Update: 2020-05-29 11:33 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{Shpa.} : cont
{Shpau:} स्फो



UKT notes :


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- cs. spharaya, P. open wide; bend, discharge (a bow): pp. spharita, opened wide (eyes); widely diffused (spiendour). vi, cs. open wide; draw, discharge (a bow): pp. opened wide (eyes); exhibited, displayed.


- cs. sphalaya, P. a, beat upon, splash (ac.); strike (alute); dash against (a stone, lc.); lash (tail): pp. asphalita, struck, beaten upon, dashed against.


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स्फाटिक [sphtika]
- a. (, ) made of crystal (sphatika); n. crystal; kind of sandal.


स्फाति [sph-t]
- f. [√sphy] fattening, breeding (of cattle; V.); prosperity (C., rare).


- I. A. sphaya (rare), grow fat, swell, increase; resound; ps. sphiyate, grow fat: pp. sphita, swollen; thriving, prosperous, flourishing, rich (country, house, etc.); well-off; heavy with rain (cloud); dense (smoke); abundant, plentiful; abounding or rich in, full of (a., -); cs. sphavaya, P. fatten; strengthen, increase.


स्फार [sphr-a]
- a. [√sphar] extensive, wide, large, great; abundant (moonlight); dense (mist); loud (shout); strong, vehement: --, ad.; m. slap: -bh, be opened wide; be diffused, spread, increase, multiply.


स्फालन [sphl-ana]
- n. [sphal] patting, slapping.


स्फावय [sphvaya]
- cs. √sphy: i-tri, m. fattener of (cattle, g.; Br.).


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स्फिगी [sphig]
- f. hip, buttock (V.).


- sphig, f. (nm. k) id. (S., C.).


स्फिर [sphi-r]
- a. [√sphy] fat (RV.1).


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स्फीत [sph-ta]
- pp. √sphy: -t, f. welfare, flourishing condition.


- f. id.


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- I. P. sphola, VI. P. sphuta, trust open (with a sound), be split or rent, burst into flower, expand, blossom; crack (of the fingers) crakle (fire); burst into view, appear suddenly; abate (int., disease): pp. suphita, burst, split, rent, broken; opened wide (eyes etc.); expanded, full-blown; cs. P. sphotaya, burst, split, rend, tear open; put out (eyes); shake, wag; push aside (a bolt): pp. sphoita, split etc. a, cs. cleave, crush; shake, wag; int., clap one's hands. pra, cs. cleave.


स्फुट [sphut-a]
- a. open; expanded, full-blown; manifest, evident, plain, distinct, clear, intelligible (ord. mg.); spreading, extensive, broad (rare); -- or -m, ad. evidently etc.: -tara̮akshara, a. very clear (speech); -t, f. manifestness, distinctness: -m gam, become manifest.


स्फुटय [sphuta-ya]
- den. P. make clear or evident.


- a. speaking distinctly or frankly; -valkali, f. a tree; -sabdam, ad. distinctly, andibly.


स्फुटार्थ [sphuta̮artha]
- a. having a clear sense, intelligible: -t, f. distinctness.


स्फुटिका [sphut-ik]
- f. small fragment.


 स्फुटीकरण [sphut-karana]
- a. making clear or evident, manifestation; -kri, make clear or evident; manifest; sharpen (the senses); -bh, become clear or evident.


- VI. P. (A. metr.) sphura, V.: spurn; V., C.: dart, bound, spring; C.: quive, throb, tremble, vibrate; writhe, struggle; glisten, flash, sparkle; burst into clearly; shine, be distinguished, make one's mark: pp. sphurita, quivering, trembling; struggling; flashing, gleaming, glittering; breaking forth, suddenly arising; cs. sphoraya, P. drae (a bow); adduce (an argument); (cause any one to shine=) praise excessively. nis, hurl down (RV.). pari, dart about (fish); break forth, display itself; gleam afar:pp. quickenig (foetus). pra, V.: spurn away; V., C.: quiver, tremble; C.: glitter, sparkle; be displayed, appear; shine, be distinguished: pp. quivering, trembling; displayed. vi, V.: start asunder; C.: quiver, tremble; dart about, writhe, struggle; glitter, flash; break forth, appear: pp. visphurita, quivering, trembling; glittering, flashing.




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स्फुर [sphur-a]
- a. quivering, vibrating; -ana, a. glittering; n. quivering; gleaming, flashing, darting; coming into view, manifestation; -ita, (pp.) n. quivering, throbbing, tremor; darting (of a fish, --); flash, glitter, radiance; coming into being, existence (of creatures, g.).


- VI. P. -sphula [later form of sphur]: pp. sphulita, come into view, having appeared. vi, move to and fro.


स्फुलिङ्ग [sphul-iṅga]
- m. [darting, glittering: √sphul=√sphur] spark: -ka, m. id.; -vat, a. scattering sparks.


स्फुलिङ्गाय [sphuliṅg-ya]
- den. . resemble or burn like sparks.


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 I. P. sphurga, ruble, roar, rattle, crash; break or burst forth, be displayed; cs. sphurgaya, P. crackle (V.). ava, rumble. vi, resound; snort; break forth, be displayed: pp. -sphurgita, extended: agitated; cs. cause to twang (bow).


स्फूर्जथु [sphrg-athu]
- m. thunder; -ita, (pp.) n. roar.


स्फूर्ति [sphr-ti]
- f. [√sphur] quivering, throbbing; manifestation, appearance, display; bragging.



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{Shpau:} स्फो

स्फोट [sphot-a]
- m. [√sphut] bursting, splitting (int.); opening, unlocking; blister, pustule; small fragment, chip (rare); roar, crash; indivisible creative word (phil.); eternal and imperceptible element in sounds and words regarded as the real vehicle of the sense (gr.); -ana, a. cleaving, crushing; dispelling (doubt, --); m. divider (a term applied to the vocalic sound heard between certain conjunct consonants); n. splitting, rending, breaking; waving (the arms); cracking (the fingers); -ita, cs. pp. √sphut; n. crackling.

See Sphota Theory of Language in my note. The Sphota, {Shpau:Ta.} स्फोट , theory assumes an Axiomatic entity - Atman, that elucidates the meaning of a word, which the Buddhists who hold the Anatta theory cannot accept.

स्फ्य [sphy]
- m. wooden sword (used as a sacrificial implement; V., C.); spar (Br.); kind of oar (E.): -vartani, f. furrow made by the wooden sword.


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स्म 1. [sma]
- encl. pcl. (V. also sm, shma) orig. prob.=ever, later also certainly, indeed: often, esp. in C., attenuated to a mere expletive; in V. used after other pcls. (esp. ha), relatives, prps., and vbs.; in C. gnly. after the pcls. iti and m; in C. turns a present into a past tense (though the present sense is in some cases retained).


- in E. sts. = smas, we are.


स्मत् [smt]
- ad. (RV.) together; at the same time; w. in. (together) with [cp. sumat]: of several cpds. in RV., having with one= provided with.


स्मदिष्ट [smd-ishta]
- a. provided with an errand (watchers; RV.1).


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स्मय [smay-a]
- a. [√smi] astonishment, wonder (rare); arrogance, pride, regarding (--); -in, a. (--) laughing, smiling.


स्मर [smar-a]
- a. [√smri] remembering (--, rare); m. recollection, memory; love; god of love; expounder of the Veda (rare); -ana, n. remembering, recollection, of (g., --); memory (rare); teaching (rare): -padav, f. path of memory: -m gamitah, caused to go the way of memory=dead.


स्मरणीय [smar-anya]
- fp. to be remembered: -m smaram kri, make Kma remembered= remind of the god of love; -m gatim n, lead any one (ac.) into the path of memory=bring about the death of.


स्मरतापमय [smara-tpa-maya]
- a. consisting of the ardour of love: w. gada, m.=fever of love.


स्मरदशा [smara-das]
- f. stage of love (there are ten: delight of the eye, pensiveness, longing, sleeplessness, emaciation, indifference to worldly objects, abandonment of shame, infatuation, swoon, death; see Mallintha on Meghadta 90); -dahana, m. burner of Kma, Siva; -dyin, a. arousing love; -dpana, a. kindling love; -maya, a. produced by love; -lekha, m. love-letter; -sara-maya, a. () abounding in Kma's arrows (certain flowers); -ssana, m. chastiser of Kma, Siva; -sstra, n. treatise on erotics; -sakha, m. friend of Kma, ep. of spring; -saha, a. capable of arousing love; -syaka-lakshya, n. target of the arrows of Kma: -t, f. abst. n.; -̮ari, m. foe of Kma, Siva; -̮ishudh-kri, turn into the quiver of Kma.


स्मर्तव्य [smar-tavya]
- fp. to be remembered; -ya, fp. id.; -tri, m. one who remembers (g., --); teacher.


- I. pl. A. we are (I. as).


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स्मार [smaNr-a]
- m. [√smri] recollection, of (--); a. (C.) relating to the god of love (smara): -ka, a. [fr. cs. of √smri] recalling, reminding; n. calling to mind.


स्मारम् [smr-am]
- abs. [√smri] always repeated: remembering (ac.); -in, a. remembering (--).


स्मार्त [smrta]
- a. [smriti] relating to memory, memorial (rare); based on tradition, prescribed by traditional law; versed in or following tradition (rare): i-ka, a. () traditional.



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- I. A. smaya, smile sweetly, blush (V.); smile (C.); be arrogant (P., rare): pp. smita, smiling; expanded, blown. ava, flush down (lightnings) on (lc.; RV.1). ud, break into a smile (esp. with pride). pra, burst into laughter. vi, be confounded or astonished, at (in., ab., lc.); be proud of austerities (in.): pp. vismita, confounded, astonished; astonishing (rare); proud, arrogant (rare); cs. -smayaya, P. astonish (ac.). sam, blush, be bashful (V.).



स्मित [smi-ta]
- (pp.) n. smile: -prva, a. smiling first: -m, ad. smilingly; -prva̮abhibhsh-in, a. addressing with a smile: (-i)-t, f. abst. n.


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SMRI, I. P. (A.) smara, remember, bear in mind, recollect, recall, think of with regret (ac., g.; the past action being expressed by a pp. + yad, taht, or a ft. without yad); hand down, teach, maintain (rare); recite (rare); ps. smaryate, be remembered = handed down (w. na.= act., pass over in silence); be declared by any one (in.) to be, be regarded as (nm., lc.); pp. amrita, remembered, thought of; handed down, taught; mentioned; prescribed; declared or said to be, regarded as (nm., rarely d. or lc.); named, called (nm. iti): kim smrito = smi, why have you summoned me? na smritam, not permitted; biga eva phalam smritam, fruit is said to come from seed only; cs. P. smaraya, less commonly smaraya, cause to remember, remind any one (ac., sts. g.), of (ac.); ps. smaryste, be called to mind; be reminded of (ac.): pp. smarita, called to mind; reminded of (ac.); des. susmurshate, wish to remember (ac.). anu, remember, call to mind (ac.); confess (a sin): pp. remembered; prescribed, taught: n. imps.: yada eva anusmritam devens, when the king remembered that (oratio recta with iti); cs. P. -smaraya, remind of (ac.): pp. -smarita, reminded of (ac.). apa, forget. upa, remember (ac.). pra, rerember (ac.; RV., E.). vi, forget (ac.): pp. having forgotten (ac., -); forgotten by (in., y.): -smrita-vat, pp. act. having forgotten; cs. P. -smaraya, cause anything (ac.) to be forgotten; cause any one (ac.) to forget (ac.): pp. caused to be forgotten; caused to forget (ac.). sam, remember, think of (ac.): pp. remembered, thought of: prescribed; named,l called; cs. P. (a) remind any one (ac.) of (ac.); recalled. anu-sam, remember, think of (ac, g.)






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UKT notes

Sphota Theory of Language

- UKT 200322 : I've come across this theory of Bhartṛhari भर्तृहरि (c. 5th century) many years ago. Then I was struggling with Skt-Dev almost blindly - relying on my meager knowledge Pal-Myan. I've to rely mostly on my knowledge of English, and the Internet. I'm still struggling, but I'm feeling more comfortable, and I think I should go over this theory again. I now know that common English transcription is unreliable, and IPA & IAST transliterations are not to be taken as transcriptions. I rely on Skt-Dev spellings and my rendition in Romabama.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spho%E1%B9%ADa 200322

Sphoṭa , ( {Shpau:Ta.} स्फोट  "bursting, opening", "spurt") is an important concept in the Indian grammatical tradition of Vyakarana व्याकरण , relating to the problem of speech production, how the mind orders linguistic units into coherent discourse and meaning.

The theory of sphoṭa is associated with Bhartṛhari भर्तृहरि (c. 5th century [1]), an early figure in Indic linguistic theory, mentioned in the 670s by Chinese traveller Yi-Jing. [UKT ]

UKT 200322: Notice the Repha in the name of Bhartṛhari भर्तृहरि . I've theorized that Repha is in the middle of Degree of rhoticity scale. It is based on my observation of Pali {Dm~ma.} changing into Sanskrit {Dar~ma.} धर्म . Thus, I'll have to render भर्तृ as {Bar~tRRi.} .

Bhartṛhari is the author of the Vākyapadīya ("[treatise] on words and sentences"). The work is divided into three books,
   the Brahma-kāṇḍa, (or Āgama-samuccaya "aggregation of traditions"),
   the Vākya-kāṇḍa, and
   the Pada-kāṇḍa (or Prakīrṇaka "miscellaneous").

He theorized the act of speech as being made up of three stages:

1. Conceptualization by the speaker (Paśyantī "idea")

2. Performance of speaking (Madhyamā "medium")

3. Comprehension by the interpreter (Vaikharī "complete utterance").

Bhartṛhari is of the śabda-advaita "speech monistic" school which identifies language and cognition. According to George Cardona, "Vākyapadīya is considered to be the major Indian work of its time on grammar, semantics and philosophy."

Origin of the term
While the sphoṭa theory proper (sphoṭavāda) originates with Bhartṛhari, the term has a longer history of use in the technical vocabulary of Sanskrit grammarians, and Bhartṛhari may have been building on the ideas of his predecessors, whose works are partly lost.

Sanskrit sphoṭa is etymologically derived from the root sphuṭ 'to burst'. It is used in its technical linguistic sense by Patajali (2nd century BCE), in reference to the "bursting forth" of meaning or idea on the mind as language is uttered. Patajali's sphoṭa is the invariant quality of speech. The acoustic element (dhvani) can be long or short, loud or soft, but the sphoṭa remains unaffected by individual speaker differences. Thus, a single phoneme (varṇa) such as /k/, /p/ or /a/ is an abstraction, distinct from variants produced in actual enunciation.[2] Eternal qualities in language are already postulated by Yāska, in his Nirukta (1.1), where reference is made to another ancient grammarian, Audumbarāyaṇa, about whose work nothing is known, but who has been suggested as the original source of the concept.[3] The grammarian Vyāḍi, author of the lost text Saṃgraha, may have developed some ideas in sphoṭa theory; in particular some distinctions relevant to dhvani are referred to by Bhartṛhari.[4]

There is no use of sphoṭa as a technical term prior to Patajali, but Pāṇini (6.1.123) refers to a grammarian named Sphoṭāyana as one of his predecessors. This has induced Pāṇini's medieval commentators (such as Haradatta) to ascribe the first development of the sphoṭavāda to Sphoṭāyana.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

UKT 200323: As a Buddhist and a material scientist, I cannot accept anything to an Axiomatic god. Now, continue reading:
"Buddhist Theory of Meaning (Apohava-da) as Negative Meaning" - by Sanjit Chakraborty, in The NEHU Journal, Vol XV, No. 2, July-December 2017, pp67-77.

Abstract: The paper concentrates on the most pressing question of Indian philosophy: What is the exact connotation of a word or what sort of entity helps us to identify the meaning of a word? The paper focuses on the clash between Realism Nyāya and Apohavāda (Buddhist) regarding the debate whether the meaning of a word is particular/universal or both. The paper asserts that though Naiyāyikas and Mīmāṁsakas challenged Buddhist Apohavāda, yet they realized that it is difficult to establish an opinion in support of a word that conceptually denotes a negative meaning first.

Go back SphotaTh-note-b

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