Update: 2020-05-25 01:17 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{ka.ma.} कम
{ka.mi.} कमि
{km} कम्

Skt Roots: entered below: 
Whit017: kamp, 'tremble';

UKT notes :
Kamboja : the land of Apsara {d-wic~hsa.ra}

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{ka.ma.} कम


p063c1-b01/uchg p051-कमलिनी
कमलिनी [ kamal-in ]
- f. lotus plant; lotus bed, lotus pond:
  -k, f. dim. small bed or lake of lotuses;
  -dala, n. lotus leaf (Pr.).


p063c1-b02/uchg p051- कमलेक्षण
कमलेक्षण [ kamala‿kshana ]
- a. lotus-eyed;
, m. N.;
  -‿udbhava, m. ep. of Brahman.

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{ka.mi.} कमि

p063c1-b03/uchg p051-कमि
कमि [ kam-i ]
- the root kam (gr.).

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{km} कम्

UKT 171203, 190407, 200127: Compare p062-1.htm {kn} to p063-1.htm: {km}

kamp, 'tremble' - Whit017
  Verb, kampita e. + [kapita] ; kampitum e., -tos b. ; -kampya s. +


p063c1-b04/ not online
[ kamp ], I. . (P.)
-- kmpa, tremble;
  cs. kampaya , cause to tremble, shake.
  anu , sympathise wtih (ac., lc.); cs. id. samanu , id.,
  , quiver; cs. cause to tremble; pp. agitated.
  ud , tremble. vi, tremble, quiver; cs. cause to tremble; agitate.


p063c1-b05/uchg p051-कम्प
कम्प [ kamp-a ]
- m. tremor, quivering; earth quake; quavered svarita accent;
 -ana, a. trembling; shaking; agitating; m. N. of a country; n. shaking, waving;
 a-vat, a. trembling; -ita, (pp.) trembling; shaken; n. tremor;
 -in, a. trembling; --, shaking.


p063c1-b06/uchg p051-कम्पोत्तर
कम्पोत्तर [ kampa‿uttara ]
- a. trembling violently.


p063c1-b07/uchg p051-कम्बल
कम्बल [ kambal ]
- m. (n.) woollen cloth, cover, or garment;
  -‿svara-grma, m. N. of a village.


p063c1-b08/uchg p051-कम्बु
कम्बु [ kambu ]
- m. shell; bracelet of shells;
 -ka, n. N. of a town;
 -kantha, a. () having a shell-like neck, i.e. with three folds;
 -gr va, m. N. of a tortoise.


p063c1-b09/ not online
कम्बोज [kamboga]
-- m. pl. N. of a people.
  See my note on Kamboja {km~Bau:za.}

UKT 181216: Though the traditional way of spelling is {km~Bau:za.}, with k and m physically separated by a Tha'we'hto: {a.w-hto:}. This separation is a distraction for those who are not used to Bur-Myan way of writing vertical conjuncts, because of which TIL has to invent a Super Tha'we'hto: 


p063c1-b10/uchg p051- कम्र
कम्र [ kam-ra ]
- a. charming, beautiful.

( end of old p063-1.htm )

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UKT notes

Kamboja : the land of Apsara {d-wic~hsa.ra}

- UKT 120725, 140216, 170202, 200127 

The name {km~Bau:za.} is well known to most Bur-Myan. There are two contenders to this name and place, one in India, and one in SE Asia. The Indian Kambhoja seems to be IE speakers, whereas the SEAsian seemed to be Aus-Asi speakers. I'm interested in the Kambhojas because the SEAsian ones are related to Mon-Myan of Myanmarpr. Unless I become conversant with Mon and Cambodian speaches, I hesitate to form any opinions.

UKT 170202: From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapada#Kamboja 170202
" ... Ancient Kamboja is known to have comprised regions on either side of the Hindukush. The original Kamboja was located in eastern Oxus country as neighbor to Bahlika, but with time, some clans of the Kambojas appear to have crossed the Hindukush and planted colonies on its southern side also. ... The cis-Hindukush [south] region from Nurestan up to Rajauri in southwest of Kashmir sharing borders with the Daradas and the Gandharas constituted the Kamboja country. [31]... The Kamboja Mahajanapada of the Buddhist traditions refers to this cis-Hindukush branch of ancient Kambojas. [32] ... The trans-Hindukush [north] region including the Pamirs and Badakhshan which shared borders with the Bahlikas (Bactria) in the west and the Lohas and Rishikas of Sogdiana/ Fergana in the north, constituted the Parama-Kamboja country. [33]  ..."
UKT 170202: Since Mekong River has its source in the highlands of Tibet, the northern-Kamboja tribes could have spread into Cambodia.

It is worthwhile to note that since the religionists have been guilty of rewriting the original legends to suit their own purposes, we cannot rely on what they call their "ancient literatures" and also on their inscriptions. I am relying on the words found in the modern languages such as Bur-Myan & Eng-Latin, and ancient (dead) languages Pal-Myan & Skt-Dev. There are a few words I would like to concentrate on at the present:
Kshatriya {hkt~ti.ya.} - the warrior class who are the rulers of the land.
  - See UTM-PDD-027
Apsara {d-wic~hsa.ra} - the female celestial dancer at the court of Indra the dva-king.
   They belong to the 'race' of {gn~Db~ba.} - See UTM-PDD-105 
Gandava {gn~Db~ba.} - the celestial musicians at Indra's court.
  - See UTM-PMD-041.
I still have to go into more, but for the present see:

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kambojas 120725, 200127

The Kambojas कम्बोज, kamboja {km~Bau:za.} were a tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature. The tribe coalesced to become one of the shodhasha (sixteen) Mahajanapadas {ma.ha.za.na.pa.da.} (great kingdoms *) of ancient India mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya.

UKT 200127:* Dissension : Mahajanapada {ma.ha.za.na.pa.da.} does not mean great kingdoms. "Maha" means "great" or "large". "jana" means "root of a people": from which I contend it means the "of same cultural or linguistic root". "pada" means "foothold". All in all, "Mahajanapada" means "a large area of a people speaking the same language (and dialects)'.

Ethnicity and language

The ancient Kambojas were probably of Indo-Iranian origin.[1] They are, however, sometimes described as Indo-Aryans[2][page needed][3][volume needed][4] and sometimes as having both Indian and Iranian affinities.[5][6][7] The Kambojas are also described as a royal clan of the Sakas.[8]


The earliest reference to the Kambojas is in the works of Pāṇini, around the 5th century BCE. Other pre-Common Era references appear in the Manusmriti (2nd century) and parts of the Mahabharata, both of which described the Kambojas as former kshatriyas (warrior caste) who had degraded through a failure to abide by Hindu sacred rituals.[9] Their territories were located beyond Gandhara in present day eastern Afghanistan, where Buddha statues were built during the reign of Ashoka[10] and the 3rd century BCE. The Edicts of Ashoka refers to the area under Kamboja control as being independent of the Mauryan empire in which it was situated.[9]

Some sections of the Kambojas crossed the Hindu Kush and planted Kamboja colonies in Paropamisadae and as far as Rajauri. The Mahabharata locates the Kambojas on the near side of the Hindu Kush as neighbors to the Daradas, and the Parama-Kambojas across the Hindu Kush as neighbors to the Rishikas (or Tukharas) of the Ferghana region.[11][page needed][12][13]

The confederation of the Kambojas may have stretched from the valley of Rajauri in the south-western part of Kashmir to the Hindu Kush Range; in the southwest the borders extended probably as far as the regions of Kabul, Ghazni and Kandahar, with the nucleus in the area north-east of the present day Kabul, between the Hindu Kush Range and the Kunar river, including Kapisa[14][15] possibly extending from the Kabul valleys to Kandahar.[16]

Others locate the Kambojas and the Parama-Kambojas in the areas spanning Balkh, Badakshan, the Pamirs and Kafiristan.[17] D. C. Sircar supposed them to have lived "in various settlements in the wide area lying between Punjab, Iran, to the south of Balkh."[18] and the Parama-Kamboja even farther north, in the Trans-Pamirian territories comprising the Zeravshan valley, towards the Farghana region, in the Scythia of the classical writers.[2][page needed][19][20] The mountainous region between the Oxus and Jaxartes is also suggested as the location of the ancient Kambojas.[21]

The name Kamboja may derive from (Kam + bhoj "Kamma+boja"), referring to the people of a country known as "Kum" or "Kam". The mountainous highlands where the Jaxartes and its confluents arise are called the highlands of the Komedes by Ptolemy. Ammianus Marcellinus also names these mountains as Komedas.[22][23][24] The Kiu-mi-to in the writings of Xuanzang have also been identified with the Komudha-dvipa of the Puranic literature and the Iranian Kambojas.[25][26]

The two Kamboja settlements on either side of the Hindu Kush are also substantiated from Ptolemy's Geography, which refers to the Tambyzoi located north of the Hindu Kush on the river Oxus in Bactria, and the Ambautai people on the southern side of Hindukush in the Paropamisadae.[citation needed] Scholars have identified both the Ptolemian Tambyzoi and Ambautai with Sanskrit Kamboja.[11][27][28][29][30]

Scholars, such as Ernst Herzfeld, have suggested etymological links between some Indo-Aryan ethnonyms and some geonyms used by Iranian-speaking peoples of the Caucasus Mountains and Caspian basin. In particular, Kamboja somewhat resembles the hydronym Kambujiya the Iranian name for the Iori/Gabirri river (modern Georgia/Azerbaijan). Kambujiya is also the root of Cambysene (an archaic name for the Kakheti/Balakan regions of Georgia and Azerbaijan) and the Persian personal name Cambyses. (A similar link is suggested between the Kura River, which is near the Iori, and the name of the Kurus and Kaurava mentioned in vedic literature.)[31] Such etymologies have not, however, been universally accepted.[citation needed]

Kambojan States

The capital of Kamboja was probably Rajapura (modern Rajauri). The Kamboja Mahajanapada of Buddhist traditions refers to this branch.[32]

Kautiliya's Arthashastra and Ashoka's Edict No. XIII attest that the Kambojas followed a republican constitution. Pāṇini's Sutras tend to convey that the Kamboja of Pāṇini was a "Kshatriya monarchy", but "the special rule and the exceptional form of derivative" he gives to denote the ruler of the Kambojas implies that the king of Kamboja was a titular head (king consul) only.[33] One king of Kamboja was King Srindra Varmana Kamboj.[34]

The Aśvakas

The Kambojas were famous in ancient times for their excellent breed of horses and as remarkable horsemen located in the Uttarapatha or north-west.[35][36] They were constituted into military sanghas and corporations to manage their political and military affairs.[citation needed] The Kamboja cavalry offered their military services to other nations as well. There are numerous references to Kamboja having been requisitioned as cavalry troopers in ancient wars by outside nations.[37][38]

It was on account of their supreme position in horse (Ashva) culture that the ancient Kambojas were also popularly known as Ashvakas, i.e. horsemen. Their clans in the Kunar and Swat valleys have been referred to as Assakenoi and Aspasioi in classical writings, and Ashvakayanas and Ashvayanas in Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi.

The Kambojas were famous for their horses and as cavalry-men (aśva-yuddha-Kuśalah), Aśvakas, 'horsemen', was the term popularly applied to them... The Aśvakas inhabited Eastern Afghanistan, and were included within the more general term Kambojas.

Elsewhere Kamboja is regularly mentioned as "the country of horses" (Asvanam ayatanam), and it was perhaps this well-established reputation that won for the horsebreeders of Bajaur and Swat the designation Aspasioi (from the Old Pali aspa) and assakenoi (from the Sanskrit asva "horse").
Etienne Lamotte[39]

Conflict with Alexander

The Kambojas entered into conflict with Alexander the Great as he invaded Central Asia. The Macedonian conqueror made short shrift of the arrangements of Darius and after over-running the Achaemenid Empire he dashed into today's eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. There he encountered resistance from the Kamboja Aspasioi and Assakenoi tribes.[40][41]

The Ashvayans (Aspasioi) were also good cattle breeders and agriculturists. This is clear from the large number of bullocks that Alexander captured from them 230,000 according to Arrian[42] some of which were of a size and shape superior to what the Macedonians had known, and which Alexander decided to send to Macedonia for agriculture.[43][44]


During the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, [UKT: Timeline - well after Gautama Buddha] clans of the Kambojas from Central Asia in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas and the Yavanas entered present Afghanistan and India, spread into Sindhu, Saurashtra, Malwa, Rajasthan, Punjab and Surasena, and set up independent principalities in western and south-western India. Later, a branch of the same people took Gauda and Varendra territories from the Palas and established the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal in Eastern India.[45][46][47]

There are references to the hordes of the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, and Pahlavas in the Bala Kanda of the Valmiki Ramayana. In these verses one may see glimpses of the struggles of the Hindus with the invading hordes from the north-west.[4][48][49] The royal family of the Kamuias mentioned in the Mathura Lion Capital are believed to be linked to the royal house of Taxila in Gandhara.[50] In the medieval era, the Kambojas are known to have seized north-west Bengal (Gauda and Radha) from the Palas of Bengal and established their own Kamboja-Pala Dynasty. Indian texts like Markandeya Purana, Vishnu Dharmottari Agni Purana,[51]

Eastern Kambojas

A branch of Kambojas seems to have migrated eastwards towards Nepal and Tibet in the wake of Kushana (1st century) or else Huna (5th century) pressure and hence their notice in the chronicles of Tibet ("Kam-po-tsa, Kam-po-ce, Kam-po-ji") and Nepal (Kambojadesa).[52][53] The 5th-century Brahma Purana mentions the Kambojas around Pragjyotisha and Tamraliptika.[54][55][56][57][volume needed]

The Kambojas of ancient India are known to have been living in north-west, but in this period (9th century AD), they are known to have been living in the north-east India also, and very probably, it was meant Tibet.[58]

The last Kambojas ruler of the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty Dharmapala was defeated by the south Indian Emperor Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.[59][60]

Mauryan period

The Kambojas find prominent mention as a unit in the 3rd-century BCE Edicts of Ashoka. Rock Edict XIII tells us that the Kambojas had enjoyed autonomy under the Mauryas.[4][page needed][61] The republics mentioned in Rock Edict V are the Yonas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Nabhakas and the Nabhapamkitas. They are designated as araja. vishaya in Rock Edict XIII, which means that they were kingless, i.e. republican polities. In other words, the Kambojas formed a self-governing political unit under the Maurya emperors.[62][63]

Ashoka sent missionaries to the Kambojas to convert them to Buddhism, and recorded this fact in his Rock Edict V.[64][65]

[UKT: I've copied the whole Wikipedia article, except the references.]


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Cambodia 120725

The name of Cambodia, in Khmer "Kampuchea" (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា Preăh Racha Nachk Kmpŭchea), derives from Sanskrit Kambujadeśa (कम्बोजदेश; "land of Kambuja"). It is not unique to the modern kingdom of Cambodia: the same name (i.e. Kamboja/Kambuja) is also found in Burmese and Thai chronicles referring to regions within those kingdoms. [UKT ]

UKT120725, 181217 Does the last statement mean that {km-Bau:za.} was within Burma/Myanmar? However, it is certain that the Burmese kingdom of King Bayinaung had included {kn-Bau:za.}. See Wikipedia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayinnaung 181217

In the Indian chronicles the Kambuja {km-Bau:za.} were a barbarian (in the sense of non-Indian) people in the area of modern Afghanistan. "The application to Southeast Asia has no ethnic content and does not imply any migration of peoples from the original Kambuja; the most likely explanation is that, when Indian traders and Brahmins came into contact with local populations some two thousand years ago, they gave them the names of regions which, in their view, were similarly marginal and remote: the peoples of Southeast Asia, like the barbarian Kamboja, had no castes, did not observe proper food prohibitions and had different rules for marriage." [1] [UKT ]

UKT 120725, 140216, 170202, 181217:
We, of the modern age have a very low opinion of the caste system of the  {braah~ma.Na.}-religion. The adherents, the Brahmins, consider, any people without the caste system, such as the Burmese to be "barbarians". The Burmese in turn consider them to be "schemers", giving bad advice to the ancient kings. This was the basis of many traditional Burmese drama.

Note that the religion and subsequently the customs of a people can change. No one would take the custom of performing Ramayana dances in South-east Asia to be an indication of the Brahmins originating from Cambodia.

An origin-myth recorded in the Baksei Chamkrong inscription, dated AD 947, derives Kambuja from Svayambhuva Kambu, a legendary Indian sage who reached the Indochina peninsula and married a naga {na.ga:}-princess named Mera, thus uniting the Indian and local races. In this story Kambuja derives from Kambu+ja, and means "descendants of Kambu." [2]

  From: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baksei_Chamkrong 140216 

Baksei Chamkrong (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបក្សីចាំក្រុង) is a small Hindu temple located in the Angkor complex (Siem Reap, Cambodia). It is dedicated to Lord Shiva [ aka Shiva-dva {i-wa. nt}] and used to hold a golden image of him. The temple can be seen on the left side when entering Angkor Thom at the southern gate. It was dedicated to Yasovarman by his son, King Harshavarman I. The temple was completed by Rajendravarman II (944-968). [1]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

UKT 190414: Moving huge stones seem to be common place for ancient peoples the world.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_monoliths 190414
"Angkor Wat, Angkor Thom and other Angkor temples, Cambodia. Five million tons of sandstone were transported 25 miles (40 km) along the river just for Angkor Wat. [46] [71] "

Go back Kamboja-note-b

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