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Pali Grammar

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An Elementary Pali Grammar in English

by Narada Thera (Lanka)

Edited, with additions from other sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

The last update in 2007. The file needs a thorough cleaning.
Downloaded 234pdf-pp file in TIL SD-Library
- NaradaLanka-Pali<> / bkp <> (link chk 160826)
UKT 160903: Refer to Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 by A. W. Lonsdale, 1899
- BG1899-indx.htm (link chk 160903)
for a comparison.

Language and Script -- lang.htm - update 160930
Akshara - aksha.htm
Vowel - vowel.htm
Consonant - conson.htm
Syllable - syllable.htm
Lessons - L01.htm , L02.htm , ...

The following are from old files.
I am incorporating the txt from some of them, after which they would be deleted.

A Comparison of Systems
Consonants (Pulmonic) - IPA
English consonants - DJPD16
Pali-Latin consonants - Narada Thera
Pali-Myanmar consonants - Yangon Dist. Univ. 2003
Pali language and me (cont.) - notes to myself for future work

UKT: the following files are being re-written

Nouns | Gender | Declension | Case -- nouns.htm
Nouns ending in [ a ] | [ ā ] | [ i ] | [ ī ] | [ u ] | [ ū ] | [ o ]

Verbs | Word order | Conjugation

Simple sentences | Word order 

Pali vocabulary


UKT notes
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste



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Preface to the Second Edition

to An Elementary Pali Course, by Ven. Narada Thera

Pāḷi means "the Text", though it has now come to be the name of a language. Māgadhī was the original name for Pali. It was the language current in the land of Magadha during the time of the Buddha (6th century B.C.). Suddha Māgadhī, the pure form of the provincial dialect, was what the Buddha used as His medium of instruction.

The elements of Pali can be mastered in a few months, Pali opens one's ears to the Dhamma and the music of the Buddha's speech. It is also a lingua franca in Buddhist countries, and therefore worth acquiring. This slender volume is intended to serve as an elementary guide for beginners. With its aid one may be able to get an introduction to the Pali language within a short period.

I have to express my deep indebtedness to my Venerable Teacher, Pelene Siri Vajiraāna Mahā Nāyaka Therapāda, who introduced me to this sacred language. Words cannot indicate how much I owe to his unfailing care and sympathy. My thanks are due to the Venerable Nyānatiloka Thera, for his valued assistance.

October, 1952.

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-- UKT 160909

This course is available on the Internet from many sources including the above.
www.urbandharma.org/udharma4/pali.html -- zipped downloadable pdf file

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Primary source:
An Elementary Pali Course, by Ven. Narada Thera
http://www.vipassana.info/pali%20contents.htm -- in Tipitaka font
www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/ele_pali.pdf -- downloaded pdf file in TIL archive

{pa-Li. a.Bi.Daan-hkyoap} (PMDict - A Comprehensive Pali Dictionary), by {l-ti-paN~i.ta.} U Maung Gyi, Rangoon, 1966, pp.524 - in Burmese-Myanmar

Module a.ra.111ka.  (Dist. Univ. 1999) Distance-teaching University , Ministry of Education (Higher Education Directorate), Myanmar, 1999 - in Burmese-Myanmar script

Module a.ra. 1001, (Yangon Dist. Univ. 2003) Pali Grammar, Daw Ohn Myint et. al., Yangon University of Distance Education, Ministry of Education (Higher Education), Myanmar, 2003 - in Burmese-Myanmar


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UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:  
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher and hisser, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā ă ấ  Ē ē ĕ ế  Ī ī ĭ  Ō ō ŏ  Ū ū ŭ ː
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ ɴ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: भ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ
  च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev Row #3: ट ठ ड ढ ण ; conjunct ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa क ् ष = क्ष
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Using ZWNJ (ZeroWidthNonJoiner), e.g. , क्‌ष (code: क्&zwnj;ष)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-width_non-joiner 150630
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ɲ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols:
 ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /ʰ/ /ʳ/ /ː/
  <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) 
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b


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End of TIL file