Update: 2020-05-29 12:01 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{gRa.} : contd.
  {gRa.ha.} : contd.



/ {g~la} : Bur-Myan {la.} as hanger needs extra space: if this is objectionable, use Mon-Myan form .
/ {g~l:} ग्लै
/ {g~lau} ग्लौ

ग्रन्थिशमन granthisamana [ granthi-samana ]
- n. (bringing a garment to an end with a knot =) money knot.


UKT notes :
Esoterism : Burmese native beliefs and customs
  Esoterism and Exoterism
  Mahaboat : {ma.ha-Boat} : Native Astrology
  Navagraha Puja {groh-kri: ko:lon: pu-zau pw:}
---- vs Nine-Gods Puja {Bu.ra: ko:hsu pu-zau pw:}
Bur-Myan and Nwari-Dev :
  Tib-Bur languages with onset {gna.} - non-nasal 
  IE languages have only coda {-ing} --> { n} - nasal
  Note: the problem with r1c5 is also due to the English language not having a single letter to represent this sound: it has to use a digraph. Unable to get rid of this problem, I have to change the nuclear vowel as well as the coda-constant.

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UKT 160117: The meaning of {gRa.ha.} as 'seizer' is not appropriate according to
Burmese Astrology Mahaboat {ma.ha-Boat}. 


p088-1c1-b01/ p064-112

ग्रह [ grh-a ]
- a. (--) seizing, holding; gaining; perceiving; m. seizer, esp. Rhu, who seizes and thus eclipses Sun and Moon; planet (which seizes men by magical influence: generally reckoned to be five in number: Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn, or seven: the same + Rhu and Ketu, or nine: the same + Sun and Moon); demon of disease; imp; crocodile; booty; vessel* (for drawing Soma); draught** (of Soma); organ (of which eight are enumerated); seizure, grasp, grip; draught (of a fluid); theft, robbery; insistence on (lc., --), endeavour; receipt; welcome; mention; perception, understanding.
112) ग्रह (p. 64) grh-a (--) seizing, holding;

ग्रह graha [ grh-a ]
= ग ् र ह --> {gRa.ha.}
Skt: [ grh-a ] -- a. (--) seizing, holding; gaining; perceiving; m. seizer, esp. Rhu, who seizes and thus eclipses sun and moon; planet (which seizes men by magical influence) -- Mac088-1c1 
BPal: {ga.ha.} - UHS-PMD0362
  UKT from UHS: . home (implying marital bondage).
  . to grab, to seize (eclipse of Sun, and Moon by Rahu).

UKT 140919, 170629:
- From this idea of गृह gṛha "seizing", the astrological planets are known in Bur-Myan as Seizers {groh} .
- * vessel (for drawing Soma); ** draught (of Soma), makes me wonder why "seize" and "Soma" have been connected. Does it imply the "intoxicating power" of Soma, as Soma - the substance befuddles (or seizes) the reasoning power of the mind?



ग्रहग्रस्त [ graha-grasta ]
- pp. possessed by a demon.
111) ग्रहग्रस्त (p. 64) graha-grasta possessed by a demon.



ग्रहण [ grah-ana ]
- a. holding (--); n. grhana, seizing, holding, capturing; eclipse; obtaining, receiving; buying; reverberation; catching, absorbing; putting on (clothes), assuming (a body); undergoing; pronouncing, mentioning; using an expression, employment, word mentioned; learning; perception, understanding; taking to mean.
110) ग्रहण (p. 64) grah-ana holding (--); n. grhana, seizing, holding, capturing;



ग्रहणचतुर [ grahana-katura ]
- a. expert in seizing; -dvaya, n. eclipse of sun and (or) moon; -sambhava, a. arising from the taking away (of, g.); -‿anta, a. done with learning; -‿antika, a. id.
109) ग्रहणचतुर (p. 64) grahana-katura expert in seizing;



ग्रहणीय [ grah-anya ]
- fp. to be accepted or pondered.
108) ग्रहणीय (p. 64) grah-anya to be accepted or pondered.


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  ग्रहपीडन [ graha-pdana ]
- n., -pd, f. calamity caused by Rhu, eclipse; -maya, a. () consisting of planets; -yaga, m. sacrifice to the planets; -yuti, f. conjunction of the planets; -yuddha, (pp.) n. conflict --, opposition of the planets; -yoga, m. = graha-yuti; -varsha, m. planetary year; -samgama, m. conjunction of the planets; -‿agre-sara, m. ep. of the Moon (chief of the Planets).
103) ग्रहपीडन (p. 64) graha-pdana calamity caused by Rhu, eclipse;

UKT 170629: by "planets" is meant the anthropomorphic astronomical planets of the solar system, because of which I have capitalized the words.


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ग्रहिल [ grah-ila ]
- a. sensible to (--); sensitive; frantic.
102) ग्रहिल (p. 64) grah-ila sensible to (--);



ग्रहीतव्य [ grah--tavy ]
- fp. to be taken, received, -drawn (fluid); --tri, m. seizer; receiver; purchaser; perceiver; hearer.
101) ग्रहीतव्य (p. 64) grah--tavy to be taken, received, -- drawn (fluid);


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ग्रहोक्थ [ graha‿uktha ]
- n. hymn recited while drawing Soma.
100) ग्रहोक्थ (p. 64) graha̮uktha hymn recited while drawing Soma.


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ग्राभ [ grbh ]
- m. seizer; handful.
99) ग्राभ (p. 64) grbh seizer;



ग्राम [ gr&asharp;-ma ]
= ग ् र ा म --> {gRa-ma.}
- m. inhabited place, village; community, clan; host; multitude, aggregate of (--); scale in music: pl. inhabitants, people.
  98) ग्राम (p. 64) graN-ma inhabited place, village; community, clan;
BPal: {ga-ma.} - UHS PMD0363
  UKT from UHS: community, village



ग्रामकाम [ gr&asharp;ma-kma ]
- a. desirous of a village; fond of village life; -kukkuta, m. (village=) tame cock; -ghta, m. plundering of a village; -kary, f. village ways = sexual enjoyment; -kaitya, m. sacred tree of the village; -gta, pp. grown in a village or in cultivated soil; -n, m. leader of a host; chief of a community; *barber (chief person in a village); -t, f. number of villages; -dasa‿sa, m. chief of ten villages; -dhar, f. N. of a rock (supporting villages); -dharma, m. village custom; -nivsin, a. dwelling in villages, tame (birds); -pishta, pp. ground at home; -ygaka, -ygin, a. sacrificing (through avarice) for all members of the community (whether admissible or not); -vsin, a. living in villages, tame (animal); m. villager; -vriddha, m. old man of the village; -sm, f. village field; -skara, m. domestic hog.
124) ग्रामकाम (p. 64) graNma-kma desirous of a village; fond of village life;

- m. leader of a host; chief of a community; *barber (chief person in a village);

*UKT 180510: In my childhood days - long before radio, TV, and cell-phone texting, men of the village went to the barber shop to have their hair cut or to have their moustache and beard trimmed, and talked with the barber, in connection with the current news, including the favourite subject of men - sex. The barber, thus became the chief disseminator of news, gossip, and knowledge in general.


p088-1c2-b07/ not online

- village -, = ordinary fire; -‿adhipa, m. headman of a village; -‿ant , m. village boundary : lc. in the ...




ग्रामिक [ grm-ika ]
- m. village chief; -n, a. ruling a community; m. villager; peasant: (i)-putra, m. peasant-boy.
123) ग्रामिक (p. 64) grm-ika village chief; 



ग्रामीण [ grm-na ]
- n. rustic, illiterate; m. villager, peasant; -eya-ka, m. villager.
122) ग्रामीण (p. 64) grm-na rustic, illiterate;

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ग्राम्य [ grm-y ]
- a. referring to, coming from, prepared in or inhabiting villages; tame; cultivated; raised by cultivation; rustic, coarse; m. villager; domestic animal; n. sensuality.
121) ग्राम्य (p. 64) grm-y referring to, coming from, prepared in or inhabiting villages;



ग्राम्यकुक्कुट [ grmya-kukkuta ]
- m. domestic cock; -t, f., -tva, n. coarse diction; -dharma, m. villager's duty; sensuality; -mriga, m. (domestic animal), dog; -skara, m. domestic hog.
120) ग्राम्यकुक्कुट (p. 64) grmya-kukkuta domestic cock;

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ग्रावन् [ gr&asharp;-van ]
- m. rock, stone, esp. for pressing Soma.
119) ग्रावन् (p. 64) graN-van rock, stone,

UKT 180510: Pressing stone for pressing out water from a pulp. I've in mind how rice starch powder and Tha'nethka powder are manufactured on small scale in Myanmarpr. In the case of rice, husked rice grains soaked in water is rubbed between two horizontal stone-disks one of which is rotating above the other.  The resulting soggy pulp is then put into strong cotton bags, which are tightly tied. A large stone - the pressing stone - is placed over the bag and water is pressed out overnight. The rice powder which is still wet and taken out of the bag and sun-dried. It is the same procedure used for Tha'netkha except that the originally the tha'nethka is the form of a cut branch - wood still covered with bark - is held against a rotating grind-stone which is sprayed with water to keep the temperature down. The result is a soggy pulp, water from which is pressed out as in the case of rice.


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ग्रावग्राभ [ grva-grbh ]
- m. (handling the Soma stones), a priest, later  grvastut; -stt, m. a kind of priest; -stotra, n. invocation of the pressing-stones at noon: -ya, a. relating to the invocation of the pressing stones.
118) ग्रावग्राभ (p. 64) grva-grbh (handling the Soma stones),

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ग्रास [ grs-a ]
- m. swallowing; eclipse; mouthful, morsel; food; --, a. swallowing; -pramna, n. size of a morsel; -‿kkhdana, n. sg. food and clothing.
116) ग्रास (p. 64) grs-a swallowing;


p088-1c3-b02/ not online

[grs-kri ]
- swallow

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ग्राह [ grh- ]
- a. () seizing, holding, taking, receiving (--); m. id.; mentioning; whim; beast of prey, crocodile, shark, serpent.
115) ग्राह (p. 64) grh- () seizing, holding, taking, receiving (--);



ग्राहक [ grha-ka ]
- a. (ik) receiving; apprehending, perceiving; m. bailiff; policeman; buyer: -tva, n. power of comprehension; -krikara, m. decoy partridge; -vihamga, m. decoy-bird.
114) ग्राहक (p. 64) grha-ka (ik) receiving;



ग्राहयितव्य [ grh-ay-i-tavya ]
- (cs.) fp. to be caused to undertake (ac.).
113) ग्राहयितव्य (p. 64) grh-ay-i-tavya to be caused to undertake (ac.).

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ग्राहिन् [ grh-in ]
- a. (--) seizing, holding; catching; containing; receiving, gaining, keeping; buying (with in. of price); searching through; perceiving; pondering; -y, fp. to be seized, -clasped; -apprehended; -obtained; -accepted; -insisted on; -perceived, -comprehended; -learned; -understood; -recognised, -regarded.
70) ग्राहिन् (p. 64) grh-in (--) seizing, holding;


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UKT 170629: {gRi} ग्री (2 blk) (spelled with {ra.} र ) is orthographically different from {gRRi} गॄ (2 blk) derived from rhotic Skt-Dev vowel-pair ऋ {iRi.} (1blk); ॠ {iRi} (2 blk). Refer to
p044-2-p062c2 - MCv2pp-indx.htm > p056-2.htm (link chk 170623)


  ग्रीव [ gr-va ]
- m., &asharp;, f. [√gr, swallow], neck.
86) ग्रीव (p. 64) gr-va [√gr, swallow], neck.



ग्रीष्म [ grsh-m ]
- m. summer, hot season: -samaya, m. summer time.
  85) ग्रीष्म (p. 64) grsh-m summer, hot season:
BPal: {gi.mha-na. ma-a.} - UHS PMD0365c2
  UKT from UHS - m. summer month

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ग्रैव [ graiva ]
- n. neck-chain (of an elephant).
84) ग्रैव (p. 64) graiva neck-chain (of an elephant).



ग्रैवेय [ graiv-eya ]
- m. n. id.: -ka, n. id.; necklace; -ya, a. relating to the neck.
132) ग्रैवेय (p. 64) graiv-eya relating to the neck.



ग्रैष्म [ grashma ]
- a. referring to the hot season; i-ka, a. id.
131) ग्रैष्म (p. 64) grashma referring to the hot season;

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UKT 180511, 190326: Hanging {la.} is not present in modern Bur-Myan. However, we need it BEPS.
Bur-Myan {la.} as hanger needs extra space: if this is objectionable, use Mon-Myan form .

p088-1c3-b12/ not online

[ glap ]
- i. p. glap , be distressed at (in.).



ग्लपन [ glap-ana ]
- n. relaxation; withering.
130) ग्लपन (p. 64) glap-ana relaxation;



ग्लपय [ gla-paya ]
- cs. of √glai.
129) ग्लपय (p. 64) gla-paya √glai.


p088-1c3-b15/ not online

[ glapsa ]
= grapsa


p088-1c3-b16/ not online

ग्लह् [ glah ]
-- i. . glaha , play at dice (with, in. or ac.)



ग्लह [ glh-a ]
- m. game of dice; throw (at dice); stake; die; dice-box; contention, wager; prize; -ana, n. throwing of dice.
128) ग्लह (p. 64) glh-a game of dice;



  ग्लान [ gl-na (pp. √glai) ]
- n., -�� -ni, f. lassitude; inertness; diminution; -vn, a. inert; -snu, a. relaxed; withered; sick.
127) ग्लान (p. 64) gl-na (pp. √glai) lassitude;


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{g~l:} ग्लै

p088-1c3-b19/ not online

ग्लै [ glai ]
- i. p. glya ( e. also ) and ii. p. gl-ti , be loath or averse (with in. or d.) ; be relaxed, exhausted, or vexed; repine : pp. glna , ...



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{g~lau} ग्लौ

p088-1c3-b20/ not online

ग्लौ [ glau ]
- lump, goitrous excrescence


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UKT notes

Esoterism : Bur-Myan native beliefs and customs

- UKT 170627

UKT 170627: "Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism) is a scholarly term for a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. They are largely distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and from Enlightenment rationalism."
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_esotericism 170627
Whenever we look into this subject, we come across Jewish Kabbalah 'Tree of Life'. Now, let's compare this idea into the Burmese Native Customs. See also
Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm - update 130218

Esoterism includes many beliefs and customs:
Esoterism and Exoterism
Mahaboat {ma.ha-Boat} : Native Astrology
Navagraha Puja {groh-kri: ko:lon: pu-zau pw:}
Bur-Myan and Nwari-Dev


Esoterism and Exoterism

- UKT 170626

Can we say that recitation of Theravada Buddhist Parritta {pa.rait}, not only in Myanmarpr but in most of Theravada countries, amounts to Exoteric Buddhist practise ? Moreover, there is a similar word Esoteric: what is the difference between the two. With my limited understanding, I take the Theravada Paritta recitation for protection to be more open - not with hidden meanings - being excerpts from sermons of Gautama Buddha. On the other hand, Esotericism is from Mahayana with hidden meanings to be revealed only by masters to the respective students.

From: Paritta Pali: Protective Verses, by Sayadaw Silananda, 1998
- http://www.tathagata.org/sites/default/files/ParittaSutta%20v2.1%20-%20Sayadaw%20U%20Silananda.pdf 170629.
Downloads in TIL PDF libraries:
- Silananda-ParittaSutta<> / Bkp<>

Introduction p03
"The Sutta [such as Āṭānāṭiya] chanted for protection, etc., is also known as Paritta which means the Sutta that protects those who chant and who listen to it against dangers, calamities, etc., from all around. Through the ages other Suttas were added to the list of 'Suttas for chanting.' Thus we find in Milindapaha and the Commentaries by the Venerable Buddhaghosa the following nine Suttas mentioned as Parittas: Ratana Sutta, Metta Sutta, Khandha Sutta, Mora Sutta, Dhajagga Sutta, Āṭānāṭiya Sutta, Arigulimala Sutta, Bojjhaṅga Sutta and Isigili Sutta.

"The collection presented here includes the first eight Suttas and in addition, Mangala Sutta, Vaṭṭa Sutta and Pubbaṇa Sutta, thus comprising altogether eleven Suttas, with further addition of introductory verses at the beginning of each Sutta. These are the eleven Suttas chanted everyday in every monastery and nunnery and in some houses of lay people in all Theravada Buddhist countries. This collection is known in Myanmar as 'The Great Paritta', not because the Suttas in this collection are long ones, but probably because they have great power, if chanted and listened to in a correct way, could ward off dangers and bring in results."

See also: Indian Esoteric Buddhism : a social history of the Tantric movement, by R. M. Davidson, 2012
Downloaded pdf copies in TIL libraries
- RMDavidson-IndianEsoterism<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170630)

"... We note the donative inscriptions concerning of Balaputradeva of Suvarnadvipa to Nalanda in the ninth century, of the King Kyanzittha of Pagan in 1084, 1112, and the repairs of Letyamengnan of Arakan between 1112 and 1167, all these latter concerning the Mahabodhi temple in Bodhgaya. [fn.35] Yet the foreign interest is notable for two factors their involvement is for the purpose of revitalization or repair, and it is not done by merchants or those with guild affiliation. Indeed, the principal sense we get of international merchant involvement with Buddhism from the eighth to the tenth centuries is that found in Nepal and Tibet. This is especially visible during the period of the Tibetan Royal Dynastys interest in Buddhism and their extensive ties to sites in Central Asia, which they secured through military prowess. [fn36] By the tenth to eleventh centuries, the improved economic climate evidently stimulated mercantile construction of Buddhist institutions once again, as is evident in inscriptions in Bihar and around Vatapi. [fn.37] ..."


From: in Blog , posted 2011 Nov. 22.
- https://www.hokai.info/2011/11/esoteric-vs-exoteric/ 170629

Esoteric and Exoteric forms of Buddhadharma are difficult to separate, since their historical development is closely related. The tradition of Secret Mantra is not esoteric just in the sense that its inner teachings have been kept secret among initiates. Exoteric texts, which are publicly available, also contain the essence of esoteric teachings, but these can only be fully understood through direct experience, developed in training under guidance of a qualified master. Pith instructions that contain the accumulated wisdom of masters through centuries are conveyed as secret oral instructions. Additional esoteric understanding is preserved in commentaries, ritual manuals, as well as records of oral transmission. Relative secrecy is supposed to prevent misunderstanding and misuse, and thereby to protect teachings from corruption.

Esoteric Dharma is secret in yet another way. Deep knowledge pointed out in the teachings whether explicitly in esoteric sutras, or implicitly in exoteric ones cannot be revealed as ordinary knowledge, because the most profound mysteries, which are direct manifestations of Buddhahood, can only be known by the awakened mind.

Formally, esoteric Dharma has distinct sutras and commentaries, distinct ethical principles (skt. samaya), distinct methods of spiritual cultivation, as well as distinct lineages of transmission. However, esoteric Dharma is inextricably bound with general Mahayana, their teachings not being mutually exclusive. Real differences between esoteric and exoteric were sometimes exaggerated for sectarian purposes.


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Mahaboat {ma.ha-Boat} : Native Astrology

UKT 170628: Daw Hla Than, one of my best friends, has referred me to the little book on Mahaboat written by one of her ex-students. In the Mahaboat system {k-tu.} केतु is the King of the Planets. She, Ma Hla Than, has now passed away. We have shared many interests together including astrology: gone but never will be forgotten.
See: http://www.jupitersweb.com/mahabote-part-one.html 170402 .

- UKT 160118, 170628

The Astronomical travelling luminaries (including one dark "planet") are connected to the 8 points of compass, 7 days of the week, and 8 animals. Astrologically, these "astronomical-planets" are supposed to have influence on the mundane affairs of Man, his health, and the economy and politics of the country of his residence. Thus they are called Gra'ha or Seizers. (Note: I have spelled the astronomical planets with small letter-p and the Astrological Planets with cap-letter-P.):

1. Sun (North-east, Sunday Planet lord of Ga'loan-Bird),
2. Moon (East, Monday Planet lord of Tiger-Feline),
3. Mars (South-east, Tuesday Planet lord of Lion-Feline),
4. Mercury (South, Wednesday-morning Planet lord of Tusker-Elephant),
5. Saturn (South-west, Saturday Planet lord Naga-Serpant), 
6. Jupiter (West, Thursday Planet lord of Mouse-Rodent ),
7. Rahu (South-west, Wednesday-evening Planet lord of Tuskless-Elephant)
8. Venus (North, Friday Planet lord of Guinea-pig-Rodent),

Unlike the Greek-Roman male-, female-, hermaphrodite-gods, all the Planet lords are males with characteristics of the animal over which he influenced. For my astrological predictions, I base the effects of the Planets on the sexuality of Greek-Roman gods and goddesses, and the known animal behaviour of the animals.

The Planets are not Dva or Asura of Buddhism and Hinduism, but protectors in an earlier folk-religion. They are not tutelary gods. They are not to be feared, nor are they to be insulted.

The indigenous Folk Astrology of Myanmarpr, Ma'ha'boat {ma.ha-Boat} - unlike Vdic Astrology, particularly the present-day Hindu Astrology - is based the behaviour of the Planets. Each human individual, of maximum 108 years of life span, would be influenced by a particular Planet and not in any way "seized" by him.

Bur-Myan speakers of Theravada Buddhist faith, do not worship the Planets let alone their animals. We try to supply them food, flowers and light during our worship of the Nine-Gods Puja. We worship the Buddha and his saints in our {Bu.ra: ko:hsu} {pu-zau pw:}. We invoke or call up the Planets with our Mantras (which they must obey) to enjoy the provisions given to them. At the end of the ceremony, we ask them to leave which is Bur-Myan is 'expulsion' by reciting another set of Mantras (which they must obey). It should be compared and differentiated from the worship of Hindu Navagraha  {na.wa.gra.ha.} नवग्रह = न व ग ् र ह . See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navagraha 130116 

The 108 years of human life-span are divided as:

Sunday, 6 years;
Monday, 15 yr.;
Tuesday, 8 yr.;
Wednesday, 17 yr.;
Saturday, 10 yr.;
Thursday, 19 yr.;
Rahu, 12 yr.;
Friday, 21 yr. 

Each human individual, depending on the year according to Burmese lunar calendar, and the day of birth could begin his life in a time-duration of any Planet. For example, a person may begin in life in Monday-Planet life of 15 yr. He might be born at exactly 12th yr - 5th month point and would remain in it for 2 yr. and 7 mm., and then pass on to Tuesday Planet life. Mahaboat is very simple and you can learn it in a few days and set up your own shop.

According to my now-departed friend Daw Hla Than aka Bogyi (Captain in Burma Air Force) Ma Hla Than, Mahaboat is purely indigenous to Myanmarpr. It is also practiced in Cambodia and Thailand.

See: Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch02.htm (on Nine Gods) (link chk 160118)

Go back Mahaboat-note-b

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Navagraha Puja {groh-kri: ko:lon: pu-zau pw:}
vs Nine-Gods Puja {Bu.ra: ko:hsu pu-zau pw:}

- UKT 170628, 190326

Refer also to Nine Gods in Folk Elements in Buddhism by Dr. U Htin Aung, former Rector of Rangoon Univ.
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch02.htm (link chk 190326)

First and foremost, the two ceremonies are different. Nine-planet worship {groh-kri: ko:lon: pu-zau pw:} is Hindu, whereas Nine-Buddha {Bu.ra: ko:hsu pu-zau pw:}-worship is Buddhist.

UKT 190329: It is unfortunate that the Bur-Myan word {Bu.ra:} is mis-interpreted as the English word "God". The two are not synonymous. Here, we should equate {Bu.ra:} to Gautama Buddha and Arahats - those who have the ultimate knowledge of the Four Noble Truths and Antta Principle (or simply put "those who has attained Nirvana). I hold that this ceremony was derived from pre-Buddhistic practice of worshipping the Five Mothers and their attendants (3 females and 2 males), and Nine Heavenly bodies or Planets. In this respect I differ from the views of my respected teacher Dr. Htin Aung  in his Folk Elements in Buddhism 

Secondly, the Planet-god (or ruler of a planet) is an entity who is not a Buddha. Both are worthy of "worship". The Planet-god is worshipped out of fear, whereas the Buddha and his Arahats are worshipped out of respect.

In the Theravada Buddhist ceremony, Five Great Gods or {nt-kri: gna:pa:} are also worshipped. According to Dr. Htin Aung, the Five Great Gods are Hindu, whereas I contend that they are Tib-Bur Mother-goddesses Mdaws and their attendants. That the first is a female, Mdaw Thurathati, shows that they are not Hindus. The Hindu Poannars {poaN~Na:} 'bramin' - the Hindu religionists - would never have a female heading a group.

Bur-Myan speakers of Theravada Buddhist faith, do not worship the Planets or Planet-gods {groh} let alone their animals. We supply them food, flowers and light during our worship of the Nine-Gods Puja. We invoke  or call up the Planets with our Mantras {mn~tn} (which they must obey) to enjoy the provisions given to them. At the end of the ceremony, we ask them to leave which in Bur-Myan is 'expulsion' by reciting another set of Mantras (which they must obey). It should be compared and differentiated from the worship of Hindu Navagraha  {na.wa.gRa.ha.} नवग्रह = न व ग ् र ह ".

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navagraha 130116, 160118 

In the Hindu ceremony, the householders actively participated in the ceremony instructed by the Puja master dressed in white.

UKT 170627, 190327:
~~HD-nonPDF > SND-Skt-Dev > NavagrahaPuja<)) / Bkp<)) (link chk 170627, broken link 190327)
Also watch videos on Navagraha Stotram with Skt-Dev text, from 2 sources, in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries in Hindu section
- NavagrahaSktTxt<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190327)
- NavagrahaSktEngTxt<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190327)

Try to pick out the names of all Nine Planets: Chandra 'Monday'; Mangal 'Tuesday'; Budh 'Wednesday-morning'; Guru 'Thursday'; Shukra 'Friday'; Shani 'Saturday'; Surya 'Sunday'; Rahu 'Wednesday-evening'; Ketu 'in Bur-Myan the King of Planets'. Listen carefully, and you will hear a lot of Skt-Dev, ॐ OṀ (ending with closed lips). It is the equivalent to {ON} (ending with open lips) which is from Hinduism.

In purely Buddhist recitation there is no {ON}. ॐ OṀ. Notice the Dot-above {::tn}. There many 'dot-above' sounds because of which I hold that these Mantras were Tib-Bur in origin. I hold that the Vedic language before Panini was Tib-Bur, which Panini formalized into Classical Sanskrit.

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Bur-Myan and Nwari-Dev

**UKT 160222, 170627, 190327:

Skt-Myan sound is definitely rhotic, whereas Bur-Myan {gra.} is non-rhotic. It is pronounced exactly like Bur-Myan monosyllable {gya.}. However, {gra.} is slightly rhotic in both Pali-Myan, and the dialect of Arakan coastal area. I am in need of a glyph to represent the Skt-Myan rhotic sound. Representing it with {g~ra.} is not possible as it would play havoc in Mon-Myan. Skt-Dev solves this problem using a repha. For highly rhotic close sound Skt-Dev uses a special vowel letter, ऋ {iRi.}, and sign ृ. This close vowel is not present in Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan. Skt-Dev does not have an open vowel letter corresponding to ऋ {iRi.}, and sign ृ.

It is interesting to note that U Hoke Sein in his PMD0352 to 0374 does not list any words with {gra.}. However, U Tun Myint in his UTM-PDMD043 to 044, lists some. To solve this problem of rhoticity I have to propose the following two series, going from non-rhotic to rhotic :

Close front-vowel corresponding to IPA /i/ with dummy /k/
  {kyi.} क्यि , {kri.}, {kRi.} क्रि , repha , {kRRi.} ऋ 
Non-rhotic {ky.} & {kr.} : killed Nya-major is allowed only in Bur-Myan, not in Pal-Myan

After struggling with rhoticity in BEPS for some years, I've finally adopted a ron-rhotic to highly rhotic scale:

What we generally take to be Pal-Myan in Astrology and Indigenous Bur-Myan Medicine is actually derived from Skt-Dev: they should be termed Skt-Myan. Now that we have realized Bur-Myan is non-rhotic, Pal-Myan is slightly rhotic, and Skt-Dev is highly rhotic, the question remains: What about Nwari and Old Magadhi?
  See: English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
  - SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 160221)
  Being both Tib-Bur languages Bur-Myan and Nwa-Dev have words beginning with {nga.} ङ,
  e.g. for <fish> न्या ; ङा
  Mon-Myan {gRa.} is similar to Skt-Dev, but Bur-Myan is similar to Pali-Myan.
  Beware of possible mix-ups.

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