp. fallen from, deserted by, free from, devoid of (ab. or -); - Mac096c3
Skt: च्युत cyuta - adj. moved, come forth from, free of, expelled from (used with ablative), ... - SpkSkt
BPal: {su.ta.} - UHS PMD0395c1
 UKT from UHS: mfn. moved from, dropped from, has died

च्यावयते cyāvayate
Skt: च्यावयते cyāvayate {cyu} - v. caus. deprive anyone of, drive away from, loosen, be removed or shaken, loosen, cause to fall ... - SpkSkt



च्युत् [ . kyu-t ]
- a. (--) moving (int.); shaking; destroying.
26) च्युत् (p. 69) 1. kyu-t (--) moving (int.); shaking;



[2. KYUT] I.P> [kyota]
-- . drop, drip, fall down


p096-1c3-b11/ p069-025

च्युति [ kyu-ti ]
- f. departure from (--); issue of (--); breach of duty; swerving from (ab.); failure of (--); loss; death; fall (fig.).
25) च्युति (p. 69) kyu-ti departure from (--); issue of (--);

च्युति [ kyu-ti ]
Skt: च्युति [ kyu-ti ] - loss; death; fall (fig.) - Mac096c3
BPal: {su.ti.} - UHS PMD0395c1
  UKT from UHS: f. move, death


p096-1c3-b12/ p069-024

च्यौत्न [ kyautn ]
- a. stimulating; n. shaking; enterprise, endeavour.
24) च्यौत्न (p. 69) kyautn stimulating; n. shaking;

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UKT notes

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

- UKT 141029, 170725

Chaitanya Mahprabhu (14861534) - a priest of Vaishnavite-Hinduism

Few in Myanmarpr knows much about Hinduism, and less so of the two main (and somewhat opposing) branches, the Vaishnavism (worship Vishnu-dva as the administrator, whilst Brahma-dva - the Creator - can be ignored), and the Shaivism (worship of Siva-dva as the Creator, the Administrator and Destroyer as the Supreme). Northern Hindus, mostly Hindi-speakers , are mostly Vaishnavites, whilst the southern Hindus mostly Tamil-speakers are Shaivites.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (14861534) was a historical person, and a reformer priest of Vaishnavism. We may also note that in Vaishnavism , there are three main dva-gods, the Hindu Triniy: Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Maintainer of Law and Order, and Siva the Enforcer of Law and Order aka the Destroyer. Vishnu-dva is said to take an earthly form - the Ten Incarnations of Vishnu - from time to time to maintain Law and Order in the world. The human King Rama (husband of Sita) was the Seventh incarnation, and the human King Krishna (lover of Radha) the Eight incarnation.

It is probable that these human-kings had been deified and worshipped by Tibeto-Burman speakers - the aboriginals, long before the worshippers of Vishnu - the speakers of Sanskrit (Indo-European language), had first appeared in north-western India. These invaders promptly claimed that the Deity Krishna and Deity Rama are just incarnations of their god-Vishnu. Some of them went even further and claimed that Gautama Buddha (of Anatta-doctrine - the exact opposite of Hinduism) was the Ninth Incarnation of Vishnu (Atta-doctrine). They had forgotten that the underlying doctrines were just the opposite. I claim that our teacher, the Gautama Buddha, to be a true scientist in the modern sense, because the laws he discovered are non-axiomatic and are acceptable to modern science.

चैतन्य caitanya [ kaitan-ya ]
-- n. consciousness, intellect, mind, soul; m. N. of a prophet born in 1484 a. d.: -kandra‿udaya, m. T. of a play (moon-rise of Kaitanya).

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaitanya_Mahaprabhu 120219, 141029

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST Caitanya Mahāprabhu; 4 February 1486 14 June 1534[1]) was a Hindu monk and social reformer from 16th century India. A native of Navadvip in Bengal, he promoted the worship of God, in his tradition known by the name Krishna. [2] He is venerated by followers of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. [3]

Chaitanya was a notable proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga (meaning loving devotion to God), based on the philosophy of the Bhagavata Purana and Bhagavad Gita, [4] who founded the Achintya Bheda Abheda of Vedanta. Specifically, he worshipped the forms of Krishna, popularised the chanting of the Hare Krishna mantra [5] and composed the Siksastakam (eight devotional prayers) in Sanskrit. His followers, Gaudiya Vaishnavas, revere him as an avatar of Krishna in the mood of his consort Radha.

Chaitanya is also sometimes referred to by the names Gaura (Sanskrit for 'golden'), due to his fair complexion, [6] and Nimai due to his being born underneath a Neem tree. [7] There are numerous biographies available from the time giving details of Chaitanya's life, the most prominent ones being the Chaitanya Charitamrita of Krishnadasa Kaviraja, the earlier Chaitanya Bhagavata of Vrindavana Dasa [8] (both originally written in Bengali but now widely available in English and other languages), and the Chaitanya Mangala, written by "Lochana Dasa". [9] These works are in Bengali with some Sanskrit verses interspersed. In addition to these there are other Sanskrit biographies composed by his contemporaries. Chief among them are the works, Sri Chaitanya Charitamritam Mahakavyam by Kavi Karnapura and Sri Krishna Chaitanya Charitamritam by Murari Gupta.

Go back Chaitanya-note-b

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Coromandel Coast

-- UKT 141029

Coromandal Coast : my homage to Saya Solomon

It was in 1949-50, and because the regular schools were closed due to the outbreak of Karen Insurrection, my cousin U Saw Tun and I (mere boys in early teens) were attending Saya Solomon Tutorial Classes at 45th St. in East Rangoon. We were placed in Pre-Matric (4-5 months) and then in Matriculation classes (about 5 months of total 9 months). We were taking Science courses (Chemistry , Math, & Physics) to appear in the coming Matriculation Exam of the Rangoon University.

We had been attending the 6th Standard at Kyaukmyaung Post-Primary School at the time of outbreak of Karen Insurrection centred mainly in Insein, the then the capital of the Insein Subdivision in Pegu Division. Though we were sitting for Science, Saya Solomon insisted: "You must take History and Geography" with the sole aim of improving our English. Many refused to take his advice, but we followed, and soon became familiar with the Coromandel Coast and Clive of India. I became perhaps the youngest amongst the Matriculates of the Rangoon University in April 1950.

I still remember Saya Solomon and everyone who had taught us. They would be well over 100 years in age and I am sure everyone must have passed away. But with this little note I remember them all, and pay my deepest homage to them all, in particular to Saya Solomon and Saya Samban, who taught us Chemistry & Physics.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coromandel_Coast

The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian Subcontinent, between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal of the Indian Ocean. The coastline runs between False Divi Point in the north to Kanyakumari in the south. Its definition can also include the northwestern coast of the island of Sri Lanka.

The land of the Chola dynasty was called Cholamandalam (சோழ மண்டலம்) in Tamil, literally translated as The realm of the Cholas, from which the Portuguese derived our modern word Coromandel. [1][2][3][4][5]

The coast is also known for its ports and harbours, Pulicat, Chennai, Thoothukkudi, Sadras,Kayalpatnam, Pondicherry, Karaikal, Cuddalore, Tharangambadi, Nagore, and Nagapattinam, which take advantage of their close proximity with regions rich in natural and mineral resources (like the Chhattisgarh belt and the mines of Golconda and Kolar) and/or good transport infrastructure. The planar geography of the region also favours urban growth and agglomerations.

By late 1530 the Coromandel Coast was home to three Portuguese settlements at Nagapattinam, So Tom de Meliapore, and Pulicat. Later, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the Coromandel Coast was the scene of rivalries among European powers for control of the India trade. The British established themselves at Fort St George (Madras) and Masulipatnam, the Dutch at Pulicat, Sadras and Covelong, the French at Pondicherry, Karaikal and Nizampatnam, the Danish in Dansborg at Tharangambadi.

The Coromandel Coast supplied Indian Muslim eunuchs to the Thai palace and court of Siam (modern Thailand).[6][7] The Thai at times asked eunuchs from China to visit the court in Thailand and advise them on court ritual since they held them in high regard.[8][9]

Eventually the British won out, although France retained the tiny enclaves of Pondichry and Karaikal until 1954. Chinese lacquer goods, including boxes, screens, and chests, became known as "Coromandel" goods in the eighteenth century, because many Chinese exports were consolidated at the Coromandel ports.

On December 26, 2004, one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history, the Indian Ocean earthquake, struck off the western coast of Sumatra (Indonesia). The earthquake and subsequent tsunami reportedly killed over 220,000 people around the rim of the Indian Ocean. The tsunami devastated the Coromandel Coast, killing many and sweeping away many coastal communities.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

Go back Coromandel-note-b

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The Month Caitra

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaitra 120219 

Chaitra (Assamese: চ'ত , Bengali: চৈত্র, [1] , Hindi: चैत्र cait, Marathi चैत्र caitr , ... ) is a month of the Hindu calendar.

UKT 120219: Bur-Myanmar readers should note the importance of the Myanmar Buddhist Calendar issued by the government appointed committee of astronomers-sic-astrologers and learned Bur-Myan Theravada Buddhist monks. This committee can trace its origin to the days of the Burmese kings. A parallel committee is also in place in the Arakan State. [I still need to check the facts.] These committees set the respective calendars on the Surya Siddhanta .
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surya_Siddhanta 120219
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saka_era 120219
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunisolar_calendar 120219
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pohela_Boishakh 120219 : the "Bengali New Year' from which the following is taken:
   "The Bengali calendar is closely tied with the Hindu Vedic solar calendar, based on the Surya Siddhanta. As with many other variants of the Hindu solar calendar, the Bengali calendar commences in mid-April of the Gregorian year. The first day of the Bengali year therefore coincides with the mid-April new year in Mithila, Assam, Burma, Cambodia, Kerala, Manipur, Nepal, Orissa, Punjab, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu and Thailand."

In India's national civil calendar Chaitra is the first month of the year while it is the last month of the year in Nepali calendar where Baisakh is the first month. With the calendar reforms, it coincides with the northern spring equinox on March 20.

In the more traditional reckoning, the first month commences in March or April of the Gregorian Calendar, depending upon whether the lunar or solar system is used. There is no fixed date in Gregorian calendar for 1st day of Chaitra, i.e., the beginning of the Hindu New Year.

It is the last month in the Bengali calendars (the Bnggabdo), where it is called Choitro (Bengali: চৈত্র). It commences in mid-March. It is also the last month in the Nepalese calendar (the Bikram Sambat), where it commences in mid-March. Chitterai is the first month in the Tamil calendar and starts in mid-April.

In the Vaishnava calendar, Vishnu governs this month.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

Go back Caitra-note-b

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End of TIL file