Update: 2020-05-25 02:11 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


• A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
• The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 180627)
• The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<Ō> / bkp<Ō> (link chk 190113)
•  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
• Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H Ųrberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{kā-ya.}/ {kaa-ya.} काय / {kāż}/{kaaż} :
----- see p060-3.htm for my attempt to replace aa with ā
{kā-ra.}/ {kār}/ {kaar} कार
  {kār~}/  : Long-vowel Repha
  {kār~ka.}/ {kaar~ka.} कार्क
  {kār~ta.}/ {kaar~ta.} कार्त
  {kār~da.}/ {kaar~da.} कार्द


UKT notes :
• Eight modes of Hindu marriage
• Skanda - the god of war

Contents of this page


{ka-ya.} काय 

• p066c2-b19/uchg p053-काय
काय [ ¹. kćya ]
- a. relating to the god Ka (Pragāpati);
  m. nuptial form of Pragāpati; root of the little finger (sacred to Pragāpati).


• p066c2-b20/uchg p053-काय 
काय [ ². kāya ]
- m. body; mass, extent, group; capital: -klesa, m. bodily distress;
  -danda, m. perfect control over the body;
  -māna, n. tent of grass, foliage, &c.:
  i-ka-niketana, n. id.; -vat, a. incarnate;
  -siro-grīva, n. body, head, & neck; -stha, m. writer (mixed caste).

© काय [kāya]
Skt: - ². m. body; mass, extent, group; capital: -- Mac066c2
Skt: ². - kāya m. (√ci Pāṇ. 3-3, 41), the body KātyŚr. Mn. &c - MonWilli274-c1

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• p066c3-b01/uchg p053-कायिक 
कायिक [ kāy-ika ]
- a. (ī) bodily.


• p066c3-b02/uchg p053-कायिका 
कायिका [ kāy-ikā ]
- a. f. (sc. vriddhi) kind of interest.


• p066c3-b03/uchg p053- कायोढज 
कायोढज [ kāya‿ūdha-ga ]
- a. born of a woman married after the manner of Pragāpati.

See: Eight modes of Hindu Marriage
• Rite of the Prajapati - (Prajapatya) where the father gives away his daughter after blessing the couple with the text "May both of you perform together your duties".

Contents of this page

{kā-ra.} कार

• p066c3-b04/uchg p053-कार 
कार [ kār-a ]
- a. (ī) making, producing, fashioning, performing; m. maker (--°);
  fashioner, author; making, action; --°, sound, letter; uninflected word;
  -aka, a. (-ikā) making, producing, causing, performing (g. or --°); *about to do (ac.);
  effecting an object; m. maker, fashioner; agent; n. relation of noun to verb, case-notion;
  -ana, --°, a. making, causing, producing; n. (--°, f. ī) cause, occasion, motive (g., lc.,--°);
  prime cause, element; basis; argument, proof; means, instrument;
  organ of sense; in., ab., lc.,
  °--, from some cause: w. kena, kasmāt, kasmin, for what reason? why?
  kim kāranam, why? ab. for the sake of (g., --°);
  kenāpi kāranena, for some reason or other;
  yat kāranam, yena kāranena, because.


• p066c3-b05/uchg p053-कारणकोप
कारणकोप [ kārana-kopa ]
- a. angry with reason; -krudh, a. id.;
  -guna, m. quality of the cause; -tas, ad. for some reason;
  -tā, f., -tva, n. causality; -sarīra, n. causal body.


• p066c3-b06/uchg p053-कारणा 
कारणा [ kār-anā ]
- f. action.


• p066c3-b07/uchg p053-कारणात्मन्् 
कारणात्मन्् [ kārana‿ātman ]
- a. being essentially the cause of (g.);
  -‿antara, n. special cause.


• p066c3-b08/uchg p053-107कारणिक 
कारणिक [ kāran-ika ]
- m. judge.


• p066c3-b09/uchg p053-106कारण्डव
कारण्डव [ kārandava ]
- m. kind of duck.


• p066c3-b10/uchg p053-कारयितव्य
कारयितव्य [ kārayi-tavya ]
- cs. fp. that should be caused to be done; to be managed; to be effected or procured;
  -tri, m. causer of action; barber.


• p066c3-b11/ not online
- m. kind of poisonous plant


• p066c3-b12/uchg p053-कारा
कारा [ kārā ]
- f. prison, gaol;
  -‿agāra, -griha, n. id.;
  -patha, m. N. of a country;
  -vāsa, m. gaol, imprisonment.


• p066c3-b13/ not online
कारावर [kāra‿avara]
Skt: कारावर [kāra‿avara] - m. a certain mixed caste. (offspring of  Nishāda and Vaidshī ) - Mac066c3
Skt: कारावर «kārāvara» - m. man of a mixed and low caste - SpkSkt
Skt: कारावर «kārāvara» - m. a man of a mixed and low caste (born from a niṣāda- father and vaidehī- mother, working in leather and hides) - http://sanskritdictionary.com/ ... 170222


• p066c3-b14/uchg p053-कारिका
कारिका [ kār-ikā ]
- f. activity; torment; memorial verse explaining obscure grammatical rules or philosophical doctrines.


• p066c3-b15/uchg p053-कारित 
कारित [ kār-ita ]
- pp. caused, produced by, relating to (--°);
  ā, f. (sc. vriddhi) excessive interest offered by debtor under pressure.


• p066c3-b16/uchg p053-कारिन्् 
कारिन्् [ kār-in ]
- a. ¹. making, doing, producing (g., --°); acting; ². dispersing, destroying.


• p066c3-b17/uchgf p053-कारु
कारु [ kār-ś ]
- m. poet, singer; -u, m. artisan (f. ū): -ka, m. id.


• p066c3-b18/uchg p053-कारुणिक
कारुणिक [ kārun-ika ]
- a. compassionate; -ya, n. compassion.


• p066c3-b19/ not online
- m. a mixed caste (offspring of outcast Vaisya).

( end of p066-2.htm )

Contents of this page

{kār~} : Repha on long a 

{kār~ka.} कार्क

• p066c3-b20/uchg p053-कार्कश्य
कार्कश्य [ kārkas-ya ]
Skt: कार्कश्य [ kārkas-ya ] - n. firmness, hardness; harshness. -- Mac066c3
Skt: कार्कश्य «kārkaśya» - n. firmness, sternness, hardness, roughness, rough labour -- SpkSkt


• p066c3-b21/ not online
[kārkotaka ]
- n. N. of a city 

Contents of this page

{kār~ta.} कार्त

• p066c3-b22/uchg p053-कार्तवीर्य  
कार्तवीर्य [ kārtavīrya ]
- m. pat. of Arguna, prince of Haihaya.


• p066c3-b23/uchg p053-कार्तस्वरमय 
कार्तस्वरमय [ kārta-svara-maya ]
- a. golden and sounding piteous.


• p066c3-b24/uchg p053-कार्तान्तिक 
कार्तान्तिक [ kārtānt-ika ]
- m. astrologer.


• p066c3-b25/uchg p053-123
कार्त्तिक [ kārttika ] --> {kaart~ti.ka.}
- m. N. of a month (Oct-Nov): ī, f. day of full moon in Kārttika; e-ya, m. met. of Skanda, god of war.
123) कार्त्तिक (p. 53) kārttika

UKT 170222: See my note on Skanda - the god of war

© कार्त्तिक [ kārttika ]
Skt: कार्त्तिक [ kārttika ] - m. N. of a month (Oct-Nov) - Mac066c3
Skt: कार्त्तिक «kārttika» - m. Oct-Nov. m.n. name of the first year in Jupiter's period of revolution - SpkSkt
BPal: {kūt~ti.ka.} - UHS-PMD0286
  UKT from UHS: m. the lunar month {tūn hsaśn moan: la.} when the Moon becomes full in star-cluster Pleiades.
Bur: {krūt~ti.ka nak~hkūt} - n. astronomy asterism of seven stars in the shape of a brood of young chicks; the third Lunar Mansion, Pleiades aka {hpyauk hsaip} - MLC MED2006-044

UKT 151104, 181229: Bur: {krūt~ti.ka}, though spelled with a {ra.ric} has no trace of rhoticity in accent. In fact some Bur-Myan poets compare the star-cluster as a "brood of seven chickens".
See ¤ Festivals of Lights in Folk Elements in Buddhism
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch06a-lightfest.htm (link chk 180418)

The full moon night is the night when the sky is clear of clouds and all the 27 nakshatras {nak~hkūt} are visible. It is the end of the four lunar months of Monsoon and the ocean and rivers are calm. It is beginning of the sailing season. It is also the Night of Thieves and young men played "thieves" and steal property such as store-front sign boards to hang in front unlikely places such a public toilet.


• p066c3-b26/uchg p053-कात्स्न्‍र्य
कात्स्न्‍र्य [ kārtsn-ya ]
- n. totality: in. completely.

Contents of this page

{kār~da.} कार्द

• p066c3-b27/uchg p053-कार्दम
कार्दम [ kārdama ]
- a. muddy.


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Eight modes of Hindu marriage

- UKT 120125

From http://hinduism.about.com/od/matrimonial1/a/typesofmarriage.htm 120125

There are eight types of marriage described in the ancient Hindu text of Manusmriti (Laws of Manu) or "Manava Dharma Shastra":

• Rite of Brahmana (Brahma) - where the father of the bride invites a man learned in the Vedas and a good conduct, and gives his daughter in marriage to him after decking her with jewels and costly garments.

• Rite of the Gods (Daiva) - where the daughter is groomed with ornaments and given to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice during the course of its performance of this rite.

• Rite of the Rishis (Arsha) - when the father gives away his daughter after receiving a cow and a bull from the bright groom.

• Rite of the Prajapati - (Prajapatya) where the father gives away his daughter after blessing the couple with the text "May both of you perform together your duties" . Go back Eight-modes-marriage-note-b2

• Rite of the Asuras (Demons) - when the bridegroom receives a maiden after bestowing wealth to the kinsmen and to the bride according to his own will.

• Rite of the Gandharva - the voluntary union of a maiden and her lover, which arises from desire and sexual intercourse for its purpose.

• Rite of the Rakshasa - forcible abduction of a maiden from her home after her kinsmen have been slain or wounded and their houses broken open.

• Rite of the Pisaka - when a man by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping or intoxicated or is mentally disbalanced or handicapped.

Go back Eight-Hindu-marriage-note-b

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Skanda - the god of war

- UKT 151104, 200216

UKT 170221: See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kartikeya 170221
and also Encyclopędia Britannica - https://global.britannica.com/topic/Skanda 170221
"Skanda, (Skt: “Leaper” or “Attacker”) also called Karttikeya, Kumara, or Subrahmanya, Hindu god of war who was the first-born son of Shiva-déva. The many legends giving the circumstances of his birth are often at variance with one another.

In Kalidasa’s epic poem Kumarasambhava (“The Birth of the War God”; 5th century CE), as in most versions of the story, the gods wished for Skanda to be born in order to destroy the demon Asura Taraka, who had been granted a boon that he could be killed only by a son of Shiva. ..."

See Kalidasa's Kumarasambhawa , by M. R. Kale , 1917, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- MRKale-KalidasKumarasambhava<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 200216)

"Skanda" is derived from "Iskanda" which is, of course, "Alexander the Great". He brought death and destruction to the ancient World - swiftly as if riding a peacock - as far as east to India 327/326 BC. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_Alexander_the_Great 170221
See also: http://murugan.org/research/gopalapillai.htm 170221
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C4%81rak%C4%81sura 170221
- http://freeread.com.au/@rglibrary/JacobAbbott/MoH/Alexander.html#ch1 170221
Watch a video from History Channel, in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries, in India Section
- AlexanderWarLord<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 200216)

UKT 151104, 200216: You will notice that the word कार्त्तिक «kārttika» is related to Skanda - the god of war. The following article notes that Alexander the Great is known under the name of Iskandar. Read
SKANDA: THE ALEXANDER ROMANCE IN INDIA by N. Gopala Pillai, M. A., in Proceedings of the All-India Oriental Conference 1937 - 955 - http://murugan.org/research/gopalapillai.htm 151104, 200216
The copy is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF files
- NGPallai-SkandaAlexander<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 200216)

The Moon is in the star cluster known as Pleiades in October-November. Pleiades are known as Krittika and are associated with the war-god Kartikeya aka  Murugan and Skanda. This god is raised by the six Krittika sisters aka Matrikas. See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleiades 151104


As a boy I used to be trilled by stories of military conquests and manly exploits, and Alexander the Great was one of my boy-hood heroes until as a grown up who have seen the ravages of war loathe all such stories. Alexander the Great has become not-so-Great as his exploits were founded on the miseries of the common people.

It is an interesting fact that the Moon is in the star cluster known as Pleiades in October-November. Pleiades are known as Krittika and are associated with the war-god Kartikeya aka  Murugan and Skanda. This god is raised by the six Krittika sisters aka Matrikas. See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleiades 151104

The question now remains whether Alexander the Great - the author - of war has become Skanda - the south Indian god of war. I hold the view that the two are the same, and the Indians have worshipped him out of fear than of respect.

UKT 180418: In Myanmarpré, the full-moon day in October-November when the Moon is in the Pleiades is celebrated as the Tanzaungdaing Lighting Festival. On the night after the full-moon day, in the dead of night, the Festival of Thieves is held usually by young men bent on playing jokes on their neighbours. They would "steal" things outside houses and put them in other not-belonging-places, such as the sign-board from a lawyer's office and hanging it in front of a public privy. The owners can recover their belongings in the morning. Now, let's turn to the meaning of Thieves. Under the general term Thieves are included, those who hate you, those who would murder you and destroy your belongings. It is no wonder Alexander the Great, the author of war and destruction would be classified as a Thief, and became hated by his victims in the lands he has devastated.

From: SKANDA: THE ALEXANDER ROMANCE IN INDIA by N. Gopala Pillai, M. A., in Proceedings of the All-India Oriental Conference 1937 - 955 - http://murugan.org/research/gopalapillai.htm 151104

The marvellous exploits of Alexander the Great startled and thrilled the world. East and West vied with each other in paying him divine honours during his life and after his death. Myths and legends woven around him, embroidered with all the glowing colours of imagination spread through the Continents. The lands he conquered and those beyond them told his tales in diverse tongues.

Greek and Latin, Syriac and Arabic (fn01), Ethiopic, Hebrew, Samaritan, Armenian, Persian, English and French, German and Italian, and even Scandinavian languages of Europe, Asia, and Africa enshrined in prose and verse the immortal romance of the Macedonian Prince. [UKT ¶]

UKT 151104: Yet we in Myanmarpré knew nothing about him. Perhaps the country, especially the northern part with Tagaung at its centre had been spared the ravages of war brought about by ambitions of men like Alexander the Great.

Those were the days when religion held sway over the minds of men. His tolerance of faiths other than his own, his cosmopolitan outlook in matters religious, inspired as it was by a deep vein of mysticism helped him (fn02) “wherever he went to treat with respect the local religion.” His attitude towards the religion of the Persians, his greatest adversaries, the destruction of their sacred books at Persepolis is one of the rare exceptions to the rule of his general tolerance. The Arabs worshipped him as Iskandar (fn03) Dhu’lquarnein (two horned Alexander) and even Islam (fn04) adopted Iskandar among her prophets, and carried his forgotten fame back into India. He was the first Aryan monarch to become a God. (fn05).

When these various nations with whom he came into contact have preserved various accounts of his life and conquests, have elevated him to the position of a Superman and God, it is strange, if it be a fact, that Ancient Indian Literature alone is oblivious of him. [UKT ¶]

Great scholars and historians have noted this phenomenon of apparent silence (fn06). But they are not surprised. Indians are a peculiar race. India ignores and forgets (fn07). “It is a conspiracy of silence.” “India remained unchanged. The wounds of battle were quickly healed: the ravaged fields smile again (fn08). “No Indian author, Hindu or Jain or Buddhist makes even the faintest allusion to Alexander or his deeds,” asserted V.A. Smith, and he quotes with approval the lines by Matthew Arnold:

“The East bowed low before the blast
In patient, deep disdain,
She let the legions thunder past,
And plunged in thought again.”

UKT 151104:
• Mathew Arnold (1822-1888), an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Arnold 151104
• Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), the author of The Light of Asia, subtitled The Great Renunciation, [of Gautama Buddha] first published in London in July 1879.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Light_of_Asia 151104
See Light of Asia, by Sir Edwin Arnold, 1879, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- EArnold-LightOfAsia<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 200216)

... ... ...

Alexander was a prince, and Kumara, which means a prince in Sanskrit, is a synonym of ‘Skanda.’ He was a warlord and leader of an army, and Senani which means the leader of an army is again a name of Skanda. The lance was Alexander’s favourite weapon, and the weapon of Greek soldiers in general, and Skanda is called ‘Sakti-dhara’ (lance bearer). These are resemblances which may gain weight in the light of other evidences.

UKT: there are more in this lengthy article.

Go back Skanda-note-b

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End of TIL file