Update: 2020-05-27 02:13 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

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In the words below, the second phoneme is an approximant:

{ku.ya.} / {ku} --> {kw}  
{ku.ra.} कुर : {kur}
{kur~} : repha
{ku.la.} कुल

UKT notes :
 King Prasenajit {pa.-na.di kau:a.la. mn:}


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{ku.ya.} / {ku} / {kw}

{ku} : not pronounceable by present-day Bur-Myan speakers, has been changed into  -->

UKT 111005: According to U Tun Tint, MLC, (personal communication), the vowel {tic-hkan:ngn ya.t} had existed in Pagan period (11th to 13th CE), but it has given way to {a.w-hto: wa.hsw:}. Other changes have been:


UKT 190116: I view these changes as change from back vowel which is present in Mon-Myan, to front vowel . I speculate that with the religious change from Bamah-Ari to Mon-Theravada, Mon-Myan had been introduced to Bur-Myan speaking Pagan. However, the influence of Mon had dwindled overtime and Bur-Myan had come back. Caveat: this note of mine may have to be modified with further study.

UKT 140325: Macdonell does not give any Skt-Dev entry for {ku.ya.}. Similarly U Hoke Sein also does not give any for Pal-Myan. However, when {ya.} is further velarized by making it into a {ya.pn.}-medial, as {yya.}, a Pal-Myan word is possible.
See my note on velarization of consonants.

Pal: {ku.yya.ka.}
- -- UHS-PMD0329
  UKT from UHS: m. a thorny climber Acacia pennata , read with MLC-PMD2006-133:  a

UKT 190117: Not listed in Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance by Agricultural Department (Planning), Government of Union of Myanmar, 2000, pp 65.


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{ku.ra.} कुर / {kur}

p070c2-b18/uchg p055-कुरङ्ग
कुरङ्ग [ kuraṅga ]
- m. antelope: -ka, m. id.;
  -nayan, -netr, -lokan,
  -‿aksh, a. f. gazelle eyed.


p070c2-b19/uchg p055-कुरङ्गाय
कुरङ्गाय [ kuraṅg-ya ]
- den. . become an antelope.


p070c2-b20/uchg p055-कुरङ्गी
कुरङ्गी [ kuraṅg ]
- f. female antelope, gazelle; N. of a daughter of Prasenagit:
  -dris, f. gazelle-eyed.

See my note on King Prasenajit

p070c2-b21/uchg p055-कुरबक
कुरबक [ kuraba-ka ]
- m. crimson amaranth or purple Barleria; n. its flower.

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p070c3-b00/uchg p055-कुरर
कुरर [ kurara ]
- m., , f. osprey. [aka sea hawk]


p070c3-b01/uchg p055-कुरहस्य
कुरहस्य [ ku-rahasya ]
- n. base secret;
  -rgan, m. bad king;
  -rgya, n. bad rule.


p070c3-b02/ not online 
कुरु [kur-u]
- . 2 sg. impv. of √kri , do


p070c3-b03/ not online
कुरु [kru]
- . m. N. of the progenitor of the Kurus : pl. N. of a people


p070c3-b04/uchg p055-कुरुक्षेत्र
कुरुक्षेत्र [ kuru-kshetr ]
- n. plain of Kuru; m. pl. people of Kurukshetra; N. of a country.

UKT 171227: Bur-Myan speakers are simply unable to pronounce rhotic and fricative hissers. The only way they could pronounce कुरुक्षेत्र [ kuru-kshetr ] --> {ku.ru. hkt~ta.ra}.

p070c3-b05/ not online
कुरुता [kurut]
- f. N. of a woman


p070c3-b06/uchg p055-कुरुनन्दन
कुरुनन्दन [ kuru-nandana ]
- m. ep. of Arjuna and of Yudhishthira;
  -pakl, m. pl. the Kurus and Paklas;
  -pndava, m. du. pl. descendants of Kuru (i.e. of Dhritarshtra) and of Pndu.


p070c3-b07/uchg p055-कुरुबक
कुरुबक kurubaka, ˚वक [ -vaka ]
- probably in-correct form of kurabaka,


p070c3-b08/uchg p055-कुरुविन्द
कुरुविन्द [ kuru-vinda ]
- m. kind of barley; ruby.


p070c3-b09/uchg p055-कुरूप
कुरूप [ ku-rpa ]
- a. deformed, ugly:
  -t, f. deformity, ugliness.


p070c3-b10/uchg p055-कुरूरु
कुरूरु [ kurru ]
- m. kind of vermin.

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{kur~} : repha

p070c3-b11/uchg p055-कुर्कुट
कुर्कुट [ kur-kut-a ]
Skt: कुर्कुट - m. cock - Mac070c3
BPal: {koak~ku.Ta.} - UHS-PMD0322c2
  UKT from UHS: m. cock aka rooster

UKT 190117: While learning Skt-Dev grammar, I came across the example of Paṇini on varieties of vowels, in Sanskrit Grammar, Part 1 & 2, by Dr. P Rajagopal, Shaale.com: School of Traditional Indian Arts and Literature. Watch or just listen to 
- for those at TIL research station - L104-VariatiesVowel<> (link chk 200302)
- or for all (imbedded sound clip: <)) (link chk 200302)
Compare this to Bur-Myan: {auk, i , i: u:t }

Vdic language is not Sanskrit, it probably belongs Tib-Bur language group -- the language of the Bronze Age peoples. Sanskrit, on the other hand, is IE (Indo-European) the Iron Age intruders who infiltrated from the highlands of Persia (non-Islamic at that time). After getting a foothold they subjugated Bronze-Agers making them into Sudras or slaves. The Bronze-Agers were denied to study their own language. The Mantras, or formulas, of the Vedic were found useful to Sanskrit speakers, and were turned into into Hymns to their male-gods, such as Vishnu-Dva and Siva-Dva. They turned the single-faced Brahma into a four-faced Mahabrahma - now a dva. The Sanskrit speakers rewrote history claiming the Mother-goddesses of the Bronze-Agers to be wives of their male gods.

p070c3-b12/uchg p055-कुर्कुर
कुर्कुर [ kur-kur-a ]
- m. dog.


p070c3-b13/uchg p055-कुर्वत््
कुर्वत्् [ kurv-at ]
- pr. pt. of √kri, do.


p070c3-b14/uchg p055-कुर्वाण
कुर्वाण [ kurv-na ]
- pr. pt. . of √kri, do.

( end of old p070-3.htm )

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{ku.la.} कुल

p070c3-b15/uchg p055-कुल
कुल [ kl-a ]
- n. herd, flock, swarm; multitude; race, family; community, guild; noble lineage; abode, house;
  --, often = chief, eminent;
  -m padtnm, infantry.


p070c3-b16/ not online
कुलक [ kula-ka ], -
Skt: कुलक [ kula-ka ] - a. multitude; n. little family; ... -- Mac070c3
Skt: कुलक kulaka - m. any artisan of eminent birth, chief of a guild, ant-hill, ... - SpkSkt


p070c3-b17/uchg p055-कुलक्षण
कुलक्षण [ ku-lakshana ]
- a. bearing a baneful mark.


p070c3-b18/uchg p055-कुलग्न
कुलग्न [ ku-lagna ]
- n. fatal moment.


p070c3-b19/uchg p055-कुलघ्न
कुलघ्न [ kula-ghna ] = क ु ल घ ् न
- a. (, ) destroying the race;
  -m-kula, a. going from house to house;
  -ga, a. of noble race; born in the family of (--).


p070c3-b20/uchg p055-कुलटा
कुलटा [ kulat ]
- f. unchaste woman.


p070c3-b21/uchg p055-कुलतन्तु
कुलतन्तु [ kula-tantu ]
- m. thread on which a family hangs = the last of a race;
  -deva, m.: -t, f. family deity; -daiva: -ta, n. id.;
  -dhara, m. N. of a prince; -dharma, m. usage of a family;
  -dhurya, a. able to bear the burden of a family; m. head of a family;
  -nandana, a. ɴ. (child) delighting the family;
  -nr, f. virtuous woman;
  -nimnag, f. main or noble stream. 


p070c3-b22/ p055-कुलपतन
कुलपतन [ kula-patana ]
- n. fall --, degradation of the family;
  -pati, m. head of the family; -parvata, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range;
  -p, m. f. head of the family or community;
  -pmsan, f. disgrace to her family;
  -plik, f. N.; -putra, m. son of a good family; virtuous youth: -ka, m. id.;
  -purusha, m. man of good family; virtuous man;
  -pratishth, f. support of the race;
  -prasta, pp. born of a noble race; -bhava, a. coming of a noble race;
  -bhavana, n. chief residence; -bhta, pp. being the head of the guild;
  -bhbhrit, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; model of a prince;
  -mrga, m. ancestral path; -mitra, n. friend of the family.

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UKT notes

King Prasenajit

UKT 200302: I've heard of King {pa.-na.di kau:a.la. mn:} since my early childhood because of the well-known Burmese song on his 16-dreams. It was a well-known song then, on the shape of things to come. The king was a glutton, and is said to eat one basket of cooked rice and one goat every day. He was clearly fat and had bad dreams. He had 16 nightmares which had frightened him. In one of his nightmares he dreamt that he saw rocks floating on water, whilst in another he saw floats sinking to the bottom. He thought these 16 nightmares which he thought were omens of things to come during his reign. He was quieted by Gautama Buddha who interpreted that these things will not come about during his time.

When I heard this song it was sometime before the Second World War when people in Burma saw the dwindling fortunes of the British Raj, and the coming of Self-rule in Burma. It was a time of riots in Burma, and calamities world wide.

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasenadi 200302

"Pasenadi , Skt: prasenajit {pa.-na.di kau:a.la. mn:} (UHS-PMD0652) (c. 6th century BCE) was an Aikṣvāka dynasty ruler of Kosala {kau:a.la.ten:}. Shravasti , Skt: Śrāvastī, IPal: Sāvatthī sāvatthī, BPal: Tha'wut'hti {a-wt~hti. pr} was his capital. He succeeded after Sanjaya Mahākosala. [2] He was a prominent Upāsaka (lay follower) of Gautama Buddha, who built many Buddhist monasteries.

Go back Prasenajit-note-b

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End of TIL file