Update: 2020-05-25 02:10 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus

- contd

A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

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  {kal~pa.} कल्प : Lepha contd
  {kal~ma.} कल्म
  {kal~ya.} कल्य
   {kal~la.} कल्ल : may also be written in non-Lepha form as
  {kal~ha.} कल्ह
  {ka.wa.} कव
  {ka.sha.} कश kaśa :  IAST: श ś /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ /s/; स s /θ/
  {ka.Sa.} कष kaṣa : don't be led astray by of Macdonell transliteration [ kash ], it is [ṣ] not [sh]
  {ka.a.} कस kasa: Skt-Dev speakers pronounce स as /s/, Bur-Myan speakers and IPA pronounce it /θ/.


Skt Roots: entered below:
Whit018: kaṣ, 'scratch'; kas, 'open';
   Note: Computers cannot differentiate (with a dot below) and s (without dot) in bookmarks.
   It is one of the reasons for me to invent Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}

UKT notes :
Danu Asura - female Asura: a mother-goddess {m-tau} of  Folk religion of Celts.
Dhutanga robe
Kakshivat - Buddha's birth (UKT 200211: this note must be moved somewhere)
Katantra Vyakaranam : {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Na.} - teaching Sanskrit to a Telugu king
Kashyapa Rishi : {ka~a.pa. ra.e.} कश्यप kaśyapa
Wa-Va-Ba : change in pronunciation


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{kal~pa.} कल्प : contd


p065c1-b00/uchg p053-कल्पाय
कल्पाय [ kalpya ]
- den. . become or seem a Kalpa: pp. i-ta.


p065c1-b01/uchg p053-कल्पितार्घ 
कल्पितार्घ [ kalpita‿argha ]
- a. to whom an offering of (--) has been made.


p065c1-b02/uchg p053- कल
कल्प्य [ kalp-ya ]
- fp. to be assigned; to be imagined.


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{kal~ma.} कल्म

p065c1-b03/uchg p053-कल्मष
कल्मष [ kalmasha ]
- n. dirt; taint; guilt; sin.


p065c1-b04/uchg p053-कल्माष
कल्माष [ kalmsha ]
- a. () having black spots (-t, f. abst. ɴ.); m. N. of a Nga; n. spot.


p065c1-b05/uchg p053-कल्माषित 
कल्माषित [ kalmsh-ita ]
- pp. spotted, variegated with (in.).

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{kal~ya.} कल्य

p065c1-b06/uchg p053-कल्य
कल्य [ kal-ya ]
- a. healthy, vigorous; ready (for, lc. or inf.); clever; n. health; day-break (-m, lc., --, at day-break); intoxicating liquor:
, f. health.


p065c1-b07/uchg p053-कल्यवर्त 
कल्यवर्त [ kalya-varta ]
- n. breakfast; trifle.


p065c1-b08/uchg p053-कल्याण 
कल्याण [ kalyna ]
- a. (&isharp;) beautiful, lovely; good, excellent, noble; blessed, auspicious, prosperous; m. N. of a king; n. the good; virtue, merit; welfare, prosperity; festival; , f. kind of pulse;
  -kataka, N. of a locality;
  -kara, a. () propitious; -kra, a. productive of utility; -krit, a. performing good deeds;
  -dev, f. N. of a queen;
  -parampar, f. continuous good fortune; -pura, n. N. of a town; -prakriti, a. noble-natured;
  -lakshana, a. having auspicious marks;
  -vartman, m. N. of a king;
  -svmi-kesava, m. N. of a statue of Vishnu;
  -‿abhinivesin, a. benevolent; m. patron.


p065c1-b09/uchg p053- कल्याणिन्् 
कल्याणिन्् [ kalyn-in ]
- a. virtuous; prosperous.

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{kal~la.} कल्ल

UKT151030, 170208: UHS-PMD lists two Pal-Myan words involving one {ka.} and two {la.}. The English translations are mine:
{ka.la.la.} - n. mud, semen, body [fetus] formed from {ka.la.la.}-fluid 'male semen'  - UHS-PMD0300c2
{kal~la.} - . mfn. appropriate, fitting, respectability, proper. m. freedom from disease. n. dawn of the day.
. mn. ash - UHS-PMD0302c2

p065c1-b10/uchg p053- कल्लोल 
कल्लोल [ kallola ]
- m. wave.

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{kal~ha.} कल्ह

p065c1-b11/ not online
कल्हण "Kalhana"

UKT 200202: Kalhana (sometimes spelled Kalhan or Kalhan'a) (c. 12th century), a Kashmiri, was the author of Rajatarangini (River of Kings), an account of the history of Kashmir. He wrote the work in Sanskrit between 1148 and 1149. [1]
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalhana 120222, 151030
See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajatarangini 120222
See translation in 2 vol. by M. A. Stein,1900, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- MAStein-Rajatarangini01<> / Bkp01<> (link chk 200210)
- MAStein-Rajatarangini02<> / Bkp02<> (link chk 200210)
(from p8 of Introduction in vol01) : "The above facts indicate a close attachment to S'aivism on the part of both Kalhana and his father. It is curious to note side by side with it the manifestly friendly attitude which Kalhana displays towards Buddhism throughout the whole of his Chronicle. A long series of kings, from Aśoka down to his own time, receives his unstinted praise for the Vihāras and Stūpas they founded for the benefit of the Buddhist creed. ref 19 "

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{ka.wa.} कव

See my note on Pronunciation change from Pali to Sanskrit:
Wa-Va-Ba {wa.} > {va.} > {ba.}

p065c1-b12/ not online
कव [kava]
= - = ka-, kad-, k-, ku- , bad


p065c1-b13/uchg p053-कवक 
कवक [ kavaka ]
- n. mushroom.


p065c1-b14/uchg p053-कवच 
कवच [ kvaka ] "
- m. n. armour, mail; jacket; bark;
  - dhara, a. wearing armour = youth.


p065c1-b15/uchg p053-कवचिन््  
कवचिन्् [ kavak-n ]
- a. clad in mail.


p065c1-b16/uchg p053-कवन्ध  
कवन्ध [ kvandha ]
- m. n. barrel; cloud; belly; trunk (of the body);
  ep. of the demon Danu [female Asura], whose head and thighs were thrust into her his trunk by Indra.
  UKT 170209, 171210: See my note on Danu Asura


p065c1-b17/uchg p053-कवय  
कवय [ kavaya ]
- den. P. compose poetry.


p065c1-b18/uchg p053-कवल  
कवल [ kavala ]
- m. mouthful, morsel:
  -t, f. abst. ɴ.;
  -na, a. swallowing;
  -ya, den. P. swallow:
  pp. kavalita, devoured by mouthfuls.


p065c1-b19/uchg p053-कवष  
कवष [ kvasha ]
- a. ( ^ ) wide apart; m. N.


p065c1-b20/ not online 
- fold of a door; -ka , id. (-)


p065c1-b21/uchg p053-कवि
कवि [ kav- ]
- a. wise; m. wise man, sage, seer; poet;
  planet Venus.

From Vedic Yoga: the Path of the Rishi, by David Frawley:
"The planet Venus, meanwhile, is connected to the Bhrigus and has Bhargava, or "of the Bhrigus," among its names. Bhrigu is called "Shukra," which is the main Sanskrit name for the planet Venus, as well as the name of a Bhrigu Rishi, also called Kavi. Ushanas of the Bhrigus, who has several hynms in the Rigveda, is lauded by Krishna as the greatest of the Vedic seers, as we have noted earlier. Ushanas is sometimes equated with Kavi and Shukra."


p065c1-b22/uchg p053-कविका 
कविका [ kav-k ]
- f. bit (on a bridle).


p065c1-b23/uchg p053-कविता  
कविता [ kavi-t ]
- f., -tv, n. poetic art or gift;
  -putra, m. N. of a dramatist;
  -rga, m. king of poets; N. of a poet;
  ()-sasta (or ), pp. spoken or praised by sages.


p065c1-b24/uchg p053-कवोष्ण  
कवोष्ण [ kava‿ushna ]
- a. lukewarm:
  -t, f. -ness.


p065c1-b25/ not online
कव्य [kav-y] = [kav]
- m. pl. kind of Ma'nes; n. offerings to these Ma'nes (generally whavya );
  -vhana , a. conveying the offerings to the Ma'nes (Agn);
  -havya-bhug , m. ep. of Agni -- Mac065c1
Skt: कव्य kavya - adj. sacrificial priest, a sacrificer -- SpkSkt

( end of old p065-1.htm )

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{ka.sha.} कश / {kish}

p065c1-b26/uchg p053- कश  
कश [ ksa ]
- m. kind of rodent; whip; , f. whip; bridle;
  -‿ghta, m. stroke of the whip.

कशा [ks] = क श ा --> {ka.sha}
Skt: कशा [ks] - f. whip; bridle -- Mac065c1
BPal: {ka.a} - UHS-PMD0303
  UKT from UHS: f. rattan cane (used as cattle goad - different from whip used in the West).


p065c1-b27/uchg p053-कशिपु  
कशिपु [ kasip ]
- m. n. mat, cushion.


p065c1-b28/uchg p053-कश्मल  
कश्मल [ kasmala ]
- a. (, ) dirty; n. dirt; pusillanimity; despair.

pusillanimity - n. . The state or quality of being pusillanimous; cowardice.


p065c1-b29/uchg p053-कश्मीर
कश्मीर [ kasmra ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; sg. N. of a country (Cashmere).

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p065c2-b00/uchg p053-कश्यप 
कश्यप [ kasypa ]
- a. black-toothed; m. tortoise; a divine being; N. of various Rishis.
  See my note on Kashyapa Rishi {ka~a.pa. ra.e.} कश्यप kaśyapa Rishi 

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{ka.Sa.} कष

√kaṣ, {kaS} 'scratch' - Whit018.
  Verb, kaṣita c. ; -kaṣam s. +
कषति { कष् } kaṣati { kaṣ } - v1. exterminate, rub, eradicate, scrape, scratch, ... - SpkSkt


p065c2-b01/ not online 
कष् [ kash]
--. kasha , rub, scrape, scratch - Mac065c2


p065c2-b02/uchg p053-कष  
कष [ kash-a ]
- a. scraping (--); m. touchstone:
  -na, n. rubbing, scraping, friction;
  -pattik, f., -pshna, m. touchstone.


कषति { कष् } kaṣati { kaṣ }
- v.1 rub, scratch, exterminate, scrape, rub or scratch oneself, test or try - SpkSkt


p065c2-b03/uchg p053-कषाय
कषाय [ kashya ]
- a. astringent (taste); fragrant; red, yellowish red;
  m. red colour; passion; m. n. astringent juice; decoction; medicinal potion; ointment; dirt; taint;
  deterioration, moral decline; n. yellow garment;
  -ya, den. P. dirty; molest;
  i-ta, pp. coloured red; dirtied, stained; penetrated w., full of (--).

कषाय --> {ka.Sa-ya.}
Skt: कषाय [kashya] - a. astringent (taste); fragrant; red, yellowish red; m. red colour; passion;
  m. n. astringent juice; decoction; medicinal potion; ointment; dirt; taint; deterioration, moral decline;
  n. yellow garment -- Mac065c2
BPal: {ka.a-ya.} - UHS-PMD0303
  UKT from UHS: mfn. astringent. m. tannin solution [which is mildly antiseptic], golden-red color
  See my clip on tannin solution in my note on Dhutanga Robe


p065c2-b04/uchg p053-कष्ट 
कष्ट [ kash-ta ]
- pp. bad; heavy, severe; miserable; forced, unnatural; pernicious, dangerous;
  n. evil, misfortune, misery (kashtt kashtataram, worst of all evils):
  -m, in., ab., --, with difficulty, only just;
  -m, ij. woe! often w. dhik or h dhik;
  -tapas, a. doing severe penance;
  -tara, cpv. most dangerous or pernicious;
  -labhya, fp. hard to obtain;
  -‿adhika, a. worse.

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{ka.a.} कस

UKT 171211, 181219, 200203: Remember we are doing Skt-Dev. More importantly, remember that the Sanskrit speakers and the Pali-Lanka speakers aka International Pali speakers pronounce the dental-fricative स as /s/ in spite of the IPA transliteration /θ/. To them it is a sibilant-hisser, but to us Pali-Myan (and Bur-Myan) speakers it is a thibilant as in English words <thin> and <then>.

Because of the above difficulties when you go from one language to another in BEPS, always think of the possibility of formation of {ka}, from which {kaS} can be derived. {kaS} can be written in Kin'si form {kaS~} if you will remember that it is , and NOT  a POA change from dental-fricative to palatal-stop. This will be further transformed to {ka.S~} from which words like {ka.Sta.}, कस्तम्भी ka-stambh can be formed. The Romabama-transcription will now be modified to {ka.Sta.}. Since capital-S is sometimes not convenient to write, we will use the small-s in {ka.sta.}. This consideration is important when transcribing English words in Myanmar akshara, as in <spin>, <stin> and <skin> as:
   <spin> = {spn:}
   <stin> = {stn:}
   <skin> = {skn:}

√kas, {k} 'open'. - Whit018


p065c2-b05/ not online
कस् [ kas ] i.
- beam. nis, cs. -nishksaya drive out.
  vi burst, open, blossom; beam (with joy); ...


p065c2-b06/uchg p053-040 कसुन््
कसुन् [ k-as-un ] = क स ु न ् --> {ka.oan}
Skt: - inf. suffix as (gr.). -- Mac065-c2
Skt: - kasun the kṛt suffix as forming in the Veda an indeclinable (avyaya Pāṇ. 1-1, 40) infinitive with abl. sense Pāṇ. 3-4, 13 and 17 (cf. vi-sṛ́pas, ā-tṛ́das.) -- MonWill266-c1


p065c2-b07/uchg p053-039कस्तम्भी
कस्तम्भी [ ka-stambh ]
- f. support of a carriage pole.


p065c2-b08/uchg p053-038कस्तूरिका 
कस्तूरिका [ kastrik ]
- f. musk;
  -kuraṅga, m. musk-deer [Himalayan musk deer: Moschus leucogaster ];
  -mrig, f. female of the musk deer.


p065c2-b09/uchg p053-कस्तूरी 
कस्तूरी [ kastr ]
- f. musk: -mriga, m. musk deer.


p065c2-b10/uchg p053-कस्मात्् 
कस्मात्् [ k-smt ]
- ab. of kim; ad. whence? why? on what account?


p065c2-b11/uchg p053-कल्हार 
कल्हार [ kahlra ]
- n. white esculent water-lily.

UKT 140313:
According to http://sanskritdictionary.com/?q=kumuda, 140313, Monier-Williams gives:
kumuda कुमुद {ku.mu.da.} - n. "exciting what joy", the esculent white water-lily (Nymphaea esculenta).
According to http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?415799 140313,
Nymphaea esculenta Roxb. is the synonym of Nymphaea pubescens Willd.
"Esculent" means 'edible' -- AHTD

( end of old p065-2.htm )

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UKT notes

Danu Asura 

-- UKT 110903, ... , 181219, 200210

The first time I looked into this entry in 110903, I came to know that Danu was a female Asura goddess. Originally, in Rigvda, Asuras were not demonized, and Indra {ain~dra.} [different from Buddhist {i.kra:mn:}] was the chief god, the king of the celestial deities. From the number of hymns directed to the deities we know that the present-day Trimūrti त्रिमूर्ति trimūrti - the Mahabrahma, Vishnu, and Siva, were minor gods. Moreover Siva aka Rudra was just a storm god. The Wikipedia article that I looked into shows that "Indra a male god had not only killed a female but had mutilated her body - an unworthy act for a king.

I hold that the original Vda including the Rigvda was the source of knowledge of the Tibeto-Burmans (Tib-Bur) of the Bronze Age. The Tib-Bur were easily defeated by the invading Indo-Europeans (IE) of the Iron Age. The Tib-Bur were made into slaves and servants, and IE made themselves the masters of the First-Caste (or top-class) comprising the Ponnars {poaN~Na:} 'bramin'. The Bramins portrayed themselves as the First-Caste - the mouthpiece of the Creator or 'the teachers', the Second-Caste the Ksatriya {hkt~ti.ya.} 'rulers and soldiers', and Third-Caste the Vaisya 'traders, craftsmen, agriculturalists, and herders'. Finally the defeated indigenous peoples as Fourth-Caste the Sudra 'slaves to serve the top castes': everything as commanded by the Creator (Mahabrahma - to the Vaishnavite, and Siva to the Shaivite) . What a self-serving arrangement!

There are two kinds of Brahmins or Braahmana Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}. They are Vaishnavite {bai~a.no: poaN~Na:}, and the Shaivite Ponnar {i-wa. poaN~Na:}, who were at each other's throats - until today Shaivites got the upper hand.

Gautama Buddha would have none of the Caste system and made himself the enemy of the Ponnars {poaN~Na:} 'bramin'.

The Vaishnavite {bai~a.no:poaN~Na:} of the northern Indian Hinduism, who speak Hindi as their home speech and write in Devanagari script with the first akshara क ka. The second, the Shaivite Ponnar {i-wa. poaN~Na:} of the southern Indian Hinduism, speak the Dravadian languages, mostly Tamil with script க ka and Telugu with క ka.

The Shaivite Brahmins {i-wa. poaN~Na:} were responsible for the final destruction of Buddhism in India the land of its birth.

The Buddha names the following as "early sages" {ra..} of Vedic verses, "Atthaka (either Astaka or Atri), Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta {wei~a-mait~ta. ra.} aka (Visvamitra) {wai~a mait~ta. ra..}, Yamataggi {ya.ma.tag~gi ra..}, Angirasa {n~gi-ra.a.ra..}, Bharadvaja {Ba-ra.dwa-za ra..}, Vasettha (Vashistha), Kassapa (Kashyapa) {ka~a.pa. ra..} and Bhagu (Bhrigu) {Ba.gu. ra..}" - Long Discourse of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya, by Maurice Welshe, Simon and Schuster, 2005, p188-189 .

UKT 200209: I've taken the Pali equivalent of Angirasa from: Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by G P Malalasekera
- http://dictionary.sutta.org/browse/a/angirasa 200209
"Angirasa:1. Angirasa (Angīrasa). - A name applied to the Buddha several times in the Pitakas. (E.g.,Vin.i.25; D.iii.196; S.i.196; A.iii.239; Thag.v.536; J.i.116). In the Commentaries three etymologies are given:Buddhaghosa says that it means emitting rays of various hues from the body, and that the word is therefore applicable to all Buddhas alike (DA.iii.963). Dhammapāla adds that it signifies being possessed of attainments such as virtue,and also that according to some,Angirasa was a personal name given by the Buddhas father in addition to Siddhatha (ThagA.i.503. It is worth noting that in AA.i.381 Siddhattha is referred to as Angīrasa Kumāra.)" Treating the name "Angīrasa" in the same way as "Aṅgulimāla" {n~gu.li.ma-la.}, I've spelled: {n~gi-ra.a.}

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danu_(Asura) - 110903, 171210
  Goddess Danu is also a Celtic or Irish water goddess.
See A Celtic Invocation by E F Tonsing, 2012, in TIL PDF libraries. On p16, we see the name "goddess Danu":
- EFTonsing-CelticInvoc<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200210)
(abstract) "Very little has been written about the baffling text of the Celtic invocation, the Ctnad nAse, for the reason that it is abstruse, and the allusions in it resist sure explication. Despite the obstacles to interpreting the Ctnad nAse, however, a close examination of the poem can yield some clues as to its sources, purpose, and, perhaps, authorship. To do this, the lines of the prayer will be treated in three groups: the four "invocations," the "petitions," and the "I am" sayings. It can be concluded that, contrary to some analysts, the content of the poem is derived mostly from pagan, Irish sources and that the Christian elements in it are sparse."
(p16-17): "The use of numbers "three deaths," "three life-times," "Senach of the seven ages," and "seven daughters" displays a preference for Indo-European Celtic traditions of threes and sevens. The year was divided into three seasons (winter, spring and summer); there were the triple battle goddesses of Macha, Morrigan and Badb, (ref.96) the goddess Danu (who took the form of maiden, mother and crone), and mythic kings who reigned for three years. More frequently, various events occurred every seven years or lasted seven years. (ref.97)

Dānu, a Hindu primordial goddess, is mentioned in the Rigveda, mother of the Danavas. The word Danu described the primeval waters which this deity perhaps embodied. In the Rigveda (I.32.9), she is identified as the mother of Vrtra, the demonic serpent [Naga ?] slain by Indra [1]. In later Hinduism, she becomes the daughter of Daksha and the consort of [Rishi] Kasyapa {ka~a.pa. ra..}. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 170209

UKT: To see who Daksha दक्ष = द क ् ष , lit. "able, dexterous, or honest one" [1]. is, we go to:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daksha 200210
With a stocky body, protruding belly, and the head of an ibex-like creature with spiral horns, I opine Daksha is the personification of the Himalayan which gives rise to many rivers flowing south. Danu represents one of the rivers.

As a word for "rain" or "liquid", dānu is compared to Avestan dānu "river", and further to river names like Don, Danube, Dneiper, Dniestr, etc. There is also a Danu river in Nepal. The "liquid" word is mostly neuter, but appears as feminine in RV 1.54.

As a Hindu goddess, Dānu has 2 temples in Bali, Indonesia: Pura Ulun Danu Temple on Lake Bratan, Bali and Ulun Danu Batur, near Penelokan.

UKT: End of Wikipedia stub.

-- UKT 140222
I looked again and found that the word "Kabandha" (कबन्ध =  क ब न ् ध ) lit. "headless torso").

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabandha 140222

In Hindu mythology, Kabandha (कबन्ध = क ब न ् ध {ka.bn~Da.} Kabandha, lit. "headless torso") is a Rakshasa (demon) who is killed and freed from a curse by the god Rama an Avatar of Vishnu and his [half-] brother Lakshmana.  [UKT ]

UKT 140222: Rama was a human hero king who was later deified. Raksha could also mean a guardian. I have struck through such misleading words. My additions are in [...].

Kabandha's legend appears in the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, as well as in later Ramayana adaptations.

Kabandha was a gandharva (celestial musician) [Gandharva are not Dvas. They belonged to a separate kingdom. Being musically minded the males were employed by Indra as musicians, and the females as dancers.]  named Vishvavasu or Danu, who was cursed and made into an ugly, carnivorous demon by Indra, the king of the Dva gods, and/or a sage. In an encounter with Rama and Lakshmana, the brothers sever his arms and proceed to cremate his corpse. Upon his death, Kabandha resumes his gandharva form and directs Rama to the Rsyamukha mountain, where the exiled monkey-chief Sugriva is hiding. Kabandha advises Rama to form an alliance with Sugriva, who would be of assistance in the search for Rama's wife Sita, who had been kidnapped by Ravana, the demon-king of Lanka. Following Kabandha's instructions, Rama befriends Sugriva and rescues Sita with his help.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danu_Irish_goddess 140222, 180412 
"Danu has no myths or legends associated with her in any surviving medieval Irish texts, but she has possible parallels with the Welsh literary figure ... gender is never specified ... a man by some medieval Welsh antiquarians."

UKT 180412: Danu may have a parallel in Hindu mythology with Danu Asura. Dva and Asura divinities were worshipped equally in earlier Rig Vda. The later Ponnars {poaN~Na:} 'bramin' who worshipped the Dvas, made the Asuras into enemies of the Dvas and demonized them. From my study, I came to understand that the Ancients looked up into sky and came to believe there were inhabitants in the Sky, just as they were the inhabitants on the surface of the Earth. They further imagined that there must be inhabitants below the dry land and the sea - the Nagas. To them the rulers of the Sky were Dvas forever battling the Asuras .

In Irish mythology, Danu ([ˈdanu]; modern Irish Dana [ˈd̪ˠanˠə]) is the mother goddess of the Tuatha D Danann (Old Irish: "The peoples of the goddess Danu"). Though primarily seen as an ancestral figure, some Victorian sources also associate her with the land. [1]

UKT 180411: Notice the Yantra the Irish {m-tau} is holding. It is triangular. Notice the line of the Yan showing the beginning-less and endless nature of herself. The triangular Yans are also present in the Esoteric Buddhism of Myanmarpr. See also:
Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 180411)

The theonym is of PIE (Proto-Indo-European) age, and seems to have denoted a water goddess in origin. A goddess Dānu is attested in the Rigveda, and also the river names Danube (Latin: Danuvius), Dniestr, Dniepr and Don derive from the name.

The Rigvedic Danu was the mother of a race of Asuras called the Danavas. A shortened form of the name appears to have been . The Greek goddess Demeter (Da-mater), is also associated with water several times. [2] Julius Pokorny reconstructs the name from the PIE root da:-: "flow, river", da:-nu: "any moving liquid, drops", da: navo "people living by the river, Skyth. nomadic people (in Rigveda water-demons), fem.Da:nu primordial goddess , in Greek Danaoi (Danaans, Greek tribe, Egypt. Danuna). [3] [4]

UKT 170209, 171210, 181221]: A solution to my finding that Myanmar script may have reached as far as the country of Georgia on the basis of {ta.} [Georgian: თ Tan] & {ti.} [Georgian თი Tan+In], etc. in the Georgian script, and the mention of a dragon-killer known in the West as St. George. The western hero is similar to our dragon-killer of Tagaung in northern Myanmarpr.

The solution might also be found in the PIE roots by Julius Pokorny - a scholar of Celtic languages. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Pokorny 170209
"Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist [1] and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism. He held academic posts in Austrian and German universities."

The genitive form of Old Irish Danu is Danann, and the dative Danainn. Irish Danu is not identical with Vedic Dānu but rather descends from a Proto-Celtic *Danona, which may contain the suffix -on- also found in other theonyms such as Matrona, Maqonos/Maponos and Catona. [5] [6]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Dhutanga robe

- UKT 140223, 171211

The word <clean> can mean many things. However what none would consider "clean" may mean what is clean or free from human failings of Greed, Anger, Sexual-misconduct, and Pride. The following is taken from a Thai website and is within the Theravada Buddhist practice.

From: Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhutanga 171211

Dhutanga, Pali dhutaṅga "renunciation", [1] known in Thai as "Thudong"; Sinhalese: ධුතාඞ්ග is a group of thirteen austerities or ascetic practices most commonly observed by the practitioners of the Thai Forest Tradition of Theravada Buddhism. While the Buddha did not require these practices, they were recommended for those wanting to practice greater asceticism.

All Forest Monks will observe at least one of the dhutanga austerities. The dhutanga austerities are meant to deepen the practice of meditation and assist in living the Holy Life. Their aim is to help the practitioner to develop detachment with material things including the body.

UKT: In Myanmarpr, the late Webu Sayadaw (17 Feb 1896 26 Jun 1977) is a modern Forest Monk.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webu_Sayadaw 171211


From: Dhutanga connected with robes, Dhamma Centre
- http://www.dhammacenter.org/content/view/154 140223

Pamsukulikanga is the Dhutanga practice of using only rag-robes, generally called Pamsukulikanga-dhutanga. A monk who undertakes Pamsukulikanga is called Pamsukulika or a Pamsukulika-bhikkhu. This means he only uses a rag-robe.

The word Pamsukula means a rag or ugly cloth stained with dust. A rag abandoned on the road, in the cemetery or on a trash pile is without owner and nobody wants it. This is the piece of cloth a monk will sew together, clean and dye with natural colors from bark or leaves, then he claims it as his robe. This is called Pamsukula or forest cloth. This is the meaning most people understand. In fact, the true meaning was cloth from the shroud of a dead body or cloth left in the cemetery.

UKT 140223, 171211: The shroud from a dead and decaying body, as well as rags and dirty clothes from a rubbish heap are disinfected with Tannic acid, a constituent of tea, is an example. However, the monks at the time of Gautama Buddha, including the Buddha himself, would recover a stained shroud (infested with maggots) from a badly decomposed corpse, washed it in a running stream, and disinfect it by boiling with barks from certain trees. The disinfected cloth was then used as a robe. Similar robes would also be made from discarded rags from the garbage dump. Such a robe is the freest from Greed, Anger, and Ignorance (which I split up into Sexual misconduct, and Pride) and is the most "clean".

UKT: More in the article.

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Kashyapa Rishi : कश्यप kaśyapa

-- UKT 140223, 170212, 200203

UKT 200203: The English word "irreligious person" to the Hindus is someone who is not a Hindu, and he is condemned to the Hindu-hell. To us the Buddhists, the "irreligious person" is someone who does not believe in Gautama Buddha. As such, Buddhists would be going to the Hindu-hells, and the Hindus would be going to the Buddhist hells. What a happy situation, we the humans, have condemned ourselves in!

The terminologies of Devas and the Asuras have to be taken in the above vein. Both are heavenly hosts struggling with each other. In India, and also in Myanmarpr, a Deva belongs to the good kind, whereas the Asuras are bad. But in Iran, Devas are cheats, whereas Asuras are honest! Of course a particular Deva may be evil, whereas a particular Asura may be the best of all heavenly host. Now, take your choice, and don't be fooled by epithets.

It is my belief that many folk-tales and religious stories are based on historical events told by professional story-tellers who were quite common in our parts of the world. As such each story is changed slightly to suit the times and the common beliefs of the listeners. Of course there might be pure fabrications just to bring forth a current event to tell the rulers how to behave, or to introduce a new idea or a new religion.

Most of the Myanmar Theravada-Buddhists would be horrified at the idea of a Rishi having a wife or wives and children. The Rishi of this note Rishi Kashyapa {ka~a.pa. ra.e.} had 4 wives: Banita, Kadru, Diti and Aditi, and have many children.

Some [children of Diti - the Sky goddess] remain religious [Hinduism: Shaivism and Vaishnavism] (Deities {d-wa.}). Some others [children of Aditi - the Earth goddess] became irreligious [non-Hindus] (Demons {a.u-ra}). [11] . I haven't found out about the children of Banita & Kadru. It should be noted that this particular Rishi Kashyapa {ka~a.pa. ra.e.}, because he has goddesses as wives, is a mythical entity. He was different from the {ka~a.pa. ra.e.} mentioned in UHS-PMD0304c1. This second rishi because of his connection to Kashmir (geographical) was evidently human. Note Kashmir, is an area completely surrounded by the hills of the Himalayas.

UKT 200210: Now with the possibility that there are two Kashyapa {ka~a.pa.} - one who has 4 wives, two of whom are goddess, and who have children as goddesses, and second who is connected to Kashmir who is evidently human - we should differentiate the two. If the first could mate with goddesses, he must be a god himself. But since "dva" might be confusing, we should call hime a "sura". We should also note that there is a Buddha (human) Kashyapa.

- Google search on: Deva and Sura - 200210
"Sura-Asura and Deva-Danava are terms that have the same meaning. Suras are the sons of Aditi and Asuras are sons of Diti. Diti and Aditi are sisters and also wives of the Sage Kashyap." [UKT: "Kashyap" might have been a human sage, who was deified and given goddesses as wives.]
Also read:

- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deva_(Hinduism) 200210
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassapa_Buddha 200210
"According to Theravāda Buddhist tradition, Kassapa is the twenty-seventh of the Twenty-nine named Buddhas {nhic-kyeap hsic-hsu} , the sixth of the Seven Buddhas of Antiquity, and the third of the five Buddhas of the present kalpa {Bd~da. km~ba}. [2]
(UKT 200210: The common Burmese custom is to hold a procession of 28 Buddhas {nhic-kyeap hsic-hsu} and the puja of 28 every year. We do not worship the yet-to-come. However the Chinese-Buddhists would include the 29th - whose sermons are still to be preached.)

As a scientist I do not place much importance to the stories about {d-wa.} & {a.u-ra}. I pay attention to how the humans (you & I) interpret these "stories". A group of people very much like the Bur-Myan speakers are the still extent relatives of Gautama Buddha living in Kathmandu valley of Nepal. We are of the same Tib-Bur stock, and what they think of the wives of the rishis are interesting. For this see Digital Himalaya: Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, 1976, in which the anthropologist Lynn Bennett wrote about the Wives of the Rishis. See the downloaded pdf paper in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- LBennet-03WivesRishi<> / bkp<> (link chk 200211)
Pdf from: http://www.digitalhimalaya.com/collections/journals/kailash/nonjavascript.php 170212
p186-Kailash : "3. The original rishis are traditionally seven. According to one village priest they are: Atre, Kaysap, Biswamitra, Bharadwaj, Gautam, Basista, and Jamadagni. However, their numbers increase in certain contexts. ... "


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyap 140223

Kashyapa कश्यप kaśyapa was an ancient sage (rishis) {ra..}, who is one of the Saptarshis in the present Manvantara: others being Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja. [1] According to the Vedic Knowledge, he is the son of Marichi, one of the ten sons (Manasa-putras) of the Creator Brahma.

The Rishi {ra..} are seers who know and by their knowledge are the makers of shastra and "see" all mantras. The word comes from the root rish Rishati-prapnoti sarvvang mantrang jnanena pashyati sangsaraparangva, etc. The seven great Rishi or saptarshi of the first manvantara are Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha. In other manvantara there are other sapta-rshi. [UKT ]

In the present manvantara the seven are: Kashyap, Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvaj. [UKT ]

To the Rishi the Vedas were revealed. Vyasa taught the Rigveda so revealed to Paila, the Yajurveda to Vaishampayana, the Samaveda to Jaimini, Atharvaveda to Samantu, and Itihasa and Purana to Suta. The three chief classes of Rishi are the Brah-marshi, born of the mind of Brahma, the Devarshi of lower rank, and Rajarshi or Kings who became Rishis through their knowledge and austerities, such as Janaka, Ritaparna, etc. Thc Shrutarshi are makers of Shastras, as Sushruta. The Kandarshi are of the Karmakanda, such as Jaimini.

He was also the author of the treatise Kashyap Samhita, or Jivakiya Tantra, which is considered a classical reference book on Ayurveda especially in the fields of Ayurvedic pediatrics, gynecology and obstetrics. [2]

It can be safely assumed that there were many Kashyaps and the name indicates a status and not just one individual.

Kashyap in Sikhism

In Brahm Avtar composition present in Dasam Granth, Second Scripture of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh mentioned Rishi Kashyap, as second avtar of Brahma. [9] According to him, Rishi Kashyap had great knowledge of Vedas and interpreted it very thoughtfully to whole world which bring them internal relief. [10] He married with four wives, Banita, Kadru, Diti and Aditi and have many children out of them some remain religious (Deities) and other became irreligious (Demons). [11]

UKT 140223: It is usual to mention the goddesses Diti and Aditi - one is always the opponent of the other. Diti represents the Earth and Aditi the Sky.

Kashyap and Kashmir

The Valley of Kashmir got its name from Kashyap Rishi. [12] According to the Vedic Knowledge, the Kashmir valley was a vast lake called Satisaras, named after Sati  or Parvati the consort of Shiva. The lake was inhabited by the demon Jalodbhav. The Nilamat Puran of the 7th century mentions the region being inhabited by two tribes the Nagas and the Pisachas. The lake was drained off by leader of the Nagas called Ananta (Anantnag region of Kashmir is named after him) to capture and kill the demon. Ananta later names the valley as Kashyap-mira after his father Kashyap. Kalhana in Rajatarangini (The River of Kings) also mentions Prajapati Kashyap killing Jalodbhava with the help of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The lake was then drained and comes to be known as Kash-mira after the Rishi Kashyap. [13]

UKT: I have left out one section from the Wikipedia article.

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Pronunciation change from Pali to Sanskrit: {wa.} > {va.} > {ba.}

UKT: 120222, ... , 181219, 200211: 

In Abugida-Akshara - a one-to-one sound to script - system (e.g. Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev), the script must match the pronunciation. However it is not so in Alphabet-Letter system (e.g. English-Latin). It is one reason why there are less graphemes in English (IE) compared to Burmese (Tib-Bur). Sanskrit being an IE suffers this drawback to some extent. For example, Skt-Dev lacks {ba.} - the bilabial, which they pronounce as {va.} - labio-dental, and so they it from {wa.}:

{wa.} + diagonal --> {ba.}

Because of this association, whenever we come across {wa.} followed by {ya.}, we need to look into the possibility that it might be {bya.}. A clue from Bur-Myan is {ka.bya} 'poetry' which can be recited or sung to music. Since the Poannar way-to-sacrifice is singing praises to their gods and goddesses, a Poannar-sacrificer is a singer of hymns set to music. It is similar to singing of hymns in Christian churches which I know so well as a child. I used to attend church every Sunday with Aunty Eva, my mother's best friend who was living with us.

A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word hymn derives from Greek ὕμνος (hymnos), which means "a song of praise". - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hymn 171210
Watch or just listen to Lenten hymn in ~~HD-VIDEO : Forty days and forty nights 
- FortyDaysNights<> / FortyDaysNights<)) (links chk 200210)
UKT 171211: There are slightly different versions: yet they all have the same number of verses.

1. "Forty days and forty nights / Thou wast fasting in the wild;
Forty days and forty nights / Tempted, and yet undefiled.

2. "Sunbeams scorching all the day; / Chilly dew-drops nightly shed;
Prowling beasts about Thy way; / Stones Thy pillow; earth Thy bed.

3. "Should not we Thy sorrow share / And from worldly joys abstain,
Fasting with unceasing prayer, / Strong with Thee to suffer pain?

4. "And if Satan vexing sore, / Flesh or spirit should assail,
Thou, his Vanquisher before, / Grant we may not faint or fail.

5. "So shall we have peace divine: / Holier gladness ours shall be;
Round us, too, shall angels shine, / Such as ministered to Thee.

"Keep, O keep us, Savior dear, / Ever constant by Thy side;
That with Thee we may appear / At the eternal Eastertide."

It is not so in Burmese Theravada way of reciting Paritta. Compare Theravada Mingun Sayadaw's Mora Paritta and its equivalent the Hindu Gayatri mantra (sacred to both Vaishnavites and Shaivites) :
- bk-cndl-Mingun<)) and bk-cndl-gayatri<))
Or, listen to recitation of Bhagava Gita (in Skt-Dev - sacred only to Vaishnavites {bai~a.no: ko:kw-u}) :
- bk-cndl-Gita18-2<))

श्रीभगवानुवाच śrī-bhagavān uvāca 'the Supreme Personality of Godhead said'
काम्यानां kāmyānāṁ 'with desire' /
  कर्मणां karmaṇāṁ 'of activities'
न्यासं nyāsaṁ 'renunciation' /
  सन्न्यासं sannyāsaṁ 'the renounced order of life'
कवयो kavayaḥ 'the learned' /
  विदु: viduḥ 'know'
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं sarva 'of all'
------------------ karma 'activities'
------------------ phala 'of results'
------------------ tyāgam 'renunciation'
प्राहुस्त्यागं prāhuḥ 'call'
------------ tyāgam 'renunciation' /
  विचक्षणा: vicakṣaṇāḥ 'the experienced'.

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