Update: 2020-05-29 12:01 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top


Contents of this page

{gRRi.Ba.} : cont

UKT notes :
Astrological Planets :
Stages in life in Hinduism

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{gRi.Ba.} : cont


p086c1-b00/ p064-007 

गृभाय [ gribh-y ]
- den. P. grasp. anu, show favour to (ac.). ud, cease (to rain). sam, take up, seize.
7) गृभाय (p. 64) gribh-y P. grasp.


p086c1-b01/ p064-006

गृभि [ grbh-i ]
- a. containing (g.).
6) गृभि (p. 64) grbh-i containing (g.).


p086c1-b02/ p064-005

गृभीत [ gribh-t ]
- pp. of √grabh.
5) गृभीत (p. 64) gribh-t √grabh.


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p086c1-b03/ p064-004

गृष्टि [ grish-t ] = ग ृ ष ् ट ि
- f. heifer, young cow that has calved once; young female animal (--).
4) गृष्टि (p. 64) grish-t heifer,


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p086c1-b04/ p064-003

गृह gṛha [ grih ] =  ग ृ ह
Skt: [ grih ] -- a. seizing, carrying away (--) - Mac086c1
  3) गृह (p. 64) grih seizing, carrying away (--).
Bur: {groh} - n. planets in solar system, e.g. Earth, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, etc. - MLC MED2006-089
BPal: {ga.ha.} - UHS-PMD0362
   UKT from UHS: . home (implying marital bondage). . to grab, to seize (eclipse of Sun, and Moon by Rahu).

See my note on Astrological Planets


p086c1-b05/ p064-002

गृह [ grih- ]
- m. [who takes and hands], servant; m. (V.), n. [that which contains], house, abode: often pl. premises; --, temple of (a god), arbour of (a plant); m. pl. household, family; wife; n. sign of the Zodiac; astrological mansion; square on a draught-board.
2) गृह (p. 64) grih- [who takes and hands], servant;



गृहकपोत [ griha-kapota ]
- m. domestic pigeon; -karma-kara, m. domestic; -karma-dsa, m. domestic slave; -karman, n. household affair; -kraka, m. carpenter; -krin, m. kind of wasp; -krya, n. household affair; -kritya, n. id.; kind of tax; -gupta, (pp.) m. N.; -kkhidra, n. hole or weak point in the house; -ga, a. born in the house; -gana, m. family; -gta, pp. born in the house; -dru, n. beam of a house; -dha, m. conflagration; -dpti, f. light (=ornament) of the house; -devat, f. pl. domestic deities; -dvra, n. house-door; -nadik, f. drain of a house; -nirvha, m. housekeeping; -p, m. guardian of the house; ()-pati, m. master of the house, paterfamilias; ep. of Agni; one who has precedence at a Sattra; village magistrate; -pta, m. collapse of a house; -pla, m. guardian of the house; -poshana, n. maintenance of the household; -bali, m. domestic offering: -bhug, m. bird that feeds on the domestic offering (sparrows, crows, and other birds); -bhartri, m. master of the house; -bhogin, m. member of the house hold; -medh, . m. domestic sacrifice; . a. performing or taking part in the domestic sacrifices; m. householder, paterfamilias; -medhn, a. id.; m. married Brhman house holder (second stage in his religious life): -, f. Brhman housewife.
1) गृहकपोत (p. 64) griha-kapota domestic pigeon;

See my note on stages in life in Hinduism
UKT 140920: These stages should be compared to what Bur-Myan has taken as the stages in life: the first stage especially for Myanmar-Buddhist is that of a student.

In days before the British occupation a young boy is sent to the village monastery to learn how to read and write, religion, mathematics, etc. It was this monastic education, the back-bone of Myanmar culture, that the British administrators sought to destroy. In the process almost all came to forget that the Myanmar akshara is truly phonetic - more advanced than English.


p086c1-b07/ p064-020

गृहयन्त्र [ griha-yantra ]
- n. house flagstaff; -raksh, f. protection of the house; -vat, a. possessing a house; m. householder; -vsa, m. domestic life; householder stage; -sikhandin, m. domestic peacock; -suka, m. domestic parrot; house poet; -samvesaka, m. architect; -samstha, a. living in one's own house; m. householder; -sra, m. (household) goods and chattels; -srasa, m. tame Indian crane; -stha, a. dwelling in the house of (--); m. married Brhman householder: , f. Brhman housewife; -stha-t, f. condition of a Brhman householder.
20) गृहयन्त्र (p. 64) griha-yantra house flagstaff;


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गृहागत [ griha‿gata ]
- pp. entering the house; -‿kra, m. domestic usage; duty of a house holder to his guest; -‿agira, n. court-yard; -‿rambha, m. building a house; -‿artha, m. household duties; -‿srama, m. house holder stage in a Brhman's life.
19) गृहागत (p. 64) griha̮gata entering the house;


p086c1-b09/ p064-018

गृहिन् [ grih-n ]
- a. possessing a house; m. householder: (n)-, f. housewife, spouse.
18) गृहिन् (p. 64) grih-n possessing a house;


p086c1-b10/ p064-017

गृहीत [ grih-ta ]
- pp. √grah: -dikka, a. having taken to all the quarters, dispersed in all directions: -nman, a. bearing the name, called.
17) गृहीत (p. 64) grih-ta √grah: -dikka, a. having taken to all the quarters,


p086c1-b11/ p064-016

गृहीताक्षर [ grihta‿akshara ]
- a. remembering the exact words of (g.), Pr.
16) गृहीताक्षर (p. 64) grihta̮akshara remembering


p086c1-b12/ p064-015

गृहीति [ grih-ti ]
- f. grasping, taking (the hand); raising (tribute); perceiving; taking to mean.
15) गृहीति (p. 64) grih-ti grasping, taking (the hand);


p086c1-b13/ not online

[ grih-bh ]
- become a house or dwelling


p086c1-b14/ p064-014

गृहु [ grih- ]
- m. [taker of a gift], beggar.
14) गृहु (p. 64) grih- [taker of a gift], beggar.


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p086c2-b00/ p064-013

गृहेश्वर [ griha‿svara ]
- m. master of the house; , f. housewife; -‿udyna, n. garden belonging to the house; -‿upakarana, n. household utensils or furniture.|
13) गृहेश्वर (p. 64) griha̮svara master of the house;

UKT 180429: The word गृहेश्वर [ griha‿svara ] reminds me of the Bur-Myan word {aim-U:nt}. Here, {nt} is not to be equated to god, he is not [svara ]: he is just the man of the house if his wife does not control him. 


p086c2-b01/ p064-012

गृह्य [ . grh-ya ]
- fp. to be seized; perceptible; siding with, closely connected with (--).
12) गृह्य (p. 64) 1. grh-ya to be seized;


p086c2-b02/ p064-011

गृह्य [ . grih-ya ]
- a. domestic; m. domestic fire: pl. domestics, household; n. domestic ceremony; domestic rule; -karman, n. domestic rite; -stra, n. stra on domestic rites.|
11) गृह्य (p. 64) 2. grih-ya domestic;


p086c2-b03/ p064-010

गृह्या [ grih-y ]
- f. domestic rites and the rules treating of them.
10) गृह्या (p. 64) grih-y domestic rites

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p086c2-b04/ not online

गॄ [ . gr ]
- gri-n , -n , -n (also with ps. meaning); vi. gira (with sam ) , invoke, call; praise; utter; recite; proclaim; relate. anu , join in praising; answer; *agree with (d.). abhi, approve; praise. , praise. laud; prati‿, answer. pra, praise. sam-pra, name. prati, invoke, salute; respond to (d.); *agree with (d.). sam, agree; promise (d.); accept (as true), assert.


p086c2-b05/ not onlined

गॄ [ . gr ]

gir. P.giia, IX.


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UKT notes

Astrological Planets

- UKT 140919, 170620:

From the idea of गृह gṛha "seizing", the astrological planets are known in Bur-Myan as Seizers {groh}. Take care to note the difference between astrological planet and astronomical planet.

UKT 170620: My interpretation of the word गृह gṛha is "controlling". The English word "seize" implies an evil action. The action of Astrological Planet can be both beneficial and destructive. A planet can become a benefic and also a malefic at certain periods in your life, in relation to what are known as the birth time and position of your "life indicator" known as {lag}.

Astrological Planets are divinities, something like Dvi (f.) and Dva (m.): there is even a hermaphrodite. Astrological Planets are the same as Greek-Roman gods and goddesses, e.g. Zeus-Jupiter (ruler of Thursday) is a male (the most promiscuous who would have sex even with animals such as a she-goat) and is the king of Heaven, with Herms-Mercury (ruler of Wednesday) his constant companion who is a hermaphrodite, while Aphrodite-Venus (ruler of Friday) is a female.

Though their characters are almost the same as those of Burmese-Indian Astrological Planets, the latter are all males. My study of Greek-Roman mythology was a help to me in my astrological predictions. Note: though a down-to-earth scientist, I had earned side-income as an astrologer-palmist in 1960s: I was forced to take a fee otherwise my clients would take me just to be an amateur. I've come to conclude that astrological theories are not all fakes - some can be used in every-day life, such as predicting the Stock market using what are known as the Stock-market Cycles in Technical Analysis.
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock_market_cycles 170621
"Stock market cycles are the long-term price patterns of stock markets and are often associated with general business cycles. [1]  They are key to technical analysis where the approach to investing is based on cycles or repeating price patterns.  The efficacy of the predictive nature of these cycles is controversial and some of these cycles have been quantitatively examined for statistical significance.  Well known cycles include: [2] ... The 60 year Kondratiev cycles "
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kondratiev_wave 170621
and: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Kondratiev 170621
also Kondrtieff Waves , ed. L. E. Grinin, T. C. Devezas, and A. V. Korotayev, 2014, TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RussAcadSc-KondrtieffWaves<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190320

UKT 170621: The Sixty-year cycle, according to my analysis depends on the time-period for the astronomical planet to come to the same position in Twelve Rasi of the horoscope:
- Saturn making one complete round - 30 years
- Jupiter making one complete round - 12 years.
Thus, 60 years - the LCM of 30 & 12 - is when both planets will to come to the same place in the celestial sphere represented in the horoscope of the client or subject. So a similar event can be predicted to happen every 60 year. It hold "true" not only for the stock-market, but also for human-individuals. However because of the effects of minor planets, like Mars which can retrograde , there are minor variations in the "degree" and "time". Astrologically, we can also have what is known as the "opposition effect" which will cut down the 60 year cycle to 30 year cycle.

Go back Astrolog-Planet-note-b

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Stages in life of a Brahmin

-- UKT 140919:

I came to know of the Stages of Life of a Brahmin {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} after hearing the retirement of a well-known astrologer in Yangon. Formerly, I used to refer to the episode, but have stopped to do so after his progeny denied that the astrologer was a Brahmin.

Exploring religions : http://uwacadweb.uwyo.edu/religionet/er/hinduism/hslife.htm 120204

The Four Stages of Life

Hinduism recognizes four main stages of life. Like the goals of life, these can be divided into three plus one, with the three deriving from the "life is good" strand of Hinduism, and the one deriving from the "life is bad" strand. The first three are the student, the householder, and the retired person, while the fourth is the ascetic (also known as a sannyasin or a sadhu).

Progressing through Life: The Three Stages

The three stages of life that come from the life-affirming, Vedic side of Hinduism, were initially designed with the caste system in mind (of course). In particular, they were set up to apply to members of the three Twice-Born varnas: the Brahmin, the Kshatriya and the Vaishya. Other castes and jatis have adopted them in different ways, transforming them to meet their needs.

The first stage is that of the student, during which a boy traditionally is expected to go to live and study with a teacher (a guru) for several years. Today only a few Brahmin families follow this tradition to the full extent. A boy enters into student-hood at adolescence (ages 8-12), and spends most of his maturing years studying. For Brahmins, this would mean studying and memorizing large portions of the Vedas and accompanying texts, along with training in the various rituals. Members of all castes learn how to set up and maintain their own household worship, centered on the holy fire of Agni.

For the Twice-Born castes, the ritual (samskara) of becoming a student contains great significance, for it is the means by which a person becomes reborn. This ceremony -- often called the thread ceremony because of the red thread which the initiate wears over his left shoulder -- symbolizes the entrance of the boy into Hinduism. Originally, it was at this point that the initiate was first permitted to hear the words of the sacred Vedas and learned his first mantra. Once initiated, the boy became, like other Twice-Born males, responsible for maintaining the balance of the cosmos.

After student-hood, the next stage of life is that of householder, usually entered into through an elaborate, many-day marriage ceremony. It is during this stage that a man has children (with his wife), forms a family, establishes himself in a career or job, and strives to be an active member of his community. He will establish his own household, with its own worship. Indeed, with his wife, the householder is now responsible for ensuring that the rituals of domestic life are carried out at their proper times and in the proper manner. This stage is important because it carries the responsibilities of looking after and supporting people at all other stages, both male and female.

The third stage of life is that of retirement. When a man reaches old age and his son has a family and is ready to take over the leadership of the household, he and his wife will retire. On the one hand, their household responsibilities -- both religious and secular -- diminish significantly. On the other hand, they become free to contemplate the meaning of their coming death and rebirth. They may choose to withdraw into a secluded area -- perhaps become a "hermit" -- or they may involve themselves in more active worship (bakti) of Hinduism's pantheon of gods and goddesses.

Each of these three stages is preceded by a samskara, a ritual that brings a person from the previous stage of life into the new one. While these are the most important stages of life, brought on by the most elaborate samskaras, there are many other samskaras performed during one's life. Traditionally, a person may undergo anywhere from 10 to 18, even up to 40, samskaras during their lifetime. The majority of these will be performed before a baby is even six months old, with many of them done before birth. These are believed to help a person leave their previous life behind and to enter successfully into their new one. Each samskara advances a person further along the path of life, initiating them into a new aspect or stage.

It is clear that the three main stages of life are designed for males and do not include women. Traditional Hinduism, like many religions, places women in a dependent role. In the traditional view, women always need the protection of a responsible male, whether father, husband or adult son. This does not mean that women have no religious life. On the contrary, women are actively involved in worship, both in support of their family and on their own. On the one hand, a married woman is responsible for carrying out many of the domestic rites along with her husband. Many rituals cannot be performed with her involvement or in some instances leadership. On the other hand, women are often active practioners of forms of bakhti yoga, that is, the worship of the gods and goddesses. In the modern period, this subordination has begun to change and women have gained more active roles in public life. Indira Ghandi, for instance, was a Prime Minister of India for many years (women have yet to gain a corresponding position in the United States).


Rejecting Life: The Fourth Stage

The fourth stage of life breaks the progression of the other three; it is that of the ascetic, who in Hinduism are called the sadhu or the sannyasin. This is a rejection of life and all that it means in exchange for a search to attain moksha, that is, release from the cycle of samsara. A person may enter into this stage of life at any time.

The rejection of life, especially as defined by the life-affirming strand of Hinduism, is complete. It requires rejection of the household duties and responsibilities of all stages of life. It also requires the rejection of the religious beliefs. Indeed, the ceremony making one a sannyasin includes the burning of copies of the Vedas, a symbolic rejection even of one's role in maintaining the cosmos, and of one's red thread, the symbol of their status as Twice-Born. It is such a powerful rejection that a person even loses their caste affiliation; even a shudra can become a sannyasin and lose their low-caste identity.

The sannyasins become wandering hermits, living life without any shelter or possessions. They eat when they can acquire food, but never enter into any work to acquire it; it must be given or found. They become holy men, seeking spiritual enlightenment and power, striving to achieve the true wisdom of the cosmos. Some may become kind and give blessings to those around them, while others may become wrathful and powerful and wield magic against those who cross them.

UKT: End of article.

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