Update: 2020-05-25 02:06 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

   p063c2 : contd
{kaR~} : Repha- super R following short-vowel
  {kaR~ka.} कर्क = क र ् क 
  {kaR~sa.} कर्च = क र ् च palatal
  {kaR~Na.} - retroflex
    {kaaR~Na.} कर्णा
  {kar~ta.}  कर्त - dental

Repha forms continued in following page.

UKT 151230, 200201: List of words of entries with Repha.
p063.htm , p082.htm ,
UKT 160303: Two rhotic sounds not present in Bur-Myan,
1. Repha on short a , कर्क karka 'white, good'
  What about "Lepha" ? : Lepha on short a , e.g. कल्क kalka 'wicked, sinful'
  - p063.htm  p082.htm  p092.htm 
2. Rhotic vowel-pair:  formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)
  - p072.htm  p085.htm   p095.htm

BHS entries: none on 190218

UKT notes :
Medial sounds
  alt caption Checking vowels with killed-approximants
  The problem of Wathut {wa.t} from: {wa.}/ {w} or {O} //? -
  Refer to spelling of {pa.oO} 'a Myanmar ethnic group'.
Polyandry and paternity in Ancient India
Repha and Lepha - UKT151029: "Lepha" is my coined word.
Sacred Lotus 


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p063c2 contd

( end of old p063-2.htm )

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{kaR~} : Repha forms - super R

UKT 200131: I'm postulating the existence of two forms of Curly-R {ra.kauk}. The first is {ra.} /ɹ/ with no rhoticity - or almost none - which is phonetically mistaken for {ya.} /j/. It is found in Bur-Myan of Irrawaddy dialect. It has 3 registers:  {ra.} (1 eye-blink), (2 blnk) , and {2 blink with emphasis). The second Curly-R /r/ has some rhoticity with 2 registers: {Ra.} (1 blnk) and {Ra} (2 blnk). It is used in Pali-Myan. The Rakhine dialect is similar to {Ra.}, but has the emphatic kind.

Now comes Skt-Myan : a direct aks-to-aks transformation of Skt-Dev. When a consonant such as {ka.} is checked by Killed-Ra {R}, two forms of representation arises: a form with a visible viram, and the next one without a visible form where R is in a raised position which prompts me to call it Super R.

Visible viram: {kaR}
Super form: {kaR~} - the Repha form similar in form to {kn-si:}

Since, the distinction between {ra.} and {Ra.} is very artificial, in the following entries, the distinction will not be made. Just remember that the entries are in Skt-Dev, and the comparision is to be made with Pal-Myan.


{kaR~ka.} कर्क

Repha {kr~} (no viram shown).

UKT 120124, 170205, 181216, 200131

Note different form: {kr} (with visible viram). When r occurs at the end of a word, the {kar} form is satisfactory. But when it occurs in the middle of a word, it has to be put in a repha-form similar to the Kin'si-form {kar~}, e.g. {ar~ka.} . See below :

कङ्क kanka : {kn~ka.}
Skt: कङ्क kanka - m. heron; N.: pl. a people. - Mac061
BPal: {kn~ka.} - UHS-PMD0276

The repha-form will be depicted in Romabama as {kar~} .

UKT 151028: Ref. Romabama Rule #07 in Romabama: introduction
- RBM-intro-indx.htm (link chk 170204)
"Sanskrit repha becomes a same-letter conjunct in Pali, e.g. धर्म dharma (= ध र ् म ) becoming धम्म dhamma (= ध म ् म). This change will be represented as {Dar~ma.} --> {Dm~ma.} . However, {r~} in the middle of a polysyllable is not conveniently shown, because of which Romabama has to use the {kn~si:}-form: {Dar~ma.}".

Skt: कर्क karka --> {kar~ka.} = Pal: {kak~ka.}


p063c2-b25/uchg p051- कर्क
कर्क [ karka ] = क र ् क
Skt: कर्क [ karka ] - a. () white; m. white horse;
 , f. -- Mac063c2

कर्क [ karka ]
Skt: कर्क [ karka ] - a. () white; m. white horse;  - Mac063c2
Skt: कर्क karka - adj. white, good, excellent. f. white mare. m. beauty, white horse, ... - SpkSkt
BPal: {kak~ka.} - UHS PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: . m. face powder. . m. a special yellow gem

UKT151029: If you refer to the BEPS vowel diagram shown in my note below on Repha and Lepha , you can expect a word with just the opposite meaning, कल्क kalka. See p064.htm
कल्क [ kalka ]
Skt: कल्क [ kalka ] - m. paste; foulness, baseness, guile, sin. - Mac064c3
Skt: कल्क kalka - adj. wicked, sinful. m. ordure, hypocrisy, ... - SpkSkt 


p063c2-b26/uchg p051-कर्कट 
कर्कट [ kar-kat-a ]
- m., , f. crab; curved end of the beam of a balance;
 , f. drinking bowl:
 -ka, m., , f. crab; Cancer (in the Zodiac);
 -sriṅga, n. crab's claw;
 i-k, f. a plant;
 a‿sa, m. N. of a temple.


p063c2-b27/uchg p051-कर्कन्धु
कर्कन्धु [ karkndhu ]
Skt: कर्कन्धु karkndhu] - m. f. jujube tree; n. its fruit. -- Mac063c2
BPal: {kak~kn~Du.}
- - UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: mf. {zi:pn} Zezyphus jujuba

UKT 140217: {zi:pn} /zi pɪŋ/ is the colloquial name for the official {hsi:pn} /sʰi pɪŋ/.


p063c2-b28/uchg p051-कर्कर
कर्कर [ kar-kar-a ]
- a. hard; m. leather strap (?);
  - or -^;, f. kind of lute;
  -, f. water-jar.


p063c2-b29/uchg p051-कर्करेटु
कर्करेटु [ karkaretu ]
- m. Numidian crane.

UKT 170205: - a small crane (Anthropoides virgo) of Africa, Asia, and Europe
- http://www.memidex.com/numidian-crane 170205
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demoiselle_crane 170205
"It is the smallest species of crane."


p063c2-b30/uchg p051-कर्कश
कर्कश [ karkasa ]
- a. rough, hard (also fig.):
  -tva, n. hardness; harshness.


p063c2-b31/uchg p051-कर्कि 
कर्कि karki, ˚न्् [ -n ]
- m. Cancer (in the Zodiac).


p063c2-b32/uchg p051- कर्कोट
कर्कोट [ karkota ] = क र ् क ो ट
- m. pl. N. of a people;
  -k, m. N. of a snake; a plant; pl. N. of a people.


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{kar~sa.} कर्च [ karkra ] = क र ् च palatal 

p063c3-b00/uchg p051-कर्चूर 
कर्चूर [ karkra ] = क र ् च ू र
- n. orpiment. 

UKT 170205, 181216: Orpiment, a poisonous yellow mineral pigment As2S3 (Asenious sulphide). It takes its name from the Latin auripigmentum (aurum − gold + pigmentum − pigment) because of its deep-yellow color.
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orpiment 181216
See also Realgar, α-As4S4, is an arsenic sulfide mineral, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realgar 181216

As a side note I should remark: notice the change of <aur> in Latin to <or> in English. It is a back vowel change of being very open /ɑ/ in Latin becoming more close /ɔ/ in English .

I'm still unsatisfied with the following rendition:

Bur-Myan: {au.}, {au}, {au:}
Pal-Myan:  {AU.} , {AU} ,  {AU:}

This in Romabama approximates to :
{au} /ɑ/ --> {AU} middle of /ɔ/ & /o/

It shows that I must eventually learn Roman-Latin, constantly comparing my Bur-Myan transcription with that of Mon-Myan.


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{kaR~Na.} कर्ण

p063c3-b01/uchg p051- कर्ण 
कर्ण [ krna ] = क र ् ण
- m. (-- a., f. , ) ear; handle; rudder; N. of several men, esp. of a son of Kunt; a. having ears or handles; long-eared (also );
  -kuvalaya, n. lotus attached to the ear;
  -kmara, n. whisk adorning the ears of elephants;
  -gpa, m. tale-bearing;
  -t, f. condition of an ear; -tla, m. flapping of elephants' ears (--);
  -dhra, m. helmsman; sailor: -t, f. helmsmanship;
  - nlotpala, n. blue lotus attached to the ear;
  -pa, m. N.; -pattraka, m. flap of the ear (tragus);
  -patha, m. ear-shot, hearing: -m, -y, or upa‿i, come to the ears: -‿atithi, m. = come to the ears;
  -parampar, f. passing from ear to ear, gossip; -psa, m. beautiful ear;
  -pra, m. n. ear ornament, esp. flowers:
  -praka, m. N. of a chattering servant;
  -pr-kri, turn into an ear ornament;
  -bhaṅga, m. curve of the ears; - bhshana, n. ear ornament;
  -mla, n. root of the ear (where it is attached to the head);
  -vamsa, m. flat projecting bamboo roof; -vat, a. having ears;
  -vish, f. ear-wax; -visha, n. poison for the ears; -veshta, m. ear-ring: *-na, n. id.;
  -sirsha, n. Sirsha flower attached to the ear;
  -srava, a. audible; -subhaga, a. pleasant to the ear.

कर्ण [ krna ]
= क र ् ण   --(aks-to-aks)--> Skt-Myan {kaR~Na.}
Skt: - m. (-- a., f. , ) ear; handle; rudder [UKT: helm to steer a ship, or guide a person, a society, a movement, etc.]; -- Mac063-c3
BPal: {kN~Na.}
- UHS-PMD028
  UKT from UHS: m. ear, ear-lobe, edge, corner

कर्ण [ krna ]
= क र ् ण  --(aks-to-aks)--> {kaR~Na.}
Skt: N. of several men, esp. of a son of Kunt; -- Mac063c3

UKT 190301: Karna कर्ण karṇa in Mahabharata War, was perhaps the greatest hero.
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karna 190301
See my notes on Polyandry and paternity in Ancient India

कर्णपथ karṇapatha
Skt: [ -patha ], m. ear-shot, hearing: - Mac063c3
Skt: कर्णपथ karṇapatha - m. compass or range of hearing - SpkSkt

UKT 200201: कर्णपथ karṇapatha looks like the compound word of karṇa and patha. However, if you take karṇa "ear" and patha "way, road" (as given by SpkSkt), you'll get literally "ear-way". It reminds me of the danger of literal translation of a compound word.

कार्णच्छिद्रिक kārṇacchidrika
Skt: कार्णच्छिद्रिक kārṇacchidrika - adj. shaped like the opening of the ear - SpkSkt

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{kaaR~Na.} कर्णा

p063c3-b02/uchg p051-कर्णाञ्जलि 
कर्णाञ्जलि [ karna‿agali ]
- m. pointed ears.


p063c3-b03/uchg p051-कर्णाट 
कर्णाट [ karnta ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; , f. queen of Karnta.


p063c3-b04/uchg p051-कर्णान्तिकचर 
कर्णान्तिकचर [ karna‿antika-kara ]
- a. flying about the ears;
  -‿bharana, n. ear ornament; -‿amrita, n. nectar for the ears;
  *-‿alamkarana, n., -kra, m., -kriti, f. ear ornament;
  -‿avatamsa, id.: -kri, turn into an ear ornament.


p063c3-b05/uchg p051- कर्णिका 
कर्णिका [ karn-ik ]
- f. ear ornament; pericarp of the lotus.

pericarp - n. . Botany The wall of a ripened ovary; fruit wall. -- AHTD
See my note on Sacred Lotus


p063c3-b06/ not online
- m. a tree; n. its fruit

कर्णिकार karṇikāra
Skt: [karni-kra] - m. a tree; n. its fruit - Mac063c3
Skt: कर्णिकार karṇikāra - adj. dinner plate or karnikara tree [Pterospermum Acerifolium - Bot.] - SpkSkt
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterospermum_acerifolium 200201
  "Pterospermum acerifolium, the bayur tree or karnikara tree, is a flowering plant indigenous to Southeast Asia, from India to Burma. It is most likely to grow naturally along forested stream banks. ... Mature leaves are very large, reaching a length and width of up to thirty five centimeters. They can be used as actual dinner plates or as packaging and storage by wrapping materials inside. "


p063c3-b07/uchg p051-कर्णिन्् 
कर्णिन्् [ karn-n ]
- a. having ears; barbed; m. helmsman.


p063c3-b08/uchg p051- कर्णीरथ 

कर्णीरथ [ karn-ratha ]
- m. kind of litter;
  -suta, m. ep. of the author of a manual on stealing.

litter - n. 4. An enclosed or curtained couch mounted on shafts and used to carry a single passenger.


p063c3-b09/uchg p051-कर्णोत्पल 
कर्णोत्पल [ karna‿utpala ]
- n. lotus attached to the ear (-t, f. abst. ɴ.); m. N. of a king;
 -‿upakarnik, f. gossip.

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{kaR~ta.} कर्त

p063c3-b10/uchg p051-कर्त  
कर्त [ . karta ]
- m. separation, distinction.


p063c3-b11/uchg p051-कर्त 
कर्त [ . kart ]
- m. hole, pit ( = garta).


p063c3-b12/uchg p051-कर्तन 
कर्तन [ kart-ana ]
- n. cutting off;
  -ari, -k, f. cutting instrument, scissors;
  -ar, f. id.


p063c3-b13/uchg p051-कर्तवे  
कर्तवे [ kr-tave ]
- V. d. inf. of √kri:
 -tvya (or ), fp. to be done, &c. (v. √kri); n. affair, business; what should be done, duty:
 -t, f. duty.


p063c3-b14/uchg p051-कर्तुमनस््   
कर्तुमनस्् [ kartu-manas ]
- a. intending to do.


p063c3-b15/ not online
[kar-tr ]
- m. doer, maker; worker; performer; founder; creator; author (of, g., -);
  agent, (logical) subject (may be in nm. in. ic. ps.; or g. w. vbl. ɴ.); used as ft. of √kri ;
  -ka , - = kartri , agent;
, f. being an agent of an action (gr.), -tva , n. agency;
  -bhta , pp. being the agent (gr.) ;
  -rpa , a. having the form of an agent

कर्तृ kartṛ - adj. one who acts in a religious ceremony, maker, priest, agent, doing any particular action or business, applying one's self to any occupation, one who makes or does or acts or effects.
  m. subject of a sentence, doer, one who is about to do, creator of the world, author, one who will do, agent of an action. - SpkSkt


p063c3-b16/uchg p051-कर्तोस्् 
कर्तोस्् [ kar-tos ]
- V. (g.) inf. of √kri, do.


p063c3-b17/uchg p051-कर्त्तव्य
कर्त्तव्य [ kart-tavya ]
- fp. to be destroyed.


p063c3-b18/ not online
[kart-tri ]
- m. . destroyer; . spinner


p063c3-b19/uchg p051-कर्त्तृका 
कर्त्तृका [ kart-tri-k ]
- f. hunter's knife.


p063c3-b20/uchg p051-कर्त्य
कर्त्य [ kart-ya ]
- fp. to be cut off.


p063c3-b21/uchg p051-कर्त्व 
कर्त्व [ kr-tva ]
- a. to be done or performed; n. task.

( end of old p063-3.htm )
( end of new p063.htm )

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UKT notes

Medial sounds

alt caption: Checking vowels with killed-approximants
- Coda approximants

Refer to spelling of {pa.oO} 'a Myanmar ethnic group' , from which I might have to transcribe as {O}
Then I will have to spell the 'Taoist religion' as  {tauO}: at present it is being spelled as {tauk}.
Also, see {gaO} /

-- UKT 120725 , ... , 190301, 190415

Medials in BEPS consonants are those that give coloration to the syllables. The syllables in Alphabet-Letter system are of CVC form, where there is no differentiation between the onset and coda consonants. However, in the Abugida-Akshara system the syllables are of the form CV where the coda = 0, 1, 2. Remember, the intermediate language, Romabama, follows the Abugida-Akshara system.

How to differentiate the two English words or syllables, <saw> and <sao>, and the confusion with Wathut {wa.t}, is not easy to solve. In Bur-Myan, the English w is represented by {wa.}/ {w}. So <saw> must be transliterated as {sw} from the word {s}. The alternative is not to use {wa.}/ {w} at all, but to use u , and <saw> will come out as {sau}.

Not so fast - I must add. The Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {sa.}/ {c} and {hsa.}/ {hs} for two reasons. First English cannot differentiate the tenuis voiceless from the ordinary voiceless, and secondly it cannot pronounce the Palatal stops. Bur-Myan Palatal stops become their Palatal affricates. Now, don't blame the Eng-Lat alone. Bur-Myan is also to be blamed. We do not have Dental fricatives such as the hisser {Sa.}/ {S} which the Eng-Lat has. Thus, I've no choice, but to come up innovations, such as , which I hate, and which I keep to a bare minimum.

Now, let's return to difference in the two systems: Alphabet-Letter system in which the syllables are of CVC form, and Abugida-Akshara system the syllables are of the form CV .

We first run into syllables with no coda, i.e. CV (coda = 0). There cannot be a consonant after CV, as in Tao (the religion).
I propose to use {tauO} which is now spelled in Myanmarpr as {tauk}.

Next comes syllables with a single coda - a killed approximant (coda = 1): {}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {}, & {h} .

Third, loan-words with two codas ( = 2) : which are mostly from English.

First, we have to note that in Bur-Myan phonology with the exception of {a.}, the others {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}, & {ha.} are medial formers. Medial sounds are monosyllabic, and are unique to Bur-Myan.

The most troublesome medial sound for non-indigenous Bur-Myan speakers and foreigners including the Hindi speakers is the {ya.pn.} sound represented by the glyph . These speakers when they tried to articulate this sound could produce the disyllabic conjunct only, which is known as {ya.hsw:} written as .

Hanging-Ya { ~ya.} is one of the Hanging-consonants {by:hsw:} in Mon-Myan. For these representations see
Basic Mon-Myanmar Language (in Burmese) by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries - NaingMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200224)
Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 170507)

From the point of view of the syllable structure, CV, the approximant-coda is: {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {}, & {h}. Now that, I've confirmed that Nya-major {a.}/ {} is also an approximant, I'll have to extend the above list to include {}.

Now, look again into my IPA table of consonants (last revised on 160218). The Thibilant /θ/, and the Glottal /h/ (or Pharyngeal /ħ/) are grouped with Fricatives - Not with Approximants. It was I who have put the Bur-Myan {ha.}/ {h} with the Approximants. It calls for a revision of my table: moving {ha.}/ {h} to Fricatives. However, I'll have to wait for more evidence before revising my IPA table of 160218.

In Bur-Myan, the coda do influence the nuclear vowel V, resulting in a change from a to some other vowel effecting the pronunciation. In simple transliteration this problem does not arise and the rime is simply written as ay, ar, al, aw, a & ah. Remember the simple transliteration do not give the pronunciation.

Since Romabama is a transcription, a has to be changed (with some compromise for inclusion of English and Sanskrit) to reflect the Bur-Myan pronunciation. In some instances a would have to be changed to as in {} .

UKT 190228: we have been writing {} (2 eye-blnk} in {.} 'visitor' for a long time. Now, we will have:

Close: {.} (1 blnk}, {} (2 blnk}
Open:  {.} (1 blnk}, {} (2 blnk}

With inclusion of Eng-Lat and Skt-Dev, the problem of rhoticity comes in. Remember, Bur-Myan is non-rhotic, and Pal-Myan is slightly rhotic. We have to deal with Skt-Dev words involving the repha. With plosive-stops of {wag}-consonants, the problem is solved when we note that a word such as karma or कर्मन् kar-man is changed to {km~ma.}, where the repha is changed to the onset of the second syllable. See p063.htm & p064.htm.

However, here with {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, we are meeting the {awag}-consonant. In Skt --> Pali, we are meeting:

Skt: {gar~wa.} --> {gar~ba.} --> Pal: {gb~ba.}

Here I was expecting a vertical conjuncts of two {wa.}, as {gw~wa.} implying a {wa.t}. Instead of which, I'm finding a change from {wa.} व  to {ba.} ब . Obviously, ancient Sanskrit-grammarians must have faced the same problem, and they had to improvise a new akshara:

व + diagonal line --> ब

Skt-Dev speakers seems to get confused between {wa.} and {ba.}, because there was no phoneme for {ba.} in their original speech. Moreover, they tend to use labial-dental {va.} instead of bilabial {ba.} and {wa.} which makes the problem worse.
See Grapheme-shape hypothesis .

This immediately poses the problem of Romabama vowel. Are we were to say, is {gaw~wa.} or {gw~wa.}? The first is unacceptable because of the confusion from English diphthong such as <cow>. So we will tentatively say {go}, or alternatively as {gw}. Checking with DJPD16-010 shows that <aeo> is realized in

/iˈɒ ((US)) iˈɑː/ ---- <archaeology> /ˌɑː.kiˈɒl.ə.ʤi/ (US) /ˌɑːr.kiˈɑː.lə-/
/iəʊ ((US)) ioʊ, iə/ <palaeotype> /'pl.əʊ.taɪp/ (US) /'peɪ.li.oʊ-, -ɚ-/

This amounts to saying, {go} for {ga.wa.t}. Still it is unsatisfactory. Going back to a simple {gao} maybe preferable, or better still {gaO}. We now have {ga.} with killed-approximants tentatively with its tenuis-voiceless counterpart {ka.} as:

The Chinese religion Tao (present in Myanmarpr}
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taoism 120725
is presently spelled {tauk}, which is evidently wrong because of absence of  | {ka.} sound in the coda. Romabama is now spelling it since 120725, as {tauO} .

UKT 120725: I do hope that my Taoist friend Daw Win (deceased) and her husband U Sai Latt would be satisfied.

From the above, we arrived at Skt {gar~wa.} --> Pal {gb~ba.}

Go back check-vow-approx-note-b

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Polyandry and paternity in Ancient India

-- UKT 120124, 140216 : It is still an incomplete article 

After going through Mahabharata, I have concluded that identifying a person with the father's name is not reliable: the natural (or genetic father) can be anyone other than the 'official' father. Thus, Queen Kunti's six sons, Karna, and the five Pandavas have different gods as fathers, who because of Kunti's mantra, had to 'impregnate' her. King Pandu the official father of the five Pandavas was not the natural father of any of his 'sons'. This reminds one of the Christian Virgin Mary and her immaculate conception.

From: Bheel Mahabharata: Kunti and the Birth of the Sun God's Child, by Satya Chaitanya, 
- http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=1190 140216
"The tribal Bheels have a Mahabharata version of their own, episodes of which are narrated or sung during their festivals, usually accompanied by music and sometimes with dance a captivating version that never fails to thrill, one of the secrets of its allure being its truly enchanting folktale-like quality. This article tries to understand an episode from it, on its own and in relation to Vyasas epic. "

UKT 140216 : The Bheels were a militarily defeated people of Ancient India, and they are counted as Sudras 'the servants". They were the original Tib-Bur speakers of Ancient India.

Kunti's first son was Karna कर्ण karna {kar~Na.} 'ear'. His father - the one who impregnate his mother - was the Sun-god.

Skt: कर्ण karna = क र ् ण   --> {kar~Na.}
BPal: {kN~Na.} - UHS-PMD028

  UKT from UHS: m. ear, ear-lobe, border, angle

From this and other examples we can reliably say:

"Sanskrit repha is changed into a conjunct of two syllables in Pali.
"The onset of the second syllable has the same form as the consonant under the repha.
"The coda of the first syllable, which was  the repha, is the same as the onset of the second syllable."

This rule holds true for the {wag}-consonants. But for the {a.wag}-consonants, the rule breaks down. -- UKT120724

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Repha and "Lepha" :
  Repha-forms: Short-vowel Repha & Long-vowel Repha

UKT 151029, 171210, 190307:

UKT 151029: In transliterating words like कल्क [ kalka ] which we will meet on page p064.htm, I have to keep in mind the presence of highly rhotic close-vowel, ऋ {iRi.}. This vowel is not present in Bur-Myan, and probably also in Pal-Myan.

UKT 190307: Now that we've recognized the presence of highly rhotic close-vowel, we must assume the presence of rhotic-open vowel with slightly less rhoticity. We find it in Repha-forms written with super-R. There are two kinds: Short-vowel Repha, and Long-vowel Repha. Examples are met in:
- p085.htm

Its opposite number on the lateral-rhotic scale* is the highly lateral vowel, ऌ {iLi.}. It is almost absent in Skt-Dev. If there had been an original language  from which Asokan and Myanmar akshara are derived, to have a balance in vowels, there would have been words with ऌ {iLi.}.

Lateral-Rhotic scale* : Rāhula {ra-hu.la.} is the form of the name we are accustomed to. I had never imagine that Lāghula {la-Gu.la.} is another form. Now I can cite this as evidence for pronunciations of Lateral (L-like) plane changing into those of Rhotic (R-like) plane.

Here we are not talking about ऋ {iRi.}, but the lesser rhotic Repha. Since it is a fact that there are a few words with ऌ {iLi.} in Skt-Dev, then there must be lesser lateral Lepha. Remember Lepha is my coined word which I will use in my transliteration work. Because of opposing pronunciation, we can expect opposing meanings, e.g. Repha on short a , कर्क karka 'white, good' , opposite of Lepha on short a ,  कल्क kalka 'wicked, sinful'.

I suspect Repha has come into our languages because of the IE speakers who are used to rhotic accents. Then the question which follows is the influence of speakers like the Chinese, who are used to lateral accents.

In Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary by Franklin Edgerton (1885-1963), Yale Univ., Sec.1.22, we find "Lāghula  = Rāhula  (fn003-09); l  for r  does indeed agree with Māgadhī, ...". He was referring to Ambalatthika-rahulovada Sutta (Instructions to Rahula at Mango Stone).
- BHS-indx.htm > i02original.htm (link chk151029).

Also, it is a common joke in North America on the Chinese who are recent immigrants from China. In their eateries, "fried rice" becomes "flied lice". If the Indians from India has given us the Repha, then the Chinese from China should have give us "Lepha". I need to consider it how to transliterate words like कल्क [ kalka ] which we will meet page p064.

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The Sacred Lotus

UKT 170205:

There are two well-known types of aquatic flowers known as {kra pn:}. One opens in day-time and the other at night. They can comes in colours of red, blue, and white.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nymphaeaceae 170205

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelumbo_nucifera 170205

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. the national flower of India and Vietnam, is considered to be a sacred flower. The lotus plant is cited extensively within Vdic and Puranic literature, e.g.:

One who performs his duty without attachment, surrendering the results unto the Supreme Lord, is unaffected by sinful action, as the lotus is untouched by water. -  Bhagavad Gita 5.10:

In Chinese culture, Confucian scholar Zhou Dunyi wrote:

I love the lotus because while growing from mud, it is unstained.

Chinese: 予独爱莲之出淤泥而不染。 [12]

Many deities of Asian religions are depicted as seated on a lotus flower. In Buddhist symbolism, the lotus represents purity of the body, speech, and mind as if floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_Sutra 170205

The Lotus Sūtra  saddharma puṇḍarīka sūtra, literally Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma [1]) is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established. For many East Asian Buddhists, the Lotus Sūtra contains the ultimate and complete teaching of the Buddha and the recitation of the text is understood to bring auspicious fortune and eradicate ones accumulated negative karma. [2]

UKT: The lotus flower is associated with the seats of energy in the human body.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakra 170205

The word Chakra (चक्र) derives from the Sanskrit word meaning "wheel," as well as "circle" and "cycle". [2] It's described by many as a spinning wheel of light . Of the 88,000 chakras within the human body, seven are considered of principle importance and are referred to as the "major chakras". [1]

M. N. Roy's review of tantric history says that the word chakra is used to mean several different things in the Sanskrit sources: [3]

1. "Circle," used in a variety of senses, symbolising endless rotation of shakti.

2. A circle of people. In rituals, there are different cakrasādhanās in which adherents assemble and perform rites. According to the Niruttaratantra, chakras in the sense of assemblies are of 5 types.

3. The term chakra is also used to denote Yantras { n: } 'mystic diagrams', variously known as trikoṇa-cakra , aṣṭakoṇa-cakra , etc.

4. Different nerve plexuses within the body.

In Buddhism, the Sanskrit term cakra (Pali cakka) is used in a different sense of "circle," referring to the conception of rebirth consisting of six states in which beings may be reborn. [4]

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