Update: 2020-05-29 12:04 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top


Contents of this page

{sa.Na.} / {sN} - cont :
{sa.ta.} / {st}
{sa.na.}/ {sn}
  {sn} / {sn~}

30) चतुषटय (p. 67) [ktush-taya] () of four kinds, consisting of four; tetrad; set of four.

Important txt below:
UKT 190104: Going from BPali-Myan to Skt-Dev, as in {sa.tu.} --> {sa.tur}, we find an extra R thrown in. If we assumed that BPali-Myan is Old Magadhi (the language of indigenous population) as being changed into Sanskrit (refined language of the invaders), then we can look at {sa.tu.} --> {sa.tur} as the change from non-rhotic to rhotic in the pronunciation.
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linking_and_intrusive_R 190401,

----- online 180525 : p091.htm - search for चण्डकर्मन्

UKT notes :
Game of chess : Bur-Myan style
 - Chandragupta Maurya चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य   - grandfather of King Asoka


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{sa.Na.} / / {sN} - cont


p091c1-b00/ p067-013

चण्डकर्मन् [ kanda-karman ]
- m. N. of a Rkshasa (acting cruelly); -kirana, m. (hot-rayed), sun; -ketu, m. N.; -kausika, m. N. of a son of Kakshvat; n. T. of a drama; -ghosha, m. N.; -t, f., -tva, n. passionateness; wrathfulness; -ddhiti, m. (hot-rayed), sun; -pota: -ka, m. N. of an elephant; -prabha, m. N.; -bhugaṅga, m. N.; -mahsena, m. N. of a prince; -rava, m. N. of a jackal (yelling fiercely); -rasmi, m. (hot-rayed), sun; -varman, m. N. of a prince; -vikrama, m. N. of a prince; -sla, a. choleric; -simha, m. N. of a prince; -‿amsu, m. (hot-rayed), sun.
13) चण्डकर्मन् (p. 67) kanda-karman (acting cruelly);


p091c1-b01/ p067-012

चण्डाल [ kandla ]
--> {sN~a-la.}
Skt: चण्डाल [ kandla ] -- m. man of the lowest stratum of society, universally despised and shunned; a mixed caste, offspring of Sdra and Brhman; -- , a good-for-nothing --; , , f. Kandla woman. -- Mac091c1
   12) चण्डाल (p. 67) kandla man of the lowest stratum of society,
Nep: चण्डाल् caṇḍāl or cāṇḍāl, -- s. outcast; executioner; adj. accursed, damned. - Turn-Nep164
BPal: {sN~a-la.} -- UHS-PMD0380
  UKT from UHS read with MLC-MED2006-216 - m. grave-digger; beggar



चण्डिका [ kand-ik ]
- f. ep. of Durg; temple of Durg: -griha, n. temple of Durg.
11) चण्डिका (p. 67) kand-ik Durg;



चण्डिमन् [ kand-i-man ]
- m. heat; passionateness [UKT: sex-offender], fierceness, cruelty.
10) चण्डिमन् (p. 67) kand-i-man heat;


p091c1-b04/ not online

चण्डीकृ [kand-kri]
Skt: चण्डीकृ [kand-kri] -- enrage - Mac091c1
Skt: चण्डीकृ caṇḍīkṛ - 8 U. to enrage, make angry or violent, provoke - SktDict:Apte


p091c1-b05/ p067-009

  चण्डीपति [ kand-pati ]
- m. ep. of Siva; -‿sa, m. id.; -‿svara, id.; -stotra, n. T. of a poem in praise of Durg.
9) चण्डीपति (p. 67) kand-pati praise of Durg.



-- m. ep. of Siva

UKT 180527, 190401: Siva-dva the Supremeo [Creator, Maintainer, and Destroyer] of the Shaivite Hindus has been given the ep. caṇḍāīṣvara. As a Theravada-Buddhist how should I look upon him? Follow the meanings of the compound word from its components:
[kand] --> चण्दा
SpkSkt: चण्ड caṇḍa - adj. cruel, passionate (sexually?), angry, impetuous, violent, ardent with passion (sexually demanding), zealous, fierce, cirumcised (a follower of Judaism or Islam), hot. n. heat, violence, wrath, passion
SktDic: does not give both चण्दा and चण्ड
TBenfey: ??? chanḍa (a dialectical form of chand+ra). adj. . Flaming. . Violent. . Passionate. 4. Wrathful. 5. Cruel. n. a name of Siva, ...

[ svara] --> ईश्वर [ s-var ] = ई श ् व र
ईश्वर [ s-var ] = ई श ् व र
- a. able to, capable of (inf., lc.; w. inf. in -tas the nm. sg. m. is used for all genders and numbers); m. owner of (g., lc., --); ruler, lord, prince, king; man of rank, rich man; husband; supreme god; Brahman; Siva - Macp047-1c3


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{sa.ta.} / {st}

p091c1-b07/ p067-008

  चत् [ kat ]
- only pr. pt. ktat and pp. katt, hide (int.); cs. ktya, drive away. pra, vi, cs. . id.
8) चत् (p. 67) KAT . id.


चतुर catura
- adj. prudent, clever, skilful - SpkSkt



[ktasri] or [katasr]
-- f. of katur

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चतु:र [katuh-ka] -pa
- v. katush-ka, -pa, etc.


p091c1-b10/ p067-007

चतुर् catur [ katr ]
= च त ु र ् --> {sa.tur}
Skt: चतुर् [ katr ] -- num. m. n. pl. four. - Mac094c1
  7) चतुर् (p. 67) katr four.
BPal: {sa.tu.} -- UHS-PMD0381
  UKT from UHS: mfn. num. four. four items.

UKT 190104: Going from BPali-Myan to Skt-Dev, as in {sa.tu.} --> {sa.tur}, we find an extra R thrown in. If we assumed that BPali-Myan is Old Magadhi (the language of indigenous population) as being changed into Sanskrit (refined language of the invaders), then we can look at {sa.tu.} --> {sa.tur} as the change from non-rhotic to rhotic in the pronunciation.
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linking_and_intrusive_R 190401,

p091c1-b11/ p067-006

चतुर [ kat-ura ]
- a. quick, swift; dexterous, clever, ingenious, crafty; charming; n. cleverness: -ka, a. (ik) dexterous, clever; m. N. of a jackal; f. N. of a woman.
6) चतुर (p. 67) kat-ura quick, swift;


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चतुरक्ष [ katur-aksh ]
- a. (&isharp;) four-eyed.
5) चतुरक्ष (p. 67) katur-aksh () four-eyed.


p091c1-b13/ p067-004

चतुरक्षर [ ktur-akshara ]
- a. having four syllables; n. aggregate of four syllables.
4) चतुरक्षर (p. 67) ktur-akshara having four syllables;


p091c1-b14/ p067-003

चतुरङ्ग [ ktur-aṅga ]
- a. having four members: -m balam, n. complete army (consisting of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariots); , f. army consisting of these four arms; n. id.; chess: -bala‿adhipatya, n. command of a complete army.
3) चतुरङ्ग (p. 67) ktur-aṅga having four members:

UKT 141016, 190401: See my note on Myanmar game of chess imitating a complete army
(consisting of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariots). And on Chinese Chess, which includes cannons
- A tribute to my father, U Tun Pe and his friends.

p091c1-b15/ p067-002

चतुरङ्गिन् [ katur-aṅgin ]
- a. consisting of four parts.
2) चतुरङ्गिन् (p. 67) katur-aṅgin consisting of four parts.


p091c1-b16/ p067-001

चतुरता [ katura-t ]
- f. cleverness, craftiness, shrewdness.
1) चतुरता (p. 67) katura-t cleverness, craftiness, shrewdness. 


p091c1-b17/ p067-022

चतुरनीक [ ktur-anka ]
- a. four-faced; -anta, a. bounded on all four sides (by the sea): , f. earth; -asra, a. square; regular, harmonious: -t, f. harmony, -sobhin, a. harmoniously beautiful; -asri, a. square; -ah, m. period of four days; -tman, a. having four forms or faces; -nana, a. four-faced, ep. of Brahma Brahman; -uttar, a. increasing by four.
22) चतुरनीक (p. 67) ktur-anka four-faced;

UKT 190402: Thai-Buddhists represent their Brahma with 4 faces, after the fashion of Hinduism, whereas Myanmar-Buddhists represent their Brahmas (plural) with a single face. Myanmar-Buddhists consider the Brahmas to be the residents of Brahma-Lokas (planes of existence). The Brahma-Loka is divided into 2 kinds: 16 planes for the Rupa-Brahmas (some likened them to be material worlds), and 4 planes for the Arupa-Brahmas (to be immaterial or energy-worlds).
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology_of_the_Theravada_school#Brahmā_Planes 190402
"14 - Great Brahmas (Maha brahma): One of this realm's most famous inhabitants is the Great Brahma, a deity whose delusion leads him to regard himself as the all-powerful, all-seeing creator of the Universe. According to the Brahmajāla Sutta, a Mahā brahmā is a being from the Ābhāsvara worlds who falls into a lower world through exhaustion of his merits and is reborn alone in the Brahma-world; forgetting his former existence, he imagines himself to have come into existence without cause."
Note: some Myanmar Buddhists regard the Great Brahma to be the Christian God. I must point out that such views can bring about friction between Buddhists and Christians instead of unity.

p091c1-b18/ p067-021

चतुर्गुण [ ktur-guna ]
- a. fourfold.
21) चतुर्गुण (p. 67) ktur-guna fourfold.


p091c1-b19/ p067-020

चतुर्थ [ katur-th ]
- a. (&isharp;) fourth: -m, ad. the fourth time; n. fourth part; , f. fourth day in a fortnight; fourth wedding day.
20) चतुर्थ (p. 67) katur-th () fourth:


p091c1-b20/ p067-019

चतुर्थकाल [ katurtha-kla ]
- m. fourth meal time: -m, lc. = on the evening of the second day; -klika, a. eating the fourth meal only; -bhg, a. receiving a fourth part as tribute.
19) चतुर्थकाल (p. 67) katurtha-kla fourth mealtime:


p091c1-b21/ p067-018

चतुर्थांश [ katurtha‿amsa ]
- m. fourth part; a. receiving a fourth; -‿amsin, a. id.
18) चतुर्थांश (p. 67) katurtha̮amsa fourth part;


p091c1-b22/ p067-017

चतुर्थीकर्मन् [ katurth-karman ]
- n. ceremony of the fourth wedding day.
17) चतुर्थीकर्मन् (p. 67) katurth-karman ceremony of the fourth wedding day.


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[ katur-danta ]
- m. N. of an elephant


p091c2-b01/ p067-016

चतुर्दश [ katur-das ]
- a. () fourteenth; consisting of fourteen; , f. fourteenth day of a fortnight: -dasa-dh, ad. fourteenfold; -dasn (or k-), num. fourteen; -dasama, a. fourteenth; -dasark, a. hvg. fourteen verses; -drik, f. N. of the fifth lambaka in the Kathsaritsgara; -dikkam, ad. to the four quarters; -disam, ad. id.; -dvra-mukha, a. () having four gates as mouths; -dh, ad. in four parts; fourfold.
16) चतुर्दश (p. 67) katur-das () fourteenth;


p091c2-b02/ p067-015

चतुर्बाहु [ katur-bhu ]
- a. four-armed; -bila, a. having four apertures; -bhg, m. fourth, quarter; -bhuga, a. four-armed, ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; -bhmika, a. four-storied; -ms, f. period of four months; -mukha, a. four-faced; ep. of Brahma Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva: -samrita, pp. uttered by the four mouths; -muhrtam, ac. for four muhrtas; -mrti, a. having four forms or faces; -yuga, n. the four ages; a. comprising the four ages; -vaktra, a. four-faced; ep. of an attendant of Durg; -varga, m. aggregate of four: esp. the four goods of life, the good (artha), the pleasant (kma), the useful (artha), and final liberation (moksha): -kintmani, m. T. of a work; -varna-maya, a. consisting of the four castes; -varsha-sata‿yus, a. attaining an age of 400 years; -vims, a. () twenty-fourth; consisting of twenty-four; m. N. of a stoma in which three verses are chanted eight times; n. the day on which it is employed; -vimsat, f. twenty-four; (ktur)-vimsati, f. sg. and (rarely) pl. id.: -kritvas, ad. twenty-four times, -tama, a. twenty-fourth, y-aha, m. sg. twenty-four days; -vimsika, n. = katur-vimsa, m.; -vidha, a. fourfold: -m, ad.; -vra, m. kind of Soma rite lasting four days; -veda, m. pl. the four Vedas; a. containing or familiar with the four Vedas; -vedin, a. versed in the four Vedas; (ktur)-hanu, a. four-jawed.
15) चतुर्बाहु (p. 67) katur-bhu four-armed;


चतुर्वर्ग caturvarga [ katur-varga] 
Skt: m. aggregate of four: esp. the four goods of life, the good (artha), the pleasant (kma), the useful (artha), and final liberation (moksha) -- Mac091c2
Skt:  चतुर्वर्ग caturvarga - m. collection of 4 things - SpkSkt
BPal: {sa.tu.wag~ga.} -- UHS-PMD0383
  UKT from UHS: m - collection of 4 things or persons.

UKT 141017: What Macdonell has given of the above word is a philosophical idea of Hinduism. The word "moksha" in Hinduism means something entirely different (and opposite) from Theravada "Nibbana", and Mahayana "Nirvana".
 A Sanskrit work with the above name is: Chaturvarga Chintamani , vol.1 (37248), by Author: Khanda, Dana , in Sanskrit, Published by : Asiatic Society of Bengal; Calcutta; 1873 , p970


p091c2-b03/ p067-014

चतुश्््चत्वारिंश [ katus-katvrims ]
- a. (), forty fourth; ktus-katvrimsat, f. forty-four.
14) चतुश्््चत्वारिंश (p. 67) katus-katvrims (), fortyfourth;


p091c2-b04/ p067-033

चतुःशत [ ktuh-sata ]
- n. one hundred and four; four hundred; -sapha, a. four-hoofed; -sla, a. containing rooms on all four sides; m. building with square court in the middle: -ka, i-k, f. court with four rooms (one on each side); -srotra, a. four-eared.
33) चतुःशत (p. 67) ktuh-sata one hundred and four; four hundred;


p091c2-b05/ p067-032

चतुष्क [ katush-ka ]
- a. consisting of four; increased by four (-sata, n. 104 = 4 per cent); m. N.; n. tetrad, set of four things; kind of hall resting on four columns; square reception room; -karna, a. heard by four ears only: -t, f. in. in confidence.
32) चतुष्क (p. 67) katush-ka consisting of four;


p091c2-b06/ p067-031

चतुष्किका [ katushk-ik ]
- f. tetrad; hall resting on four pillars.
31) चतुष्किका (p. 67) katushk-ik tetrad; hall resting on four pillars.


p091c2-b07/ not online

चतुष्टय [ ktush-taya ]
- a. () of four kinds, consisting of four; tetrad; set of four.


p091c2-b08/ p067-029

चतुष्पञ्च [ katush-paka ]
- pl. four or five; -paksat, f. fifty-four; -path, m. n. place where four roads meet.
29) चतुष्पञ्च (p. 67) katush-paka four or five;


p091c2-b09/ p067-028

चतुष्पद् ktush-pad, -˚पाद् [ -pd ]
- a. (f. -pad ) four-footed; consisting of four parts or padas; f. having taken four steps; m. n. quadruped; -pada, a. four-footed; having four pdas; m. quadruped; -pda, a. () four-footed; m. quadruped; -puta, a. having four folds.
28) चतुष्पद् (p. 67) -pd -pad) four-footed;


p091c2-b10/ p067-027

चतुःषष्टि [ katuh-shashti ]
- f. sixty-four: -tama, a. sixty-fourth, y-aṅga, a. having sixty-four parts; -shtom, m. stoma of four parts each increasing by four verses; a. connected with a fourfold stoma.
27) चतुःषष्टि (p. 67) katuh-shashti sixty-four: -tama, a. sixty-fourth,


p091c2-b11/ p067-026

चतुस् [ kats ]
- ad. four times.
26) चतुस् (p. 67) kats four times.


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p091c3-b00/ p067-025

चतुस्त्रिंश [ katus-trims ]
- a. () thirty-fourth; containing thirty-four; (ktus)-trimsat, f. thirty-four; -tri-dvi‿eka-bhga, a. receiving four, three, two, or one part.
25) चतुस्त्रिंश (p. 67) katus-trims () thirty-fourth;


p091c3-b01// p067-024

चतुःसंधि [ katuh-samdhi ]
- a. composed of four parts; (ktuh)-samudra, a. () bounded by four seas; (ktuh)-sahasra, n. four thousand.
24) चतुःसंधि (p. 67) katuh-samdhi composed of four parts;



चतूरात्र [kat-rtr]
Skt: चतूरात्र [kat-rtr] -- four days; -m , ac. for four days. - Mac091c3
Skt: चतूरात्र catūrātra -- lasting 4 days - SpkSkt


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p091c3-b03/ p067-023

चत्वर [ katvar- ]
- m. n. square, courtyard.
23) चत्वर (p. 67) katvar- square, courtyard.


p091c3-b04/ p067-045

चत्वार् [ katvr ]
- str. st. of katur, m. n. pl. four.
45) चत्वार् (p. 67) katvaNr four.


p091c3-b05/ p067-044

चत्वारिंश [ katvrim-s ]
- a. (&isharp;) fortieth; -sat, f. forty; -sati, f. id.; -san-mna, n. having a weight of forty.
44) चत्वारिंश (p. 67) katvrim-s () fortieth;

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{sa.na.}/ {sn}

p091c3-b06/ not online

चन् [ kan ],
- only aor
. kanishtm and knishtat , rejoice in (lc.) ; gladden


p091c3-b07/ p067-043

चन cana  [ ka-n (SV. ka n) ]
Skt: चन [ ka-n (SV. ka n) ] -- immediately following emphasized word: V. not even; without neg. meaning (rare) also; after neg. even; C. (= kid) only after interrogatives in indefinite sense, even, at all. - Mac091c1
  43) चन (p. 67) ka-n (SV. ka n) not even;
BPal: {sa.na.} - UHS-PMD0384
  UKT from UHS: a phrase describing a part


p091c3-b08/ p067-042 

चनस् [ kn-as ]
- n. gladness: only with dh, rejoice in (ac., lc.); grant.
42) चनस् (p. 67) kn-as gladness:


p091c3-b09 / p067-041

चनस्य [ kanas-y ]
- den. P. rejoice in (ac.): pp. kanasita, welcome! (voc.); gentle -(with N. of Brhman {poaN~Na:}, or, according to some, with that of a Kshatriya or Vaisya).
41) चनस्य (p. 67) kanas-y P. rejoice in (ac.):


p091c3-b10/ p067-040

चनिष्ठ [ kn-ishtha ]
- spv. very welcome, very gracious.
40) चनिष्ठ (p. 67) kn-ishtha very welcome, very gracious.

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{sn} / {sn~}

p091c3-b11/ p067-039

चन्द् [ KAND ]
= च न ् द ्
- v. SKAND, shine.
39) चन्द् (p. 67) KAND ��������� SKAND, shine.


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p091c3-b12/ p067-038

चन्दन [ kand-ana ]
= च न ् द न
- m. n. sandal tree, wood, powder, or ointment: -ka, m. N.; -dsa, m. N.; -paṅka, m. sandal ointment; -pta, m. application of sandal ointment; -pura, n. N. of a town; -maya, a. made of sandal wood; consisting of sandal ointment; -rasa, m., -vri, n. fluid essence of sandal wood; -‿adri, m. sandal mountain, the Malaya range.
38) चन्दन (p. 67) kand-ana sandal tree, wood, powder, or ointment:

चन्दन candana [ kand-ana ]
= च न ् द न 
Skt: चन्दन [kand-ana ] -- m. n. sandal tree, wood, powder, or ointment: -- Mac091c3
BPal: {sn~da.na.} - UHS-PMD0384
  UKT from UHS: n. sandal-wood tree or timber


p091c3-b13/ p067-037

चन्दनाय [ kandan-ya ]
- den. . become a sandal tree.
37) चन्दनाय (p. 67) kandan-ya . become a sandal tree.


p091c3-b14/ p067-036

चन्दनोदक [ kandana‿udaka ]
- n. fluid essence of sandal wood.
36) चन्दनोदक (p. 67) kandana̮udaka fluid essence of sandal wood.

UKT 141016: Since steam-distillation (chemical process) in one form or another was well known in ancient India, I would translate the above as "Sandal-wood oil". In our usual method of application, a piece of sandal-wood is rubbed against a stone surface with application of water. The resulting paste thinned with more addition of water is applied to the human face. After adding more water to produce an "extract" it is sprinkled on sacred objects. The paste can be extended with paste of Thanakha.


चन्दला [kanda-l ]
- f. N. of a woman

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p091c3-b16/ not online

चन्द्र [ kand-r ]
= च न ् द ् र --> {sn-dRa.}
- a. shining, bright; lovely; m. moon (also as a deity); -- = chief among --; N.; n. gold: a-ka, m. (-- a. ik) moon; eye in a peacock's tail; N.; -kal, f. sixteenth part of the moon's disc (as seen on the day before or after new moon); -knta, a. lovely as the moon; m. moon-stone (a fabulous gem formed of the congealed rays of the moon, glittering & exuding cool moisture in moon light only): -mani-maya, a. made of moon stone, -maya, a. id.
35) चन्द्र (p. 67) kand-r shining, bright; lovely;


चन्द्र [ kand-r ]
Skt: चन्द्र ( {sn-dra.}) - a. shining, bright; lovely; m. moon (also as a deity) -- MaC091c3
BPal: {sn-da.} - UHS PMD0384
  UKT from UHS: m. Moon, Monday-Planet-god .

UKT 160227: A Planet-god can be a Dva or an Asura who are mortal enemies in Vdic astrology. However the Asuras are demonized by later Sanskrit priests.


p091c3-b17/ p067-034

चन्द्रकित [ kandrak-ita ]
- pp. marked with moon-shaped spots.
34) चन्द्रकित (p. 67) kandrak-ita marked with moon-shaped spots. 

UKT 141016: I wonder what Macdonell means by "moon-shaped". It can be crescents implying something magic and malevolent . It can also be full-circles implying perfection and benevolence . The moon-shaped ornament on Shiva's head shows his darker side.


p091c3-b18/ p067-046

चन्द्रकुल्या [ kandra-kuly ]
- f. N. of a river; -ketu, m. N.; -kshaya, m. new moon; -gupta, m. N. of various kings, esp. the Sandrokottos who flourished about 300 B.C.: -ka, m. id.; -kda, a. moon-crested, ep. of Siva; -kdmani, m. T. of a work; -tva, n. likeness to the moon; -deva, m. N. of a Brhman; -pda, m. moon-beam; -pura, n. N. of a town; -prabha, m., , f. N.; -prsda, m. room on the roof; -bimba, n. disc of the moon: -maya, a. consisting of moon-discs; -bhg, f. N. of a river; -mandala, n. moon-disc; -maya, a. () being altogether moon; ()-mas, m. moon; moon-god (represented as a Dnava or as one of the eight Vasus); -msa, m. lunar month; -mukuta, m. (moon-crested), ep. of Siva; -mukha, m. N.; mauli, -maulin, m. (moon crested), ep. of Siva.
46) चन्द्रकुल्या (p. 67) kandra-kuly -ketu, m. N.;

See my note on Sandrokottos


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UKT notes

Game of Chess

-- UKT 141016:

During the earlier years of WWII, Myanmarpr enjoyed some months of peace. Of course there were skirmishes between the Japanese and the Western Allied forces in the frontiers. There were no highway robbers, and no bombing by the Allies. My family was in Kyangin on the Irrawaddy river and my father used to play Myanmar chess with his friend U Myint and I usually accompanied him on his visits to play chess.

The chess-men were wooden pieces about 2 inches high, coloured vermillion red and black. The board was a low table set between the players and the players would be sitting on a large reed mat. Of course there were two kings, and two generals. It seems that the Myanmar queens were peaceful and unlike their western cousins left the business of war to their man folk. There were no castles and their place was taken by chariots. There were elephants and horses. The foot-soldiers were known as {n} 'the frontier'.

UKT 190401: My father U Tun Pe, at one time in Kungyangoan town where I was born, was an avid player of Chinese Majong, and Chinese "poker". He played with the Chinese merchants in the town, and they considered him to be their equal. I remember a particular friend of his "Ko Sw i Kok" whose daughter Ma Tin Myint became one of my Engineering students in RIT (Rangoon Inst. of Technology). Incidentally she eventually became the Professor and Head of Chemical Engineering Dept.
   According to my father, the Chinese chess is quite unique in having the Canon which is natural because they were inventers of gun-powder. My father said the cards in the poker and the pieces in chess are the same, and the Canon is called "Hpan" and is marked with a circle. As a child of under 5, I used to accompany him when he went to play Majong and Poker with his Chinese friends. All gone but never to be forgotten. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xiangqi 190401
"The game represents a battle between two armies, with the object of capturing the enemy's general (king). Distinctive features of xiangqi include the cannon (pao), which must jump to capture; a rule prohibiting the generals from facing each other directly; areas on the board called the river and palace, which restrict the movement of some pieces (but enhance that of others) ..."

I am sorry to say that I do not know rules of Myanmar chess.

With this little note I pay my respects to U Myint who I saw last in 1946, after the War, when he came to visit our house in East Rangoon.

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-- UKT 140901:

Greek pronunciation of "Sandrokottos" च should be pronounced as {sa.}. The Skt-Dev of the name is: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य . Taking the first part:  चन्द्र = च न ् द ् र , we get {sn~ra.}   

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandragupta_Maurya 120214

Chandragupta Maurya (Skt: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य ; Hindi: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), (born c. 340 BCE, ruled c. 320 BCE, [2] 298 BCE [3]) was the founder of the Maurya Empire. He succeeded in conquering most of the Indian subcontinent and is considered the first unifier of India as well as its first genuine emperor. [4] In foreign Greek and Latin accounts, Chandragupta is known as Sandrokyptos (Σανδρόκυπτος), Sandrokottos (Σανδρόκοττος) or Androcottus. [5]

Prior to Chandragupta's consolidation of power, small regional kingdoms dominated the northwestern subcontinent, while the Nanda Dynasty dominated the middle and lower basin of the Ganges. [6] After Chandragupt's conquests, the Maurya Empire extended from Bengal and Assam [7] in the east, to Afghanistan and Balochistan in the west, to Kashmir and Nepal [8] in the north, and to the Deccan Plateau in the south. [9] [UKT ]

UKT120241, 170717: According to Glass Palace Chronicle, the Pyu kingdoms, particularly that of Tagaung would have been flourishing. If so, why didn't Chandragupta extend his territory further to the east. My conjecture is, Chandragupta war tactics were based on his four-fold army: the chariots, the war-elephants, the war-horses and infantry. His army would have been useless in the tropical jungles surrounding the Pyu cities. Moreover, the mountain-ranges between Bengal-Assam and Burma were very difficult to cross, and there was a very virulent kind of malaria that could kill a person overnight which must have given rise to the stories of the sorcerers, magicians and the weretigers  in the valley below the mountains.
See Section 08 - Geography {pa.hta.wi-wn} - geog-indx >
and read: PHY-GEOG: Physical Geography of Myanmarpr - phy-geog.htm (link chk 190402)
- MALARIA: Malaria and other diseases as sentinels of Myanmarpr - malaria.htm (link chk 190402)

Tradition holds that Chandragupta abdicated his throne to become a [Jain] monk and led such an ascetic life that he starved himself to death. Whether or not this is factually accurate, he was succeeded by his son in 297 BC.

Chandragupta's achievements, which ranged from conquering Macedonian satrapies in the northwest and conquering the Nanda Empire by the time he was only about 20 years old, to achieving an alliance with Seleucus I Nicator [ca. 358 BC 281 BC] and establishing centralized rule throughout South Asia, remain some of the most celebrated in the history of India. [UKT ]

UKT 141017: We usually heap praises and accusations on the top person - usually the king. But the exploits of the leader depends on his most able advisor usually a person of high learning. In the case of Chandragupta, it was his able minister Chenaka (c. 370 c. 283 BCE) who not only played the kingmaker but his military tactician, his economist, and his medical advisor. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanakya  141017

Over two thousand years later, the accomplishments of Chandragupta stand out in the history of South Asia.

UKT120214: Chandragupta's empire was a very extensive one, and his subjects would be speaking different languages. Was there a lingua franca as Latin was in the Roman Empire? Was it Vedic [slowly dying out?] or Classical Sanskrit and how was it written: in Asoka's script aka Brahmi? Presumably, the Brahmin scribes or secretaries probably trained by Chanakya himself would be in every court to conduct the administration of the Empire. 

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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