Update: 2020-05-29 12:04 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

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  {sar~ma.} - cont


/ {sa} : Maukcha-Weikcha Rule







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UKT notes :
Chanakya - the kingmaker : Machiavelli of the East
Goddess of Fortune: Apsara
Maukcha-Weikcha Rule: {mauk-hkya. weik-hkya.} rule
Manu in J. Garrett : a lost passage
Problem of Palatal-stop and Dental-Fricative
Śrīmad Bhāgavatam - the Purana or Old Text

Important passage in this file:
UKT 141019: The change of a non-rhotic sound (Pal-Myan) to a rhotic sound (Skt-Dev) is interesting. Here in {sa.ri.ya.} --> {sar~ya.}, we notice that a fricative sound /sa/ in combination of a rhotic-close sound /ri/ becoming shortened by becoming a repha. 


Maukcha-Weikcha Rule : {mauk-hkya.}-{weik-hkya.} rule

- UKT 160310:
I hold that there is a reason why certain glyphs are based on a single-circle, whilst others are based on double-circles. The reason is either on "pronunciation" or on "meaning", and I try to stick to the rule which I had learnt as a child, that {mauk-hkya.} is used for single-circle glyphs and {weik-hkya.} is for double circles.

My friend U Tun Tint of MLC has disputed what I have remembered and holds that the choice of {mauk-hkya.} or {weik-hkya.} is set arbitrarily. And to aid his memory, he has to rely on a Mnemonic . Relying on memory, and not on reason is how our clerics and their young students are trained. It is how the Poannars {poaN~Na:} are trained - which hinders the advancement of Science.

Go back Maukcha-Weikcha-note-b


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{sar~ma.} - cont


p093c1-b01/ p068-061

चर्मावकर्तिन् [ karma‿avakartin ]
- m. leather cutter, shoemaker; -‿avakartri, m. id.
61) चर्मावकर्तिन् (p. 68) karma̮avakartin leathercutter, shoemaker; -̮avakartri, m. id.


p093c1-b02/ p068-060

चर्मिन् [ karm-in ]
- a. covered with a hide; armed with a shield; m. shield-bearer.
60) चर्मिन् (p. 68) karm-in covered with a hide; armed with a shield; m. shield-bearer.


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p093c1-b03 / not online

चर्य [ kar-ya ]
- fp. to be practised; , f. roaming; procedure, conduct; observance; performance or practice of, occupation with (--, in.).
59) चर्य (p. 68) kar-ya to be practised; , f. roaming; procedure, conduct; observance; performance or practice of, occupation with (--, in.).

चर्य carya [ kar-ya ]
--> {sar~ya.}
Skt: चर्य [ kar-ya ] -- fp. to be practised; -- Mac093c1
Pal: {sa.ri.ya.} -- UHS-PMD0385
  UKT from UHS: n. to be practiced, conduct, habit

UKT 141019: The change of a non-rhotic sound (Pal-Myan) to a rhotic sound (Skt-Dev) is interesting. Here in {sa.ri.ya.} --> {sar~ya.}, we notice that a fricative sound /sa/ in combination of a rhotic-close sound /ri/ becoming shortened by becoming a repha. 


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p093c1-b04/ not online

चर्व [ karv ]
- cs. karvaya , gnaw at, chew : taste ; pp. karvita


p093c1-b05/ p068-177

चर्वण [ karv-ana ]
- n. chewing; tasting; , f. id.
177) चर्वण (p. 68) karv-ana chewing; tasting; , f. id.


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p093c1-b06/ p068-058

चर्षणि [ kar-sh-an ]
- a. moving, flowing; active, busy; f. pl. men, folk, people (-generally ).
58) चर्षणि (p. 68) kar-sh-an moving, flowing; active, busy; f. pl. men, folk, people (-- generally ).


p093c1-b07/ not online

चर्षणी [ karshan ]
- f. unfaithful wife: -dhrt, a. protecting men; -dhrti, f. protection of men; -sh, a. ruling men.


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p093c1-b08/ not online

चल् [ kal ]
- i. p. (.) kala, move, sway, shake, tremble, quiver; move on, advance; go away, depart; be spread abroad (news); walk about; become agitated, disturbed, confused, or impaired; waver; swerve from (ab.): pp. kalita; cs. kalaya, set in motion, stir, shake, cause to tremble; trouble, agitate;


divert from (ab.); klaya, drive away; shake; invalidate (a proposition); nudge; trouble, agitate, ud, depart; set out; rise from a seat (ab.). pra‿ud, set out. sam-ud, start up together; set out together. pra, become agitated, tremble, quake; stir, advance; rise (wind); spring up (from a seat); set out, depart, diverge from (ab.) cs.


 -kalaya, move; -klaya, stir up. vi, waver; move; stir, advance; fall off or down; be agitated, disturbed, or impaired; swerve from (ab.); cs. -klaya, agitate; transgress (law); call in question; rescind. pra-vi, swerve from (ab.). sam, tremble, quake; depart; cs. -klaya, set in motion; drive away.

[ kala ],
Skt: [ kala ] - move, sway, shake, tremble, quiver; move on, advance; go away, depart; be spread abroad (news); walk about; become agitated, disturbed, confused, or impaired; waver; swerve from (ab.): - Mac093c1
BPal: {sa.la.} - UHS-PMD0386c2
  UKT from UHS - mfn. tremble


p093c1-b09/ p068-056

चल [ kal-a ]
- a. moving, trembling; unsteady, wavering; waving; fluttering; rippling; fickle: -kitta, n. mutable temper, fickleness; a. fickle: -t, f. fickleness; giddiness; -t, f., -tva, n. tremor, unsteadiness.
56) चल (p. 68) kal-a moving, trembling; unsteady, wavering; waving; fluttering; rippling; fickle: -kitta, n. mutable temper, fickleness; a. fickle: -t, f. fickleness; giddiness; -t, f., -tva, n. tremor, unsteadiness.


p093c1-b10/ p068-055

चलन [ kal-ana ]
- a. moving, unsteady; walking; dissolute; n. tremor, unsteadiness, motion; activity, function; agitation; deviation from (ab.).
55) चलन (p. 68) kal-ana moving, unsteady; walking; dissolute; n. tremor, unsteadiness, motion; activity, function; agitation; deviation from (ab.).


p093c1-b11/ p068-054

चलनिकेत [ kala-niketa ]
- a. having a transitory abode; -prakriti, a. giddy, fickle; -svabhva, a. of inconstant nature.
54) चलनिकेत (p. 68) kala-niketa having a transitory abode; -prakriti, a. giddy, fickle; -svabhva, a. of inconstant nature.


p093c1-b12/ p068-053

चला [ kal- ]
- f. goddess of fortune.
53) चला (p. 68) kal- goddess of fortune.

See my note of Hindu Goddess of Fortune 


p093c1-b13/ p068-052

चलाचल [ kal-kala ]
- a. moving to and fro, unsteady; inconstant.
52) चलाचल (p. 68) kal-kala moving to and fro, unsteady; inconstant.


p093c1-b14/ p068-051

चलात्मन् [ kala‿tman ]
- a. fickle.
51) चलात्मन् (p. 68) kala̮tman fickle.


p093c1-b15/ p068-050

चलित [ kal-ita ]
- pp. n. moving to and fro.
50) चलित (p. 68) kal-ita moving to and fro.


p093c1-b16/ p068-049

चलितव्य [ kal-i-tavya ]
- fp. one must move on.
49) चलितव्य (p. 68) kal-i-tavya one must move on.


p093c1-b17 / not online

चलुक [ kaluka ]
- m. ? mouthful of water


p093c1-b18/ p068-048

चलोर्मि [ kala‿rmi ]
- a. rippling.
48) चलोर्मि (p. 68) kala̮rmi rippling.


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p093c1-b19/ p068-047

चविक [ kav-ika ]
- n. kind of pepper; -ik, f., -, f., -ya, n., -y, f. id.
47) चविक (p. 68) kav-ika pepper;


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{sa.Sa.} चष

UKT 170720: See my note on Problem of Palatal-stop and Dental-fricative {sa.Sa.} चष

UKT 141020: Between Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan, Dental hisser sibilant {Sa.}/{S} is usually changed to Dental non-hisser thibilant {a.}. Palatal plosive-stop {sa.}/{c} remains unchanged.

p093c1-b20/ not online

चषक [ kash-aka ]
--> {sa.Sa.ka.}
Skt: [kash-aka] -- drinking vessel, goblet -- Mac093c1
Pal: {sa.a.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0387
  UKT from UHS: drinking vessel, drinking cup for alcoholic drink


p093c1-b21/ p068-046

चषाल [ kash-la ]
- m. n. knob of a sacrificial post.
46) चषाल (p. 68) kash-aNla knob of a sacrificial post.


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p093c1-b22/ p068-080

चाक्रिक [ kkr-ika ]
- m. carter; potter; oil grinder; bell-man; partisan, accomplice.
80) चाक्रिक (p. 68) kkr-ika carter; potter;


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UKT 160229: Replacing Pseudo-Kha {kSa.} with regular {hka.}, had led me into a blind alley. There are no equivalents in U Hoke Sein. I, therefore, have to rely on the the meaning of "sight", "vision", and "eye".

p093c1-b23/ p068-079

चाक्षुष [ kkshush ]
- a. () peculiar to or arising from the eye; perceptible by the eye; m. pat. of the sixth Manu; (a)-tva, n. perceptibility by the eye.
79) चाक्षुष (p. 68) kkshush () peculiar to or arising from the eye;

See my note on Manu in J. Garrett

चाक्षुष caksusa [ kkshush ]
--> {sa-kSu.Sa.}
Skt: चाक्षुष [ kkshush ] -- a. () peculiar to or arising from the eye; perceptible by the eye; -- Mac093c1
Pal: {sak~hkoa~a.} -- UHS-PMD0379
  UKT from UHS: n. object arising from perception of the eye

UKT 141020, 170720: Now that we are writing a word with pseudo-Kha word as , the question arises whether we should write {sa-k~ka.} or {saak~ka.}. So far in comparing with Pal-Myan, I have found that, Pseudo-Kha {k~Sa.} क्ष = क ् ष is the only one of its kind, because of which it now written as {ksa.}.


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[ kkari ]
- m. N. of a wrestler


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p093c2-b02/ p068-078

चाञ्चल्य [ kkal-ya ]
= च ा ञ ् च ल ् य
Skt: चाञ्चल्य [ kkal-ya ] -- n. fickleness, inconstancy. -- Mac093c2
Pal: {si~sa.la.} - UHS-PMD0380
78) चाञ्चल्य (p. 68) kkal-ya fickleness, inconstancy. 
  UKT from UHS: mfn. shakiness, flirting or coquetry  


p093c2-b03/ p068-077

चाञ्चव [ kkav-a ]
- n. celebrity.
77) चाञ्चव (p. 68) kkav-a celebrity.


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p093c2-b04/ not online

चाट [ kta ]
- m. cheat, rogue.



-- f. N. of a locality


p093c2-b06/ p068-075 

चाटु [ ktu ]
- m. n. coaxing, blandishment; courteous act; pretty speech; a. agreeable (?): -ka, m. id.; - kra, m. flatterer; u‿artham, for the sake of doing a kindness.
  75) चाटु (p. 68) ktu coaxing, blandishment;
BPal:  {sa-Tu.} - UHS PMD0385c1
  UKT from UHS - mn. pleasant talk, blandishment


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p093c2-b07/ p068-074

चाणक्य [ knak-ya ]
- a. made of chick-peas; m. pat. (from Kanaka), N. of Kandragupta's minister.
74) चाणक्य (p. 68) knak-ya made of chick-peas;

See my note on Chanakya - the king maker of Chandragupta


p093c2-b08 / not online

चाणूर [knra]
-- m. N. of a wrestler slain by Krishna

See my notes on Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 'The Story of the Fortunate One'
- http://bhagavata.org/canto10/chapter44.html#Text%201 120216
in which the story of Cnra is told. Note: the term 'wrestler' is perhaps misleading since the contestants were holding some sort of weapon in their hands. -- UKT120216

p093c2-b09/ p068-073

चाण्डाल [ kndl ]
= च ा ण ् ड ा ल  {saaN~a-la.}
Skt: चाण्डाल [ kndl ] - m. = kandla; a. () peculiar to the Kandlas. -- Mac093c2
  73) चाण्डाल (p. 68) kndl () peculiar to the Kandlas. 
Pal: {sN~a-la.} -- UHS-PMD0380
  UKT from UHS: . m. cemetery worker. . a metal-piece throwing game similar to the games of horseshoe and quoits .
Bur: {sN~a-la.} - n. caste of cemetery worker -- MED2006-122


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p093c2-b10/ p068-072

  चातक [ ktaka ]
- m., , f. kind of cuckoo (supposed to live on drops of rain only).
72) चातक (p. 68) ktaka cuckoo (supposed to live on drops of rain only).


p093c2-b11/ p068-071

चातन [ kt-ana ]
- cs. a. driving away (--).
71) चातन (p. 68) kt-ana driving away (--).


p093c2-b12/ p068-070

चातुर [ ktura ]
- a. flattering; guiding, ruling; , f. cleverness, dexterity; charm.
70) चातुर (p. 68) ktura flattering; guiding, ruling; , f. cleverness, dexterity; charm.


p093c2-b13/ p068-069

चातुर्थ [ kturtha ]
- a. discussed in the fourth (chapter): -ka, a. occurring every fourth day (fever); -‿ahnika, a. belonging to the fourth day.
69) चातुर्थ (p. 68) kturtha discussed in the fourth (chapter):


p093c2-b14/ p068-068

चातुर्धाकारणिक [ kturdh-kranika ]
- a. divided into four parts.
68) चातुर्धाकारणिक (p. 68) kturdh-kranika divided into four parts.


p093c2-b15/ p068-067

चातुर्मासी [ ktur-ms ]
- f. day of full moon at the four-monthly sacrifices; -msy, n. period of four months; sacrifice to be offered every four months (at the beginning of the three seasons).
67) चातुर्मासी (p. 68) ktur-ms day of full moon at the four-monthly sacrifices;


p093c2-b16/ p068-066

चातुर्य [ ktur-ya ]
- n. skill, dexterity; charm.
66) चातुर्य (p. 68) ktur-ya skill, dexterity; charm.


p093c2-b17/ p068-065

चातुर्वर्ण्य [ ktur-varn-ya ]
- n. the four castes; -vimsika, a. belonging to the 24th day; -vidya, a. versed in the four Vedas; n. the four Vedas; -vaidya, a. versed in the four Vedas; -hotra, a. performed by the four principal priests; n. sacrifice performed by the four principal priests.
65) चातुर्वर्ण्य (p. 68) ktur-varn-ya the four castes;


p093c2-b18/ p068-064

चातुष्पथ [ ktush-patha ]
- a. being at a place where four roads meet; -prsy, a. sufficient to feed four.
64) चातुष्पथ (p. 68) ktush-patha being at a place where four roads meet;


p093c2-b19/ p068-093

चात्‍त्र [ kt-tra ]
- n. spindle (esp. that in which is fixed the drill (pramantha) for producing the sacred fire by means of a cord wound round it and rapidly worked backwards and forwards).
93) चात्‍त्र (p. 68) kt-tra spindle (esp. that in which is fixed the drill (pramantha)


p093c2-b20/ p068-148

चात्वाल [ ktvla ]
- m. n. trench supplying the earth for the northern altar: -vat, a. in which (sacrifice) a ktvla is dug.
148) चात्वाल (p. 68) kaNtvla trench supplying the earth for the northern altar:


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[ k-na-s ]
- the pt. suffix -na


p093c2-b22/ p068-207

चान्दन [ kndana ]
- a. () made of sandal-wood.
207) चान्दन (p. 68) kndana () made of sandal-wood.


p093c2-b23/ p068-137

चान्द्र [ kndra ]
- a. () lunar; -ka, -ma, -mas, () a. id.; -vratika, a. having the character of the moon.
137) चान्द्र (p. 68) kndra () lunar;


p093c2-b24/ p068-091

चान्द्रायण [ kndra‿ayana ]
- m. observer of the moon's course; n. moon-course penance in which the number of mouthfuls eaten decreases by one daily from fifteen at full moon to none at new moon, after which it increases similarly (it may begin either at new or at full moon): -vrata, n. id.
91) चान्द्रायण (p. 68) kndra̮ayana the moon's course;


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p093c2-b25/ p068-090

चाप [ kp-a ]
- m. n. bow (weapon): -guna, m. bowstring; -yashti, f. id.
90) चाप (p. 68) kp-a bow (weapon):


p093c2-b26/ p068-089

चापल [ kpal-a ]
- n. speed; unsteadiness, inconstancy, frivolity, rashness, indiscretion (with regard to, --); -ya, n. id.
89) चापल (p. 68) kpal-a speed;


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p093c3-b00/ p068-088

चापलता [ kpa-lat ]
- f. bowstring; -lekh, f. N.; -veda, m. archery; -‿adhiropana, n. stringing or drawing a bow; -‿ropana, n. id.
88) चापलता (p. 68) kpa-lat bowstring;


p093c3-b01/ p068-087

चापिन् [ kp-in ]
- a. armed with a bow.
87) चापिन् (p. 68) kp-in armed with a bow.


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चामर [ kmara ]
- a. relating to the yak (Bos grunniens); n. tail of the yak, used as a fly-whisk, also as an ornament on the heads of horses and elephants; one of the insignia of royalty: -grhin, f. female whisk-bearer.
86) चामर (p. 68) kmara relating to the yak (bos grunniens);

UKT 141021: Yak-tail whisk is one of the ensign of royalty of Myanmar kings.
See ककुद [kakuda] = क क ु द : no viram at end
Skt: -- n. (m.) id. -- Mac060-3
Pal: {ka.ku.Da.} -- UHS-PMD0275



चामीकर [ km-kara ]
- n. gold: -maya, a. () golden, -‿akala, m. ep. of Meru, -‿adri, m. id.
85) चामीकर (p. 68) km-kara gold:



चामीकरीय [ kmkar-ya ]
- a. golden.
84) चामीकरीय (p. 68) kmkar-ya golden.



चामुण्ड [ kmund ]
- m. N. of an author; , f. a form of Durg.
83) चामुण्ड (p. 68) kmund , f. a form of Durg.



चाम्पेय [ kmp-eya ]
- m. prince of Kamp.
82) चाम्पेय (p. 68) kmp-eya prince of Kamp.


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p093c3-b07/ not online

चाय् [ ky ]
- i. kya , be shy (of, ac.) : , be reverent; perceive, recognise. ni , worship; perceive

चायति  cayati 
--> {sa-ya.ti.}
Skt: चायति cayati - v. be loosened, perceived, behaved respectfully, be afraid of  -- SpkSkt
BPal: {sa-ya.ti.} -- UHS-PMD0388
  UKT from UHS: worshipped, analysed



चायनीय [ ky-anya ]
- fp. perceptible.
81) चायनीय (p. 68) ky-anya perceptible.


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चार [ kr-a ]
- m. spy; motion, course; action, behaviour; occupation as (--): -ka, a. acting, proceeding (--); m. spy; prison; -kakshus, n. spy for an eye; a. using spies for eyes.
109) चार (p. 68) kr-a spy; motion, course;



चारण [ krana ]
- a. connected with the school; belonging to the same school; m. strolling player; celestial musician; spy; cattle-driving: -tva, n. condition of a strolling player; -‿ekamaya, a. () consisting of strolling players only.
108) चारण (p. 68) krana connected with the school;



चारपुरुष [ kra-purusha ]
- m. spy; -bhata, m. soldier; -‿adhikrin, m. spy.
107) चारपुरुष (p. 68) kra-purusha spy;



चारिका [ kr-ik ]
- f. servant-girl (--).
106) चारिका (p. 68) kr-ik servant-girl (--).



चारितार्थ्य [ kritrth-ya ]
- n. attainment of one's object.
105) चारितार्थ्य (p. 68) kritrth-ya attainment of one's object.



चारित्र [ kritra ]
- n. course of action, behaviour, good conduct, virtue.
104) चारित्र (p. 68) kritra course of action, behaviour, good conduct, virtue.



चारित्रिन् [ kritr-in ]
- a. well-conducted; -ya, n. = kritra.
103) चारित्रिन् (p. 68) kritr-in well-conducted;



चारिन् [ kr-in ]
- a. movable; --, moving, going, roaming, abiding or living, in; acting, performing; m. foot-soldier; spy.
102) चारिन् (p. 68) kr-in movable;



चारु [ kr-u ]
= च ा र ु
- a. agreeable, welcome, pleasing; dear; fair, lovely: n. ad.: -gti, f. a metre; -t, f. popularity; beauty; -datta, m. N. of a Brhman; -danta, m. N. of a merchant's son; -darsan, f. fair woman; -netra, a. fair-eyed; -mati, m. N. of a parrot; -rpa, a. of fair form; -lokana, a. fair-eyed; -ven, f. fair braid, N. of a river; -sabda-bhaṅga-vat, a. rich in lovely faltering and in charming expressions (speech); -hsin, a. laughing sweetly: -, f. a metre.
101) चारु (p. 68) kaNr-u agreeable, welcome, pleasing;



चारेक्षण [ kra‿kshana ]
- a. hvg. spies for eyes.
100) चारेक्षण (p. 68) kra̮kshana hvg. spies for eyes.



चार्चिक्य [ *krkik-ya ]
- n. anointing the body.
99) चार्चिक्य (p. 68) krkik-ya anointing the body.



चार्मिक [ krm-ika ]
- a. leathern.
98) चार्मिक (p. 68) krm-ika leathern.



चार्य [ kr-ya ]
- m. son of an outcast Vaisya; n. spying.
97) चार्य (p. 68) kr-ya son of an outcast Vaisya;



चार्वाक [ krvka ]
- m. N. of a materialistic and heterodox philosopher; materialist.
96) चार्वाक (p. 68) krvka materialist.


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चाल [ kl-a ]
- m. shaking, looseness (of the teeth); -aka, m. obstinate person; -ana, n. moving, wagging, motion, shaking; loosening: , f. sieve; strainer; -ya, fp. to be moved; to be diverted.
95) चाल (p. 68) kl-a shaking, looseness (of the teeth);



चाष [ ksha ]
- m. blue jay (Coracias indica).|
94) चाष (p. 68) kaNsha blue jay (coracias indica).


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{si.} चि


चि [1. KI] , V. ,
चिनो [ ki-n]
- arrange, pile; build up. esp, the sacrificial altar (P. if done by the priest, . by the sacrificer himself); gather, collect; acquire, gain; bestrew, cover with (in.): pp. kita, covered, strewed, or studded with (in., -); ps. increase, thrive; des. kiksha, wish to accumulate or acquire, anu, pp. beset all along with branches (in.).


apa, gather; ps. diminish, grow less, lose (ab.): pp. attenuated, thin, ava, gather (*from, 2 ac.). , heap up, accumulate; cover or load with (in.): pp. covered, bestrewn; studded or laden with (in., -).


sam-, gather together, heap up; cover, load, ud, gather. abhi‿ud, comprehend in (lc.); go on to discuss. sam-ud, arrange; add; gather. upa heap up, accumulate; augment; ps. grow, increase; be enriched, profit; pp. increased, enlarged, augmented; abundant; stout; prosperous; covered, loaded or provided with (in., -)


sam-upa, heap up, collect; ps. increase; grow up: pp. abundant. ni, pp. heaped up; erected; covered, studded, or filled with (in., -).


pari, pile up; collected scquire ; ps.grow, in crease; pp. gained, acquired; fill with (in.). pra, gather; ps. increase: pp covered or filled with (in., -); vi, pick out, select, cull; divide; part (hair); distribute (booty). sam, pile up, arrange; collect, accumulate, acquire; pp. filled or provided with (-).

pp. ,
Skt: [ kita ] pp. covered, strewed, or studded with (in., -); ps. increase, thrive; - Mac093c3
Skt: चित cita - adj. heaped, piled up; gained - Spk Skt


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UKT notes

Chanakya - the kingmaker of Chandragupta

-- UKT 141019: Chanakya is known as the "Hindu Machiavelli" or "Machiavelli of the East". He is known as the {za.na.ka. poaN~Na:} and is much hated by the Myanmar dramatists.

UKT 141019, 180530 : Back in 1952, when I boasted to my father, U Tun Pe, that I have become "good" in English as a language, he threw his personal copy of Macaulay's "Historical Essays", and challenged me to read. It was the Essays on Frederick the Great and Machiavelli, that ended my boastings. At this age after more than 80 years, I am still finding that I still have to improve my English! See downloaded Machiavelli's The Prince in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- NMachiavelli-ThePrince<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170720)
"Let your Magnificence, then, accept this little gift in the spirit in which I offer it; wherein, if you diligently read and study it, you will recognize my extreme desire that you should attain to that eminence which Fortune and your own merits promise you. Should you from the height of your greatness some time turn your eyes to these humble regions, you will become aware how undeservedly I have to endure the keen and unremitting malignity of Fortune." 4
Niccolo Machiavelli

The love-hate relation between the ordinary Bur-Myan and Brahmina-Poannar {poaN~Na:} {poaN~Na:} is portrayed in traditional native plays. The Poannar {poaN~Na:} {poaN~Na:} are mostly from Manipur where there are two kinds of speakers: Bishnupriya (IE) speakers those who claimed themselves the original Indo-Aryans speakers, and the majority known as Meitei (Tib-Bur) speakers.

I came to know of two languages of Manipur after reading The Bishnupriya Manipuri Language, by Ashim Kumar Singha, 2001. I have lost the original article, and even the title given above may not be correct. What I could get from the internet is: http://manipuri.freeservers.com/bpm.html 141020

Those who were honoured by the Myanmar kings were presumably the Bishnupriyas. According to my late friend Saya Kalasan of Yangon, there are almost no Bishnupriya in Yangon. Saya Kalasan himself was a noted Manipuri-ethnic Astronomer-Astrologer whose ancestors have been living in Myanmarpr since the days of the Burmese kings. Saya Kalasan was a Meitei. The above article by Ashim Kumar Singha is very instructive in comparing the Bishnupriya to Sanskrit & Meitei. The official language of Manipur is now Meitei, and Bishnupriya has become an endangered language.

The Poannar is always portrayed in Myanmarpr as learned, cleaver, but never-to-be trusted. The Poannars have come to be admired but hated due to two individuals who featured prominently in our Buddhist culture. One is Chanakaya known in Bur-Myan as {za.na.ka. poaN~Na:} (sp?) minister of King Chandragupta, and the other Vassakara {wi.a-ka.ra. poaN~Na:} (sp?) of King Ajatashatru.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanakya 120216

Chānakya (Skt: चाणक्य Cāṇakya) (c. 370283 BCE) was a teacher to the first Maurya Emperor Chandragupta (c. 340293 BCE) - the first emperor in the archaeologically recorded history to rule the complete Indian Subcontinent. [UKT ]

Chanakya is generally considered to be the architect of Chandragupta's rise to power at a young age. Traditionally, he is also identified by the names Kautilya and Vishnu Gupta, who authored the ancient Indian political treatise called Arthaśāstra. [1] Chanakya is considered as the pioneer of the field of economics and political science and his work is thought of as an important precursor to Classical Economics. [2] [3] [4] [5] In the Western world, he has been referred to as The Hindu Machiavelli, although Chanakya's works predate Machiavelli's by about 1,800 years. Chanakya was a teacher in Takṣaśila, an ancient centre of learning, and was responsible for the creation of Mauryan empire, the first of its kind on the Indian subcontinent. His works were lost near the end of the Gupta dynasty and not rediscovered until 1915. [6]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Goddess of Fortune

-- UKT 141021 

Skt-Dev word चला calā is obviously related to चल cala 'fickleness".   See p093c1-b09. From which we can see how चला calā came to be identified as a goddess of fortune, because "fortune" can be so unpredictable as the outcome of gambling. Note: the opposite of acala 'immoveable'
अचल a-cala
Skt: अचल [a-kala] - a. immovable; m. mountain. -- Mac004c3
Pal: {a.sa.la.} - UHS-PMD0013
  UKT from UHS: mfn. immovable. m. mountain

The Hindus worship Apsaras who are considered to be goddesses of fortune. See:
HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA, translated by Maurice Bloomfield, Sacred Books of the East, volume 42, 1897. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/av.htm 141020
"IV, 38. A. Prayer for success in gambling.
  1. The successful, victorious, skilfully gaming Apsar, that Apsar who makes the winnings in the game of dice, do I call hither.
  2. The skilfully gaming Apsar who sweeps and heaps up (the stakes), that Apsar who takes the winnings in the game of dice, do I call hither.
  3. May she, who dances about with the dice, when she takes the stakes from the game of dice, when she desires to win for us, obtain the advantage by (her) magic! May she come to us full of abundance! Let them not win this wealth of ours!
  4. The (Apsars) who rejoice in dice, who carry grief and wrath-tbat joyful and exulting Apsar, do I call hither."

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Manu in J. Garrett

- UKT 170721:
There are more than one person named "Manu". The Manu in this eon is the 7th - Vaivasvata - the Law Giver, the son of the Sun. I can no longer trace from where - or from which version of J. Garrett, that I got the following excerpt:

"Manu - The head of ruler of an extensive period of time, termed a Manwantara. Each Kalpa, or creation of the world, is divided into 14 Manwantaras or intervals, over which a Manu presides. Six of these periods have passed;
- the first Manu was Swyambhuva;
- the second Swarochisa,
- the third Auttami;
- the fourth Tamasa;
- the fifth Raivata;
- the sixth Chakshusha;
- the seventh Vaivasvata [UKT ]

The first 6 Manus have passed away; the Manu who presides over the seventh, which is the present period, is Vaivasvata, the son of the Sun, the wise lord of obsequies [funeral rite or ceremony]. ..." -- from: A Classical Dictionary of India, by John Garrett, ca. 1871.

The following excerpt is from A Classical Dictionary of India, pp.742, pdf.760/818.
p383, pdf.401/818:  by John Garrett, 1871
See downloaded txt in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- JGarrett-ClassicDictIndiaPP793<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180530)

"Manu - The great Hindu law-giver who lived about 800 B.C. The institutes of Manu, or code of laws still extant, is attributed to Swayambhuva the first Manu. The Manu of of the present period is sometimes considered the author of the Dharmashastra, the code which bears his name. "The name belongs to the Epic and Puranic periods. In the former we may trace in it the remains of the tradition of a first man, alike progenitor, or even creator, like Prometheus, of his descendants, and law-giver. We should conceive its historical value to be the allusion to some legendary personage, such as every nation can boast of, who first wakes his country-men from barbarism and a wild life, to the light of civilization and government." Thomson. Manu was "a legislator and saint, a son of Brahm, or a personification of Brahm himself, the creator of the world and progenitor of mankind. Derived from the root man to think, the word means originally man , the thinker, and is found in this sense in the Rig Veda.

"Manu as a legislator is identified with the Cretan Minos ; as progenitor of mankind with the German Maunus : 'Celebrant carminibus antiquis, quod unum upud illos menori et annualium genus est, Tuiscounem deum terra editum, et filium Maunnum origiuem gentis conditoresque.  Tacitus , Germania, Cap.II." -- Griffiths."

Manu - . The name, according to the Bhgavata of one of the eleven Rudras; . A sage, the son of Krisswa and Dhishana.

I have also downloaded the Supplement to A Classical Dictionary of India . It is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- JGarrett-ClassicDictIndiaSuppli<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180530)
UKT 170720: The Supplement does not list Manu.

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Problem of Palatal-stop and Dental-fricative

UKT 170720:

The only way to differentiate Palatal-stop and the Dental-fricative is to differentiate them in the coda. Even then, I still have to throw in the usual English transcription of c for the Palatal-coda. Now, I have:

Palatal-plosive stop च : -- {sa.}/ {c}
Dental-fricative hisser ष : {Sa.}/ {S}
IAST and IPA transliterations are misleading, because Palatals in IE languages, English and Sanskrit are not plosive-stops: they are Palatal-affricates. On the other hand, Bur-Myan is Tib-Bur. When I include Mon-Myan, I found, in spite of it being Aus-Asi it uses Palatal-affricates. Romabama transcription is not applicable to Mon-Myan. It shows that it is only scripts that can overcome the Curse of Tower of Babel. Use only Romabama transliteration.

Skt-Dev solved the problem of Palatal-stop and Dental-fricative by inventing a new glyph, which I cannot do, because it would play havoc in inter-transcribing between Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat.

Skt-Dev: -- प + diagonal --> ष
Skt-Myan: + dot -->   : see UHS PMD intro-page {za.}

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Śrīmad Bhāgavatam

-- UKT 141019, 170721

Downloaded txt of a part of Bhagavatum is TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- Prabhupada-BhagavatumCanto10Pt1<>Bkp<> (link chk 170721)

This is a Purāna or old text, known in Bur-Myan as {pu.raaN kym:} (UTM-PDMD172) which are the handiworks of Brahmina Poannars {poaN~Na:}, who have a habit of twisting facts again and again to suit their own aggrandizement. By making themselves into the First Caste, they make sure that everyone else from king to commoner of the 3 other castes support them for life! 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagavata_Purana 120216

 The Bhāgavata Purāṇa (Skt: भागवतपुराण) , aka Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, or Bhāgavata ) is one of the "Maha" Puranic texts of Hindu literature, with its primary focus on bhakti (devotion) to the incarnations of Vishnu, particularly Krishna. [1] [UKT ]

UKT 141019: "Krishna" is Krishna Vasudva, the human king deified into a dva. He was the originator Bhagavagita - the esteemed Hindu philosophy. If he was indeed a historical person, as Gautama Buddha was, he is to be regarded as one of the greatest Indian philosophers. On the other hand Vishnu - the dva-god - is just a figment of imagination, an axiom among many axioms of the various religionists. To portray King Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu is a disservice to one of the greatest philosophers. 

The Sanskrit text comprises twelve skandas (cantos or books) and some 18,000 verses. [2] The Bhāgavata includes many stories well known in Hindu tradition, including the various avatars of [Dva-god] Vishnu and the life of Krishna. It was the first Purana to be translated into a European language, with three French translations between 1840 and 1857. [1]

UKT: The insert shows the wrestling match and the killing of Camsa. -- From http://bhagavata.org/canto10/chapter44.html 120216

Like all Puranas, the Bhāgavata is a product of oral tradition, its extant version usually dated to the ninth or tenth century CE. [1] [3] The text itself credits Veda Vyasa with its authorship.

The intense and personal bhakti described in the Bhāgavata is directed toward Krishna as God in human form. The tenth book (or canto), which is dedicated to Krishna, takes up about one quarter of the entire Bhāgavata. [1] It includes the most comprehensive collection of stories about the life of Krishna, showing him in all the stages and conditions of human life. It also includes instruction in the practice of bhakti, an analysis of bhakti, and descriptions of the different types of bhakti. [4]

The Bhāgavata takes the form of a story recounting Vyasa's work being recited for the first time by his son Śuka to the dying King Parikshit, who owes his life to Krishna. Longing to hear of Krishna before he dies, Śuka recites the Bhāgavata to Parikshit over the course of seven days. [5]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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