Update: 2020-05-28 11:55 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 190207: Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} के and {k:} कै .
Similarly we cannot differentiate {kau:} को from {kao} कौ .
I've only the diacritics on Skt-Dev to rely on to differentiate the four of them.
I may have to change my views as my knowledge advances.

{k:} : cont
{kau:} / को 
  {kan~} :
{ kau:sa.}: with palatal plosive-stop
{ kau:Ta.}
{ kau:pa.}

{ kau:ya.}

{kao} कौ / {kau} : UKT 190207: From the definition of {a.wN}-{a.a.wN}, I opine that {kao} is correct.
{kao-kSa.} / {kau-kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha {kSa.} क्ष / True-Kha {hka.} {kao-Ta.} ख
{kao-Ta.} / {kau-Ta.}
  {kao-Na.} / {kau-Na.}
{kao-ta.} / {kau-ta.
  {kao-na.} / {kau-na.}
{kao-pa.} / {kau-pa.

{kao-ra.} / {kau-ra.}
{kao-la.} / {kau-la.}
{kao-wa.} / {kau-wa.}

{kao-sha.} / {kau-sha.
{kao-Sa.} / {kau-Sa.}

"Maa" is {m tau} and are not necessarily dvi-goddesses. I view them as local Mother-goddesses of the Bronze-Age indigenous Tib-Bur speaking peoples of the Indian subcontinent extending into Myanmarpr, an example being Nan'ka'reign MDaw of southern Myanmarpr.


UKT notes :
Chanakya aka Kautilya or Vishnu Gupta 
Doggie's Problem: paucity of nasals in English
Maa Sakti of the Left-hand Path

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{k:} कै : cont - Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} के and {k:} कै


p075c1-b00/ p057-004

कैवल्य [ kaival-ya ]
- n. absolute oneness; absolute bliss.
4) कैवल्य ( p. 57) kaival-ya absolute oneness


p075c1-b01/ p057-003

कैशव [ kaisava ]
Skt: कैशव [ kaisava ] - a. belonging to Kesava (Krishna or Vishnu). - Mac075c1
  3) कैशव (p. 57) kaisava belonging to 
BPal: {k-a.wa.} - UHS PMD0335c2
  UKT from UHS: mfn. profuse head-hair, long head-hair, Vishnu dva


p075c1-b02/ not online

- m. pl. N. of a people

( end of old p074-3.htm )

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p075c1-b03/ p057-002

को˚ [ ko- ]
- prn. prefix [=nm. kas], what? how? = strange, indifferent, somewhat, easily (cp. ka, kava, k, kim, ku).
2) को˚ (p. 57) ko- kas], what? how?

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p075c1-b04/ p057-001

कोक [ kka ]
Skt: कोक [koka] - m. wolf; cuckoo; ruddy goose (kakravka): f. . - Mac075c1
  1) कोक (p. 57) kka wolf 
BPal: {kau:ka.} - UHS PMD0336c1
  UKT from UHS: m. {ic-kroat} ?, wolf, {sak~ka.waak} ?


p075c1-b05/ p057-025

कोकनद [ koka-nada ]
Skt: कोकनद [ koka-nada ] - n. red lotus (flower); -nadin, f. red lotus (plant). - Mac075c1
  25) कोकनद (p. 57) koka-nada red lotus 
BPal: {kau:ka.na.da.} - UHS PMD0336c1
  UKT from UHS: n. red lotus


p075c1-b06/ p057-024

कोकिल [ kok-ila ]
Skt: कोकिल [ kok-ila ] - m., , f. Indian cuckoo. - Mac075c1
  24) कोकिल (p. 57) kok-ila cuckoo.
BPal: {kau:ki.la.} - UHS PMD0336c1
  UKT from UHS: m. cuckoo

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See my note on Doggie's Problem in going from
   {kau:} को to {kan}
   using {kn:si:} : {kan~}. Note the diacritic over u .
The problem is mainly due to English having only two nasals to Bur-Myan five.


p075c1-b07/ not online

कोङ्कण koṅkaṇa [koṅkana]
--> {kan~ka.Na.}
Skt: कोङ्कण [koṅkana] - m. pl. N. of a people -- Mac075c1
Skt: कोङ्कण koṅkaṇa - n. kind of weapon -- SpkSkt

See my note on Konkana


p075c1-b08/ p057-023

कोङ्काण [ koṅkna ]
--> {kan~ka-Na.}
- a. () coming from Koṅkana (horse).
23) कोङ्काण (p. 57) koṅkna () coming from


p075c1-b09/ p057-022

कोङ्कार [ koṅ-kra ]
- m. the sound kom.
22) कोङ्कार (p. 57) koṅ-kra the sound

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{kau:sa.} : Palatal plosive-stop

p075c1-b10/ p057-021

कोच [ kok-a ]
- m. shrinking, shrivelling.
21) कोच (p. 57) kok-a shrinking

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p075c1-b11/ p057-020

कोट [ kota ]
- m. fortress, stronghold (cp. kotta).
20) कोट (p. 57) kota fortress


p075c1-b12/ p057-019

कोटर [ kotara ]
- n. hollow of a tree; cavity: -vat, a. having caves.
19) कोटर (p. 57) kotara hollow


p075c1-b13/ p057-018

कोटाद्रि [ kota‿adri ]
- m. N. of a mountain (fortress-hill).
18) कोटाद्रि (p. 57) kota̮adri (fortress-hill).


p075c1-b14/ p057-017

कोटि [ koti (also ) ]
- f. curved tip (of a bow, talons, etc.); point; extremity, height, highest degree; ten millions; -ka, m. kind of frog; -k, f. extreme point: --, = outcast, scum of; -mat, a. pointed; -vedhin, a. hitting the extreme = accomplishing a most difficult task; -sas, ad. to the number of ten millions.
17) कोटि (p. 57) koti (also ) curved tip


p075c1-b15/ p057-016

कोटीश्वर [ koti‿svara ]
- m. (lord of ten millions), N. of a millionaire.
16) कोटीश्वर (p. 57) kotsvara (lord of


p075c1-b16/ p057-015

कोट्््ट [ kotta ]
- m. [ko-(a)tta], stronghold; -pla, m. commandant of a fortress.
15) कोट्््ट (p. 57) kotta [ko-(a)tta], stronghold


p075c1-b17/ p057-014

कोट्््टवी [ kottav ]
- f. naked woman.
14) कोट्््टवी (p. 57) kottav naked


p075c1-b18/ p057-013

कोण [ kona ]
- m. corner, angle; intermediate point of the compass (N. E. etc.).
13) कोण (p. 57) kona corner


p075c1-b19/ p057-012

कोथ [ koth-a ]
- m. putrefaction.
12) कोथ (p. 57) koth-a putrefaction.


p075c1-b20/ p057-011

कोदण्ड [ ko-danda ]
- n. [kind of rod], bow.
11) कोदण्ड (p. 57) ko-danda [kind of rod]


p075c1-b21/ p057-010

कोद्रव [ ko-drava ]
- m. kind of inferior grain eaten by the poor people.
10) कोद्रव (p. 57) ko-drava inferior


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p075c1-b22/ p057-009

कोप [ kop-a ]
- m. morbid excitement (esp. of the bodily humours); fury (of battle, etc.); wrath, anger (at, g., lc., prati, upari, or --): -m kri, be angry: -ka, a. irascible; -ksham vismaya-harsha-vat, a. angry, compassionate, astonished, and glad; -ganman, a. produced by anger.
9) कोप (p. 57) kop-a morbid excitement


p075c1-b23/ p057-008

कोपन [ kop-ana ]
- a. passionate, wrathful, angry; n. excitement; provocation; -in, a. angry, wrathful.
8) कोपन (p. 57) kop-ana passionate


p075c1-b24/ p057-007

कोमल [ ko-mala ]
- a. [easily fading], tender; soft (fig.); -‿aṅga, a. () of tender frame.
7) कोमल (p. 57) ko-mala [easily fading], tender; soft (fig.); -̮aṅga, a. () of tender frame.

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p075c1-b25/ p057-006

कोयष्टि ko-yashti, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. [stilt-like], kind of bird.
6) कोयष्टि (p. 57) -ka [stilt-like]

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p075c1-b26/ p057-005

कोर [ kora ]
- m. flexible joint (of the body).
5) कोर (p. 57) kora flexible joint


p075c1-b27/ p057-041

कोरक [ kora-ka ]
- m. n. (?) bud: , f. id.
41) कोरक (p. 57) kora-ka (?) bud

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p075c1-b28/ p057-040

कोल [ kola ]
- m. boar, hog: -t, f. abst. ɴ.
40) कोल (p. 57) kola boar


p075c1-b29/ p057-039

कोलक [ kola-ka ]
- n. kind of perfume.
39) कोलक (p. 57) kola-ka perfume.


p075c1-b30/ p057-038

कोलाहल [ kol-hal-a ]
- m. n. clamour, outcry, uproar; yelling: -in, a. filled with din (--).
38) कोलाहल (p. 57) kol-hal-a clamour

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p075c1-b31/ p057-037

कोविद [ ko-vida ]
- a. [knowing well], knowing, skilled in (g., lc., --): -tva, n. skill.
37) कोविद (p. 57) ko-vida [knowing well]
BPal: {kau:wi.da.} - UHS-PMD0339c2
  UKT from UHS: mfn. clever


p075c1-b32/ not online

कोविदार ko-vidara
- m. [splitting well], kind of ebony.


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p075c2-b00/ p057-036

कोश [ ks-a ]
- m. butt, tub, pail, coop (esp. of clouds); box, chest; sheath; case; shell; abode; store-room; treasury, treasure; vocabulary, dictionary; treasury of poetry, collection of stanzas; bud, calix (esp. of the lotus); cocoon; cup of peace; sacred draught used in ordeals; oath: -kraka, m. silk-worm; -griha, n. treasury; -gta, n. treasure, wealth; -danda, m. du. treasury and army; -dsa, m. N.; -pthin, a. draining or having drained any one's treasury; -petaka, m. n. casket; *-phala, n. kind of perfume; -rakshin, m. guardian of the treasury.
36) कोश (p. 57) ks-a butt


p075c2-b01/ p057-035

कोशल [ kosala ]
- v.  kosala.
35) कोशल (p. 57) kosala kosala.


p075c2-b02/ p057-034

कोशवत्् [ kosa-vat ]
- a. wealthy; -vri, n. ordeal water; -vesman, n. treasury; -‿agra, m. n. id.: -‿adhikrin, m. treasurer; -‿adhyaksha, m. treasurer.
34) कोशवत्् (p. 57) kosa-vat wealthy

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p075c2-b03/ not online

कोष [kosha]
- v. कोस kosa 


p075c2-b04/ p057-033

कोष्ठ [ koshtha ]
- m. entrails, stomach, abdomen; n. store-room; encircling wall; -‿agra, n. store-house, granary; -‿agni, m. fire of the stomach, i.e. of digestion.
33) कोष्ठ (p. 57) koshtha entrails


p075c2-b05/ p057-032

कोष्ण [ k‿ushna ]
- a. lukewarm, tepid.
32) कोष्ण (p. 57) k̮ushna lukewarm


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p075c2-b06/ p057-031

कोसल [ kosala ]
- m. N. of a country: pl. its people; , f. capital of Kosala, i.e. Ayodhy; -g, f. born in Kosala, ep. of Rma's mother; -videh, m. pl. the Kosalas and the Videhas.
31) कोसल (p. 57) kosala , f. capital

( end of old p075-1.htm )

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{kao} कौ / {kau}

UKT 190207: Pal-Myan does not have this sound. It has only {kau:} . However, Mon-Myan and Skt-Dev together has the {a.a.wN}-pair each with duration 2 eye-blnk: {kau} को & {kao} कौ . I've come to this opinion based on the diacritics on Skt-Dev. But, please be warned my opinion can change with progress in my knowledge of Mon and Sanskrit.

{kao-kSa.} / {kau-kSa.}

UKT 190207: Remember to differentiate Sanskrit Pseudo-Kha {kSa.} क्ष , which is a conjunct, from the True-Kha {hka.} ख the basic consonant.

p075c2-b07/ p057-030

कौक्षेय [ kauksh-eya ]
- m. (belonging to a sheath), sword: -ka, m. id.; knife.
30) कौक्षेय (p. 57) kauksh-eya (belonging to a sheath)


p075c2-b08/ p057-029

कौङ्कुम [ kauṅkuma ]
--> {kan~ku.ma.}
Skt: कौङ्कुम [ kauṅkuma ] - a. () consisting of saffron; coloured with saffron. - Mac075c2
  29) कौङ्कुम (p. 57) kauṅkuma () consisting of saffron
BPal: {kon~ku.ma.} - UHS PMD0323c1
  UKT from UHS: n. {ma-la-kyi.kyu}, {kon-ku.mn} (obviously from
  {kon-ku.ma.} with {::tn}) Saffron Crocus sativus .

UKT 170405: See my note on Saffron-crocus :

p075c2-b09/ p057-028

कौञ्जर [ kaugara ]
Skt: कौञ्जर [ kaugara ] - a. () belonging to an elephant. - Mac075c2
  28) कौञ्जर (p. 57) kaugara () belonging to an elephant.
BPal: {koa~za.ra.} - UHS PMD0324c2
  UKT from UHS: m. elephant


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{kao-Ta.} /   {kau-Ta.}

p075c2-b10/ p057-027

कौट [ kauta ]
- a. fraudulent, false; -skshin, m. false-witness; -skshya, n. false evidence.
27) कौट (p. 57) kauta fraudulent


p075c2-b11/ p057-026

कौटस्थ्य [ kautasth-ya ]
- n. immutability.
26) कौटस्थ्य (p. 57) kautasth-ya immutability.


p075c2-b12/ p057-054

कौटिल्य [ kautil-ya ]
- n. crookedness; crispness, waviness; deceitfulness; m. ep. of Knakya; -sstra, n. science of Kautilya, diplomacy.
54) कौटिल्य (p. 57) kautil-ya crookedness

UKT 151128, 170405, 180126: See my note on Chanakya aka Kautilya or Vishnu Gupta. He is known in Pali as Cānakka {sa-nak~ka} and Bur-Myan as {za-nak~ka. poaN~Na:} - the 'evil' advisor to the king - epitome [pronounce: e-pit-o-me] of Poonas in classical Bur-Myan drama. He is also referred to as the Machiavelli of Ancient India.


p075c2-b13/ p057-053

कौटुम्ब [ kautumb-a ]
- a. requisite for the household; n. affinity; -ika, a. belonging to or constituting a family; m. father of a family.
53) कौटुम्ब (p. 57) kautumb-a requisite


p075c2-b14/ p057-052

कौट्््टन्य [ kauttan-ya ]
- n. pimping.
52) कौट्््टन्य (p. 57) kauttan-ya pimping.

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{kao-Na.} / {kau-Na.}

p075c2-b15/ not online

- m. N. of a Brahman 


p075c2-b16/ p057-051

कौणप [ kaunapa ]
- a. proceeding from corpses; m. Rkshasa.
51) कौणप (p. 57) kaunapa proceeding from


p075c2-b17/ not online

[kaunadin-ya ]
- m. pat. fr. Kundina


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{kao-ta.} / {kau-ta.}

p075c2-b18/ p057-050

कौतुक [ kautuka ]
- n. curiosity, interest, eagerness (w. lc. or --); curious, strange or interesting spectacle; entertaining story; festival; wedding investiture with the nuptial cord; nuptial cord; happiness, bliss; -kriy, f. wedding festival; -griha, n. wedding-house; -pura, n. N. of a city; -bhrit, a. wearing the nuptial cord; -maṅgala, n. solemn ceremony, festival; -maya, a. interesting; charming; -‿gra, m. n. wedding chamber.
50) कौतुक (p. 57) kautuka curiosity


p075c2-b19/ p057-049

कौतुकित [ kautuk-ita ]
- pp. interested in (lc.), by (in.); -in, n. interested, curious.
49) कौतुकित (p. 57) kautuk-ita interested


p075c2-b20/ p057-048

कौतूहल [ kauthala ]
Skt: कौतूहल [ kauthala ] - n. curiosity, interest, eagerness (with lc., prati, or inf.); festival. - Mac075c2
  - 48) कौतूहल (p. 57) kauthala curiosity
BPal: {kau:tu-ha.la.} - UHS-PMD0337
  UKT from UHS - n. public excitement because of festivities or instigation by rumours


p075c2-b21/ p057-047

कौत्स [ katsa ]
- a. relating to Kutsa; m., , f. pat.; n. hymn composed by Kutsa.
47) कौत्स (p. 57) katsa relating to Kutsa

UKT 151129: See Vedic Mythology by A. A. Macdonell, 1898, pdf pp216
- https://archive.org/details/vedicmythology00macduoft - 151129
See TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- AAMacdonellVedicMyth<> / Bkp<> (link chk 18011)
p146, pdf 158/216
para 58. A: Kutsa . This warlike hero belonging to the Indra myth is mentioned nearly forty times in the RV. The name occurs only once in the plural as designation of a family of singers who address a hymn to Indra. Kutsa is four times called by patronymic Ārjuneya, son of Arjuna. Mention is made of a son of his, whom Indra aided in fight against a Dasyu. Kutsa is young and brilliant. He is a seer, who called upon Indra for aid when plunged in a pit. Kutsa rides on the same car with Indra, who wafts him or takes him as his charioteer.


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{kao-na.} / {kau-na.}

p075c2-b22/ p057-046

कौनख्य [ kaunakh-ya ]
- n. disease of the nails.
46) कौनख्य (p. 57) kaunakh-ya disease


p075c2-b23/ p057-045

कौन्तेय [ kaunt-eya ]
- m. son of Kunt, met. of Yudhishthira, Bhmasena, and Arguna.
45) कौन्तेय (p. 57) kaunt-eya son of Kunt,


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p075c3-b00/ p057-071

कौन्द [ kaunda ]
- a. () belonging to or made of jasmine.
71) कौन्द (p. 57) kaunda () belonging to


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p075c3-b01/ p057-075

कौप [ kaupa ]
Skt: कौप [ kaupa ] - a. () coming from a well. - Mac075c3
  75) कौप (p. 57) kaupa () coming from
Skt: कौप kaupa - adj. coming from a well or cistern. n. well-water - SpkSkt 
BPal: {kau:pa.} - UHS-PMD0338
  UKT from UHS: m. anger, destruction 


p075c3-b02/ p057-044

कौपीन [ kaupna ]
- n. pudenda ; loin cloth; infamous deed: -vat, a. wearing only a loin cloth. 
44) कौपीन (p. 57) kaupna loin cloth

कौपीन [ kaupna ]
Skt: कौपीन [ kaupna ] - n. pudenda [. human external genitalia, esp. of a woman - AHTD]; infamous deed - Mac075c3
BPal: {kau:pi-na.} - UHS PMD0338
  UKT from UHS: n. {hka:wut} 'a person's lower garment like a longyi' (loincloth are not worn by men in Myanmarpr), genitalia, doing what is not proper.


p075c3-b03/ p057-043

कौबेर [ kaubera ]
- a. () relating to Kubera.
43) कौबेर (p. 57) kaubera () relating



कौमार [ kaumra ]
- a. () relating to a youth or virgin; youthful; relating to Kumra (god of war); n. childhood, youth; innocence of youth, virginity; -krin, a. practising chastity; -vrata, n. vow of chastity: -krin, a. practising a vow of chastity.
42) कौमार (p. 57) kaumra () relating to

UKT 170405: Hindu god of war has several names, and I venture to say that they be different persons - not one.
"The several names of Murugan of origin would include the following, Aaiyyan, Cheyon, Senthil, Vēlaṇ, Kumāran ("prince, child, young one"), Svaminatha ("ruler of the gods", from -natha king), Saravanan ("born amongst the reeds"), Arumugam or Shanmuga ("six-faced"), [3] Dandapani ("wielder of the mace", from -pani hand), Guhan or Guruguha ("cave-dweller"), Subrahmanya, Kadhirvelan, Kandhan, Kartikeya ("son of the Krittikas") and Skanda ("attacker"). [4] [5] He was also known as Mahasena and the Kadamba dynasty worshiped him by this name. [6] And the most famous name Kartikeya means son of krittikas, where the Sanskrit word krittika means creativity [7]"
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kartikeya 170405

p075c3-b05/ p057-070

कौमारी [ kaumr ]
- f. female energy of the god of war; (sc. kshth or dis) the north.
70) कौमारी (p. 57) kaumr female energy


p075c3-b06/ p057-069

कौमुद [ kaumud-a ]
- m. pat. descendant of Kumuda; the month Krttika (October--November); , f. moonlight: --, common in titles of works; -ik, f. N. of a maid; -vateya, m. met. fr. Kumudvat.
69) कौमुद (p. 57) kaumud-a descendant of Kumuda


p075c3-b07/ p057-068

कौमोदकी [ kaumodak ]
- f. N. of Vishnu's or Krishna's club.
68) कौमोदकी (p. 57) kaumodak Vishnu's


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{kao-ra.} / {kau-ra.}

p075c3-b08/ p057-067

कौरव [ kaurav-a ]
- a. () belonging to the Kurus; m. pat. descendant of Kuru; -eya, m. pl. descendants of Kuru; -y (+karav ya), m. pl. id.= Pndavas; N. of a people.
67) कौरव (p. 57) kaurav-a () belonging to the Kurus


p075c3-b09/ p057-066

कौर्म [ kaurma ]
- a. peculiar to the tortoise.
66) कौर्म (p. 57) kaurma peculiar to the tortoise.


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{kao-la.} / {kau-la.}

p075c3-b10/ p057-065

कौल [ kaula ]
- a. () relating to a family; hereditary, inherited; m. worshipper of Sakti according to the Left-hand ritual.
65) कौल (p. 57) kaula () relating to

UKT 170405: See my note on Vāmācāra {wa-ma-sa-ra.} the Left-hand path.
BPal: {wa-ma.}
- UHS-PMD0864
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. beautiful. {wa-ma} - f. woman . left-hand, opposition

p075c3-b11/ p057-064

कौलिक [ kaul-ika ]
- m. weaver; worshipper of Sakti according to the Left-hand ritual: -kra, a. behaving like a weaver.
64) कौलिक (p. 57) kaul-ika weaver


p075c3-b12/ not online

- a. the demon Samhara


p075c3-b13/ p057-063

कौलीन [ kaul-na ]
- a. peculiar to high birth; n. rumour; slander; disgraceful deed; -nya, n. noble birth; nobleness.
63) कौलीन (p. 57) kaul-na peculiar to high birth


p075c3-b14/ p057-062

कौलूत [ kaulta ]
- m. pl. N. of a people: sg. king of Kaulta.
62) कौलूत (p. 57) kaulta Kaulta.


p075c3-b15/ p057-061

कौलेय [ kaul-eya ]
- m. dog: -ka, m. id., esp. sporting dog; -kutumbin, f. bitch.
61) कौलेय (p. 57) kaul-eya dog


p075c3-b16/ p057-074

कौल्य [ kaul-ya ]
- a. sprung from a noble race; n. noble descent.
74) कौल्य (p. 57) kaul-ya sprung from 

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{kao-wa.} / {kau-wa.}

p075c3-b17/ not online

कौवेर [kauvera]
- v. कौबेर kaubera

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{kao-sha.} / {kau-sha.}

p075c3-b18/ p057-060

कौश [ kausa ]
- a. . silken (coming from the cocoon: kosa); . , () made of Kusa grass.
60) कौश (p. 57) kausa . silken


p075c3-b19/ p057-059

कौशल [ kausal-a ]
- n. welfare, prosperity; skill, cleverness, experience (in, lc. or --); -ya, n. id.; -ik, f. gift, present.
59) कौशल (p. 57) kausal-a welfare


p075c3-b20/ not online

- f. N. (Pr.).


p075c3-b21/ p057-058

कौशाम्बी [ kausmb ]
- f. N. of a city: -ya, a. belonging to Kausmb.
58) कौशाम्बी (p. 57) kausmb -ya, a. belonging.


p075c3-b22/ not online

- i. a. relating to Kusika; m. pat., esp. of Visvāmitra; (a), m. owl; , f. ep. of Durg; N. of a Buddhist mendicant nun; 2. a. sheathed; n. silk cloth or garment.


p075c3-b23/ p057-057

कौशीलव [ kauslav-a ]
- n. profession of a bard or actor; -ya, n. id.
57) कौशीलव (p. 57) kauslav-a profession


p075c3-b24/ p057-056

कौशेय [ kaus-eya ]
- a. silken; n. silk, silk garment.
56) कौशेय (p. 57) kaus-eya silken

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{kao-Sa.} / {kau-Sa.}

p075c3-b25/ p057-055

कौषारव [ kaushrava ]
- m. pat. from Kushru.
55) कौषारव (p. 57) kaushrava Kushru.


p075c3-b26/ p057-073

कौषीतक kaushtaka, ˚कि [ -ki ]
- m. pat. from Kushtaka: (ki)-brhmana, n. Brhmana of the Kaushtakins (also called Sṅkhyana Brhmana); (ki)-‿upanishad, f. Kaushtaki upanishad.
73) कौषीतक (p. 57) -ki Kushtaka


p075c3-b27/ p057-072

कौष्ठ [ kaushth- ]
- a. being in the body; being in the store-room; -ya, a. being in the abdomen.
72) कौष्ठ (p. 57) kaushth- being in

( end of new p075.htm )

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UKT notes


-- UKT 140411, 151128, 180112:

There are two Poannars {poaN~Na:}, solely hated by the audience of classical Bur-Myan plays of before and soon-after WWII. The first being Chanakya {za.Na.ka poaN~Na:} - the kingmaker of Chandragupta, and the second Vassakara {wu~a.ka.ra. poaN~Na.} - the Trojan Horse of King Ajatasattu.

In traditional Burmese drama, such as the Vesali - a play, the villain is always a scheming Poannar {poaN~Na:} based on the character of Vassakara - the chief minister of King Ajatasattu - the expansionist ruler of Magadha.

King Ajatasattu could not defeat the Vesali kingdom, and Vassakara went to the Buddha to get an explanation. Instead of giving an answer to the Poona, Buddha preached a sermon on unity being the root of invincibility. Vassakara got the message, and asked Ajatasattu to banish him after inflicting bodily punishment. The crafty Brahmin went over to Vesali, and asked for refuge. The rulers of Vesali were easily duped. They employed the clever Vassakara as a trusted advisor not knowing his true intension. Using diplomacy (upalapana), Vassakara brought disunion (mithubheda). And when Ajatasattu attacked them again, they were easily defeated, because the princes of Vesali no longer trusted each other.
See http://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/vassakara/index.html 140411.

And then earlier there was Chanakya {za.Na.ka. poaN~Na:} - the king-maker of Magadha, who was instrumental in making Chandragupta king. King Chandragupta, became the grandfather of King Asoka. The two Poonas were well hated by the Bur-Myan audience for their duplicity.

UKT 151128: The Poannar {poaN~Na:} Kautilya aka Chanakya cāṇakya (350 275 BCE) was the author of Arthashastra  arthaśāstra is known as the Machiavelli of the East.

Both the Indian Kautilya and the Italian Niccol Machiavelli (1469-1527 CE) author of The Prince are masters of diplomacy & statecraft with hidden secrets, and economics, indifferent to moral considerations. Such people should never be trusted.
See An Introduction to the Machiavelli of the East ,
- http://www.returnofkings.com/67718/an-introduction-to-the-machiavelli-of-the-east 151128

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanakya 120127

Chānakya (Skt: चाणक्य Cāṇakya = च ा ण क ् य ) (c. 370283 BCE) was a teacher to the first Maurya Emperor Chandragupta (c. 340293 BCE) - the first emperor in the archaeologically recorded history to rule the complete Indian Subcontinent. [UKT ]

UKT: Akshara-to-akshara change from Dev to Myan:
   चाणक्य Cāṇakya = च ा ण क ् य --> {sa-Nak~ya.} --> {sa-Na.kya.} or {za.Na.ka poaN~Na:}

Chanakya is generally considered to be the architect of Chandragupta's rise to power at a young age. Traditionally, he is also identified by the names Kautilya and Vishnu Gupta, who authored the ancient Indian political treatise called Arthaśāstra. [1][UKT ] .

See downloaded paper in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- RShamasastry-Arthashastra<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180112)

Chanakya is considered as the pioneer of the field of economics and political science and his work is thought of as an important precursor to Classical Economics. [2] [3] [4] [5] In the Western world, he has been referred to as The Hindu Machiavelli, although Chanakya's works predate Machiavelli's by about 1,800 years. [UKT ]

Chanakya was a teacher in Takṣaśila, an ancient centre of learning, and was responsible for the creation of Mauryan empire, the first of its kind on the Indian subcontinent. His works were lost near the end of the Gupta dynasty and not rediscovered until 1915. [6]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Doggie's Problem
Nasal endings

in going from {kau:} to {kan} using {kn:si:} : {kan~}

UKT 151129, 170404, 180110, 190208:

{kau:} is derived from Pal-Myan vowel {AU.} . Remember it is NOT {a.ra.ric}. There is no {a.}. A similar case is the well known {I.} which has no {ka.}. Note the way I've sculpted the glyphs:

{AU.} and {I.}

UKT 190207: Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} के and {k:} कै .
Similarly we cannot differentiate {kau:} को from {kao} कौ .
I've only the diacritics on Skt-Dev to rely on to differentiate the four of them.
I may have to change my views as my knowledge advances.

Pal-Myan has only {kau:} को, but no {kao} कौ, whereas Skt-Dev has both. Also note that from the vow-signs, को seems to last only 1 blnk - it is definitely not emphatic, and I should have given the transcription as {kau.}, i.e. {kau.} को - 1 blnk: {kau} कौ - 2 blnk . However in view of Bur-Myan phonology, I've given it as emphatic {kau:} को .

UKT 190208: Note the use of Single-dot-below {auk.mric}, and absence of Double-dot {wic~sa.} in Bur-Myan,
   {kau.} (1 blnk), {kau} (2 blnk), {kau:} (2 blnk+emphatic)
Noting that in Mon-Myan, the Double-dot {wic~sa.} in {na:.} indicates a 1/2 blnk (for a "very-short vowel"), I wonder whether {kau:.} can be used for a short-vowel Skt-Myan in BEPS.

The nuclear vowel in {kau:} को, can be killed by killed consonants, e.g. {kauk}. We have an added problem when the killed consonants are nasals: /ŋ/, /ɲ/, /ɳ/ - TIL mascot Doggie's problem, because of paucity of nasals in English. The problem is accentuated with /ŋ/ because the only ASCII representation is the diagraph {ng.}. My solution is to change the representation of the nuclear vowel as shown in the inset.

We have already come up with simple nasal endings sometime ago. It has to be modified as we meet new words. The following is an example:

{an.} (1 blnk); {an} (2 blnk); {an:} (2 blnk + emphasis)

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-- UKT 140410, 170404, 180110

My interest in this kingdom and its people is in the spelling of the word which in Bur-Myan would be written as a {gna.t}. For Skt-Myan I have to use a {kn:si:} . Reading through the following I have come upon another interesting word Kasyapa which is a name of: 

a Theravada Buddha, an eon before Gautama Buddha
  - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassapa_Buddha 140410
  Kasapa Buddha {ka~a.pa. boad~Da.} (Ajanta Caves) 
  - http://ignca.nic.in/jatak102.htm 170404
a Hindu-rishi Kaśyapa {ka~a.pa. ra..} - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 140410 
a Buddhist Arahat Mahākāśyapa {shn ma.ha ka~a.pa.}.
  - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%81k%C4%81%C5%9Byapa 140410
a hidden cave west of Monywa across the Chindwin river which is revered by many in Myanmarpr as the grave site of {shn ma.ha ka~a.pa.} - the Arahat praised by the Buddha 

The names are very confusing especially when not correctly spelled and correctly affixed.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konkana_Kingdom 140410

Konkana was a southern kingdom populated by Brahmins during and after the period of Puranas. This kingdom is identified to be the Konkan region (coastal region) of Maharashtra. Other such Brahmin populated kingdoms includes Dravida, Andhra and Karnata. They have migrated in the later periods to the south as far as Kerala.

The name Konkana probably have originated from the older name Kanwa-gana (meaning the clan of Kanwa) a clan of Bhrahmins. Kanwas were a sub-clan of the Kasyapa-clan of Brahmins. They arrived at the western shores of Indian peninsula, which were the stronghold of the Bhargava clan of Bhrahmins. This history is hidden in the myth of Vamana who arrived at the sacrifice of king Mahabali, conducted in the land of the Bhrigus (Bhrigu-kaksha (Brauch in Gujarat), on the banks of river Narmada. This sacrifice was officiated by king Mahabali's priest named Sukra, who belonged to the Bhagava clan. In spite of the protest of priest Sukra, king Mahabali gave some land for Vamana. Starting with Vamana, many Kasyapas, in large numbers, settled in the kingdom of Mahabali. Their settlements outumbered those of Bhargavas and of the ruling clan of Asuras. Thus Mahabali lost his kingdom and was forgotten into the underworld of memories. (See also Keralas).

Konkana is not mentioned in Mahabharata. Thus it is obviously a later-period province. However, the epic mentions Kanwa, the founder (or a member ?) of the Kanwa clan. Sage Kanwa of the race of Kasyapa is mentioned at (1,70). He was the foster-father of Sakuntala the wife of the famous Puru king Dushyanta (Dushmanta). Kanwa raised Sakuntala as his own daughter in his asylum.

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Maa Sakti of Vāmācāra the Left-Hand Path

- UKT 151130, 170405, 180112: I remember reading somewhere that Suja - the wife of Buddhist king of Heaven Sakka is identified with Sakti of the beautiful eyes. BPal: {wa-ma.} - UHS-PMD0864

  UKT from UHS: . mfn. beautiful. {wa-ma} - f. woman . left-hand, opposition

"Maa" {m tau} is not necessarily a dvi-goddess. I view them as local Mother-goddesses of the Bronze-Age indigenous Tib-Bur speaking peoples of the Indian subcontinent extending into Myanmarpr, an example being Nan'ka'reign MDaw of southern Myanmarpr.

It is probable that Mother-goddess {m tau} worship in Myanmarpr had nothing to do with its later-day association with Tantric Buddhism practiced by some Arigyi monks of northern Myanmarpr which King Anawrahta ruthlessly suppressed.
See Chapter 09. Ari Monks and the Introduction of Buddhism in Folk Elements in Buddhism
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch09-ari.htm (link chk 170404).
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pashupati_seal 170405
"Writing in 2002, Gregory L. Possehl concluded that while it would be appropriate to recognize the figure as a deity, its association with the water buffalo, and its posture as one of ritual discipline, regarding it as a proto-Shiva would "go too far." [18]

From Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vamachara 151129

Vāmācāra वामाचार vāmācāra {wa-ma sa-ra.} is a Sanskrit term meaning "left-handed attainment" and is synonymous with "Left-Hand Path" or "Left-path" Vāmamārga  {wa-ma. mar~ga.} [1] [2] [3]. It is used to describe a particular mode of worship or sadhana (spiritual practice) that is not only "heterodox" nāstika to standard Vedic injunction, but extreme in comparison to the status quo.

These practices are often generally considered to be Tantric in orientation. The converse term is dakṣiṇācāra "Right-Hand Path", which is used to refer not only to "orthodox" (Āstika) sects but to modes of spirituality that engage in spiritual practices that not only accord with Vedic injunction but are generally agreeable to the status quo.

Left-handed and right-handed modes of practice may be evident in both orthodox and heterodox schools of Indian religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism [does not include Theravada] and is a matter of taste, culture, proclivity, initiation, sadhana and dharmic "lineage" (parampara).

... ... ...

Vamachara {wa-ma sa-ra.} 'Left Hand Practice', is particularly associated with the pancha-makara or the "Five Ms" {ma. gna:lon}, also known as the pancha-tattva. In literal terms they are:

1. Madya (wine),
2. Mamsa (meat),
3. Matsya (fish),
4. Mudra (cereal),
5. Maithuna (sexual intercourse) [7].

Mudra usually means ritual gestures, but as part of the Five Ms it is parched cereal [8].

Read on Shaktism by B. K. Barua (from p001-237) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- BKBarua-Ch01SaktismIntro<> (p001-017) / Bkp<> (link chk 180112)
- BKBarua-Ch02SaktismOrigin<> (p018-087) / Bkp<>
- BKBarua-Ch03SaktismTemples<> (p088-118) / Bkp<>
- BKBarua-Ch04SaktismKirata<> (p119-171) / Bkp<>
- BKBarua-Ch05SaktismAndSociety<> (p172-210) / Bkp<>
- BKBarua-Ch06SaktismConclusion<> (p211-217) / Bkp<>
- BKBarua-SaktismGloss<> (p233-237+illustrations) / Bkp<>

The most interesting to read is Ch04 relating to Kirata. See also about the author:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birinchi_Kumar_Barua 190208
"Birinchi Kumar Barua (10 November 1908 in Puranigudam, Nagaon, Assam, India 30 March 1964) was a folklorist, scholar, novelist, playwright, historian, linguist, educationist, administrator and an eminent 20th century littrateur of Assam, with both scholarly and creative pursuits. Barua was the pioneer in the study of folklore in North East India, and was one of the many founders of Gauhati University. Barua's contributions to Assamese literature are significant, both as a novelist and as an early literary critic. [1] "

See TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries on Mother goddess cult - represented by a beautiful set of woman's eyes:
- BKKakati-02SaktiCult<> (p059-p089) / Bkp<> (link chk 180112)
- BKKakati-07Religion<> (p241-298) / Bkp<> (link chk 180112)
See also B K Kakati (1894-1952): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banikanta_Kakati 180111

The Left-Hand in Bur-Myan esoteric Buddhism is known as the Lower-Path {auk-lm: pi~a} ("pi~a" here means "practice" or "scinece"), and the Right-Hand is the Higher-Path {a.htak-lm:}.

UKT 170405, 180111: I venture to identify the Left-Hand Bur-Myan esoteric Buddhism with the Mother-goddess religion - looked down upon by Male-god worshippers, who prided their religion as the Right-Hand Aryan religion. Both being based on childish fairy tales not based on reason and logic, and not supported by scientific facts are set aside - neither accepting or rejecting - by Gautama Buddha.

Bur-Myan, including those of faiths other than Theravada Buddhist, believe in esoteric practices in one form or the other. Contrary to what they may say openly, they have faith and fear in such practices and practitioners. According to the common belief, the Right-Hand acts slowly but eventually it wins over the Left-Hand practices.

Personally, on my own and through my maternal family, I came to know practitioners of both paths. I remember one Saya Ni of Thoangwa village a few miles from Kungyangon where I was born. Saya Ni was a well respected Left-Hand {auk-lm:}-master. He made sure that those who had come to him, must not be bent to harm his or her adversary. He would just try to set the situation right and would do no more. I remember, one of my aunts coming to my mother in the second half of 1930s with her very young son. Her complaint: her husband had been forced into a second marriage by his father to punish her - my aunt. My mother took my aunt to Saya Ni, and after taking certain "esoteric" actions, the second wife's mother came to realize that her daughter had become the instrument of punishment. She took her daughter back and the second marriage was annulled. My aunt then became very fast friends with the ex-second wife and her mother to their dying days.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vamachara 120128

Vāmācāra is a Sanskrit term meaning "left-handed attainment" and is synonymous with "Left-Hand Path". It is used to describe a particular mode of worship or sadhana (spiritual practice) that is not only "heterodox" (Sanskrit: nāstika) to standard Vedic injunction, but extreme in comparison to the status quo.

These practices are often generally considered to be Tantric in orientation. The converse term is dakṣiṇācāra "Right-Hand Path", which is used to refer not only to "orthodox" (Āstika) sects but to modes of spirituality that engage in spiritual practices that not only accord with Vedic injunction but are generally agreeable to the status quo.

Left-handed and right-handed modes of practice may be evident in both orthodox and heterodox schools of Indian religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, and Buddhism and is a matter of taste, culture, proclivity, initiation, sadhana and dharmic "lineage" (parampara).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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UKT 140411, 170405:

"Saffron is a key seasoning, fragrance, dye, and medicine in use for over three millennia. [1] One of the world's most expensive spices by weight, [2] saffron consists of stigmas [of flowers - commonly called " threads"] plucked from the vegetatively propagated and sterile Crocus sativus, known popularly as the saffron crocus." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_and_use_of_saffron 170405

The colour of saffron is yellow. In powder form it is adulterated with inexpensive turmeric, Curcuma longa powder. My last research in chemistry, as the associate professor and head of the department of chemistry, at Taunggyi Degree College (now University) is on the oil of Curcuma longa steam distilled from fresh rhizomes.

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