Update: 2020-05-26 12:22 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A compilation from:
1. A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell (Mac), 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
  link: uchicago
Skt-Doc Glossary online:
- https://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.html 190701
  Downloaded (unedited) in TIL non-PDF & non-SD libraries,
  Web-Archive section.

2. The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200501) 

3. Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin), (UPMT-PED) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)

4. Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD), by U Hoke Sein, 1954, with English translation by U Kyaw Tun (UKT)
This dictionary in ink-on-paper form is in TIL research library at 35 Thantada St., Sanchaung, Yangon, Myanmar.

UKT 200503:
The individual entries from all the above are being cut, and stored under a directory named CUTS, which will not be uploaded to the Internet. Because of this Internet version of this dictionary will have empty spaces.

The TOC of this dictionary follows the Sonority Scale, from Consonants to Vowels

I've a sneaky suspicion that BHS, Nepali, and Burmese speeches are closely associated. I'll enter words from all the three into my dictionary to either reject or confirm my suspicion. I'll first concentrate on Nepali with words in Devanagari from:
A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner (ref: Turn-Nepxxx ) - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
Files from Univ. Chicago in TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
- Turn-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200328) 
I hope to include Latin into my compilation. But I may not live that long: I'm already a very old man, aged 86. However, I'm pinning my hope on the work of my assistants.

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

Basic consonants, approximants, and vowels of BEPS  - update 2020Jun 
Consonants and Vowels of BEPS - update 2020May  
History of Sanskrit Literature  - update 2020Apr 
Introduction to the present work including
(1) the Preface to Macdonell's (MC) dictionary.
(2) the writing system in the Indus-Saraswati civilization which obviously was neither Vedic nor Sanskrit.
See the list of Supporting dictionaries 

UKT 171129, ... , 200107, 200310: Please remember this dictionary is a learning tool for me to learn Skt-Dev. I do not intend to speak Sanskrit. I just want to know its connection to Pali and Magadhi. Caveat: A. A. Macdonell, M. Monier-Williams, and their contemporaries use the older form of Devanagari script, and the conjuncts are stacked as in Pal-Myan. This is an added problem for me. Note to TIL editor: Because of numerous glyphs, you'll will have to look for them in Windows Character Map. You need not do so if you consult my little mascot Doggie in notes below.

The TOC is in Akshara order, which is very difficult to follow unless you know the Akshara matrices of vowels {a.ra.} and consonants {by:}. I've to invent Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} based on Bur-Myan phonology to serve my purpose. To share my work with others on the Internet, I've to make Romabama ASCII compatible.

The overall TOC arrangement in this dictionary follows the pattern set by Bur-Myan dictionaries, where the consonants come first {by:} and the vowels {a.ra.} last, with the approximants in between.

In Pali- and Sanskrit dictionaries, the vowels comes first, followed by consonants: an arrangement that does not follow the Sonority scale

Since my aim is to find the relation between Bur-Myan, Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev, words should be carefully spelled out to facilitate Akshara-to-akshara rendering. Giving only English transcription has hindered my understanding of such words, such as BEPS basic akshara {Shpa.} --> स्फोट

The "correct spelling" means, I must invent new glyphs such as various forms of Ra'ric {ra.ric} to show the different degrees of rhoticity. BEPS has 3 kinds of Ra'ric {ra.ric}. Bamah {ra.ric} of the majority dialect - the Irrawaddy dialect - has no rhoticity, whereas that of Rakhine dialect has rhoticity as in Pali. The Sanskrit {ra.ric} is the most rhotic.

The problematical phoneme /a/ 
UKT 180511: Though this problem is not met with in English, Pali and Sanskrit, it is real problem when Burmese (and possibly when Mon and Nepali) is included. What does the phoneme /a/ indicate? What does the glyph {a.} represent? In Eng-Lat script, a represents the vowel /a/ without specifying the vowel-duration. It could be either {a.} of duration 1 blnk (eye-blink), or {a} 2 blnk. To avoid this problem, avoid using the terms "short vowel" and "long vowel": use vowel of 1 blnk, and 2 blnk duration. Secondly, /a/ could also be the negation of something. However, the negation in Bur-Myan is not {a.}, but {ma.}.  Remember some words in Bur-Myan that begins with /a/ is not negation of something: it is part of the whole word. It is probably because of this problem, Bur-Myan dictionaries always begin with consonants.

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Basic Consonants, Approximants, and Vowels of Binpathak {bn~pa-ak} or BEPS as onsets (page-by-page)

(BEPS stands for Burmese, English, Pali, Sanskrit speeches written in Myanmar, Latin, and Devanagari scripts.)

UKT 200325: I'm now using only one index page to cover all the entries of -- MCpp-indx.htm - update 2020Jun 
A A Macdonell's A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary plus some entries
from my reference dictionaries on Nepali language (in Devanagari script),
on Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS in Latin script), on International Pali
(in Latin script), on Myanmar Pali (in Myanmar script, with my translations), etc.

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Consonants and Vowels

- UKT 200409:

It is usual to give Vowels and then Consonants in Alphabetic-dominated dictionaries. This does not follow the Sonority scale, which tells us that the sub-set of Approximants should be between Consonants and vowels. Therefore, in Bur-Myan dictionaries, it is usual to give the Consonants first and then the Vowels, with Approximants in between.  - SED-MC > MCvowcon-indx.htm - update 2020May 

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History of Sanskrit Literature

Sanskrit and Vedic, - VedicSkt.htm - update 2020Apr 
from A History of Sanskrit Literature, by A A Macdonell, 1900 

- UKT: 200318:
Back in 1953, when I and my fellow classmates, Ko (Dr.) Thein Aung and Ko Thant Zin were admitted into B.Sc. (Chemistry Honours) course, our Professor and Head of the Department of Chemistry, University of Rangoon, was U Po Tha. Back then, Mandalay University was still a college affiliated to the University of Rangoon, because of which Ko (Dr.) Maung Di, came from Mandalay college to join us. Mandalay college could not offer Honours course and Ko Di had to come to Rangoon.  Ko Di later went to the United Kingdom to get his doctorate. He later became the Deputy Minister of Education. He told me how one of his UK professors, a Welsh man, challenged him to pronounce the phoneme /ll/ (double L). This phoneme is in Bur-Myan as La'ha'hto {lha.}. The Welsh man was thrilled at Ko Di's ability, and I became interested in the Welsh language and beliefs - leprechauns and gnomes and all.

Now back to Saya U Po Tha. He was probably a last member of IES (Indian Educational Service) contemporaries of ICS (Indian Civil Service) and IMS (Indian Medical Service). And he had worked under Dr. Peacock - a Scot - notorious among his students for being a strict scientist and chemist. One of my old lecturers, Saya U San Tun who had worked under Dr. Peacock told me how Dr. Peacock had scolded him for being absent from duty on King George's the Fifth birthday - a public holiday in British Burma. Dr. Peacock had said: "San Tun, in Chemistry we are interested in Things, not People." By Chemistry is meant Science and People is kings and politicians. Dr. Peacock had to severely pay for his uncompromising attitude in the end: he was dismissed from service by the Governor General himself - the then chancellor of the university. The proud Scot had to go back to his native Scotland and ended his career in University of Sheffield. By chance I met one of his students from Sheffield in Canada and we became best friends. 

Now you can expect U Po Tha to be uncompromising in many of his scientific views. He made us study the History of Chemistry - which I enjoyed much because of my good understanding of English. Naturally, most of his students, including Ko Thein Aung and Ko Thant Zin fumed for having to study such worthless subject as History. Now you'll understand why I am interested in the History of Sanskrit Literature.

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Introduction to the present work

- UKT 200312:

My own introduction is presented as a separate page - MC-intro.htm - update 2020Apr 

Preface to Macdonell's (MC) dictionary, Scanned pages - MC-pre1.htm / MC-pre2.htm - update 2020Apr 

Nighantu and Nirukta: Buddha's anti-Brahmanism - nirukta.htm - update 2018Oct 
* A Glossary of Sanskrit words, from Sanskrit Documents, has been moved
on 190715  to ~~HD-nonPDF & SD-nonPDF, Archive sections and will be available
only in TIL Research Station, Yangon.

The Roots, Verb-forms, and Primary derivatives of the Sanskrit Language, - Sanskrit Roots.htm - update 2020Apr 
- by W. D. Whitney, downloaded txt in TIL PDF libraries:
Single-page format - WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200311)
Whitney's work is intended especially as a Supplement to his Sanskrit Grammar (Leipzig, 1879).
I'm including his work in Macdonell's Dictionary to serve me in my study of Sanskrit Grammar.

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Check the following which were once part of MCv-indx.htm .
  Vowels in general - Human Voice - MC-acoustics.htm (link chk 160110)
  Ancient Languages: BEPS & Georgian - MC-anci-lang.htm (link chk 160110)
  Comparison of Skt-Dev, Eng-IPALatin, and Bur-Myan vowels - MC-BEPS-vow.htm (link chk 191026) 

On script - MCscript.htm - update 2018Aug
UKT to TIL editor 170827: The following are in txt-in-single-file form. If any are to be expanded, separate it as a nested folder. Contains:
Preface, Scanned pages, Digital online Univ Chicago version, Glossary, Nepali Dictionary,
Language comparison and roots of languages being compared Hand-written Skt-Dev Akshara
HD-nonPDF: LearnSktOnline-GrammTerms<> / Bkp<>
. In HD-PDF: KVAbhyankar-DictSktGramm<> / Bkp<>
Mahayana texts from website http://www.ishwar.com/buddhism/holy_mahayana_texts/ 171212

On speech - Remember Skt-Dev sounds belonging to IE languages, and Pal-Myan (& Bur-Myan) sounds belonging to Tib-Bur languages are entirely different. For example, listen to the pronunciation of Skt-Dev niroakta<))
 Its equivalent in Pal-Myan is {ni.roak~ta.}.

Concentrate on the closing sound. It is त occupying r4c1 of the akshara-matrix, the same place as . However how does त sound? Is it /ta./, /t./ or /t./, or something entirely different ? I will have to say "entirely different".

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UKT notes
Doggie's Tale : copy and paste
Supporting dictionaries

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UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:  
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher and hisser, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!


Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following: 
Ā ā ă ấ  Ē ē ĕ ế  Ī ī ĭ  Ō ō ŏ  Ū ū ŭ ː
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ ɴ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Book marks: * star, dagger (alt0134), double dagger (alt0135).
Bur-Myan: for {gna.}-onset use c ċ (U010B) - unfortunately ċ is non-ASCII

Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Repha spelling: exemplified by
  dharma: ध र ् म --> धर्म 
  spota: ष ् प र ् श ा ः --> ष्पर
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: भ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ
  च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev Row #3: ट ठ ड ढ ण ; conjunct ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
Skt-Dev numbers, 0-9:  ०  १  २  ३  ४  ५  ६  ७  ८  ९ 
IAST Dev: Repha & Viram-position, e.g. तर्ज tarj [ targ ] = त र ् ज
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa क ् ष = क्ष
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Using ZWNJ (ZeroWidthNonJoiner), e.g. , क्‌ष (code: क्&zwnj;ष)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-width_non-joiner 150630
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ɲ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::tn}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols:
 ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ħ ʔ /ˌ / /ʰ/ /ʳ/ /ː/
  <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) 
  <kick> /kɪc/ (DJPD16-299 gives /kik/) and <kiss> /kɪs/ (DJPD16-301)
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ
Subscripts: ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ : CO₂

Go back Dog-note-b

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Supporting dictionaries

Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Sanskrit Grammar (vocal: SND files), by Dr. Pankaja Rajagopal
- SktGramRajagopal<> (link chk 190928)

Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis in 2 Parts, A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon 1899
- BG1899-indx.htm (link chk 191008)
"The Burmese language is constructed on scientific principles, and there is no reason why its grammar should not be dealt with also from a scientific standpoint. But it may be safely said that Burmese grammar as a science has not received that attention it deserves."
   Note: This Burmese grammar in English compared with modern Burmese grammars in Bur-Myan will illustrate how the British colonialists had set out to destroy - with success - the influence of Burmese Buddhist monks on secular education.

Digital online dictionary from Univ. Chicago
- http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/

Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, by W. D. Whitney, 1885.
  Note: This and the following dictionaries are in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  Single-page format - WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200119)
Skt-Eng Dictionary, by T. Benfey, 1866,
- TBenfey-SktEngDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200119)
  Ref. as "Benfey" - no page numbers in Google e-book from which the PDF is copied
Skt-Eng Dictionary, by M. Monier-Williams, 1899,
- MMonier-Williams-SktEngDic<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200119)

The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, by U Hoke Sein, - (UHS-BEPD)

Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 .
  - http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907, 110504, 140805
  - http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall_unic.html 110810, 140805
Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
- SktDoc-OnlineSktDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 181217)
It has been suspended to concentrate on Macdonell's. I'll be merge the two eventually. The link to my suspended work is:
- SED-indx.htm (link chk 181217)

UKT 181213: Similar to Macdonell's entries, BHS entries are also stored in a dedicated folder, ~~CUTS. They are not to be uploaded to the Internet. However, U Hoke's Sein's entries have to be uploaded to the Internet. I'm toying with the idea of forming BANKs for the UHS similar to AK-BNKs. They would be named UHS-BNKs.

A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, reprint 2007 available in TIL library in Research Center in Yangon.
  The above as downloaded text from 1875 ed. in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- RCChilders-PaliLangDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180701)
Buddhist Dict. of Pali Proper names
- http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html (link chk 190127)

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End of TIL file