Update: 2021-07-22 08:31 PM -0400

TIL

Myanmar Aksharas in Romabama

AK-key.htm

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning, http://www.tuninst.net ).

UKT 210311, 210627: Because of the need to present Bur-Myan aksharas in my work, before the internet fonts became available, I've to present the aksharas in little pic in pix-format. Even now because my work involves many languages, particularly of 2-way transcription between Bur-Myan and  English in Latin script I still need my own aksharas.
Though the TIL preferred font is Arial Unicode MS, to avoid confusion between fonts during copying, this file is in Default font.

index.htm | Top
AK-key.htm

Contents of this page

Number, punctuation, and stand-in
Segmental fill-ins
Vowels and Vowel-extensions

UKT notes
Doggie's tale

UKT 210623: Romabama words are of the form V and CV where C is the onset-consonant and V the nuclear vowel. You can form more words by checking the nuclear vowel with a killed consonant known as the coda, when you get the form CV where is the coda-consonant.

BEPS aks are presented in 3x3 arrays: 
  {ka.} ------- {ki.} ---- {ku.} ------ represent the cardinal vowels 
  {k.} ------ {k.} --- {kn.} ---- represent the mid vowels
  {kau.} --- {ko.} --- {kon.} -- represent the monophthongal digraphs

Bur-Myan language can be seen as made of vowels because even the consonants have inherent vowels. Vowels have been studied without the aid of instruments for thousands of years in the East.

The phoneticians who had been called "grammarians" had to rely only on their hearing and on the sense of touch on the Adam-apple area until recently. Of course with humans involved we can be sure that their judgements would be greatly influenced by the his  mother-tongue, L1, culture and his statement health affecting his hearing at the time.

However, we moderns, especially those from the West should not underestimate the capacity of these "grammarians". They were not common people. They are Eastern Rishis who had devoted their lives to the study of a particular subject with religious zeal. They spent their lives away from common folks. They are still commonly seen even today.

Pix on right shows a Myanmar Rishi dressed in white, on Shwedagon pagoda platform, gazing into mid-day sun in pursuit of a particular study. Why doesn't he go blind is worth studying by modern Western scientists.

In modern times with advancement in acoustics, the vowels can be studied quantitatively by instruments. The measured quantities are derived from recording sound-waves coming out from each speaker's mouth. From these we get formant values, F1 and F2 of each vowel produced by each individual speaker. See the Tongue positions given on upper right. You'll notice that the open-vowel /a/ has the maximum F1 value, and the most allowable F2, whilst the close-vowel /u/ has both minimum F1 and F2. This is represented as the /a/ and /u/ being most opposite. Based on this observation, I opine that the English letter "double-U" and "U" are the same: "double-U" is the consonant form, whilst "U" is the vowel form. It explains similar properties between the medial Wa'hsw {qua.}/{kwa.} and Chaung'gnn {ku.}.

Previously, the BEPS aks are presented separately in tables in html pages as:
1. Basic aks mainly for Bur-Myan - AK1b.htm 

2. Basic aks and medials for Indo-European languages - AK1bmIE.htm
Note: When Pali and Sanskrit are included, rhoticity in Ra'ric forms makes presentation difficult. Instead of confining ourselves to Bur-Myan, we will extended our term to Romabama.

3. Romabama 1-former medial Ya'pin and Ra'ric - AK1m1YR.htm
  e.g
. {kya.};  {kra.}, {kRa.}, {kRRa.},

4. Romabama 1-former medial Wa'hsw and Ha'hto , - AK1m1WH.htm
  e.g. {qua.}/{kwa.} ; {gnha.}
5. Romabama 1-former medial La'hsw , - AK1m1L.htm
  e.g. {cla.}/{kla.}
Wahsw is applicable to all consonants, stops, nasals and approximants. Hahto is confined to nasals and some approximants. Lahsw is necessary for transcription of English to Burmese.

6. Romabama 2-former medial Yapin.hahto . and Raric.hahto . , - AK1m2YH-RH.htm
  e.g. {mhya.} ; {mhra.}
7. Romabama 2-former medials Yapin.wahsw . and Raric.wahsw . ,  - AK1m2YW-RW.htm
  e.g. {kywa.} ; {krwa.}
8. Romabama 2-former medials Wahsw.hahto: . , - AK1m2WH.htm
  e.g. {mhwa.}

9. Romabama 3-former medials Yapin.wahsw.hahto .. and Raric.wahsw.hato .. , - AK1m3YWH-RWH.htm
  e.g. {mhwya.} ; {mhwra.}

10. UKT 210708: To resolve the problem Skt-Dev sibilants श /ʃ/ (husher),  ष /s/ (hisser), स /(sibilant)/, and Bur-Myan thibilant {a.}, I need to invent a new akshara for BEPS. My first try is Greek Ψψ and Cyrillic Ѱѱ  psi . I've no idea how an English word beginning with digraph ps is pronounced. The first entry in DJPD16-433 is <psalm> /sɑːm/. The last entry on p434 is <psychotic> /saɪ'kɒt.ɪk/, showing that Onset is /s/. From these, my new akshara could be:
   {p~Sa.}( प्ष <-- प ् ष) .
The name is now simplified to {pSa.}, and further to {psa.}. Since, English speakers cannot pronounce the tenuis voiceless and have to produced ordinary voiceless, {psa.} has to be changed to {phsa.}. This new akshara will be called Pseudo-Hsa.  The situation is similar to what have been found much earlier in case of Pseudo-Kha क्ष with which Skt-Dev replaces what in Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan is spelled with Regular-Kha ख :
   Eng:  {Ska.}  vs. Skt-Dev: {kSa.} क्ष <-- क ् ष
   Eng: {Spa.} vs. Romabama: {pSa.} प्ष <-- प ् ष
Still, I'm not satisfied. I'll try the remaining T, from the group of KTP phonemes indicative of phonology of a language.
   Eng: {Sta.} vs. Romabama: {tSa.} त्ष = त ् ष
Still, not satisfactory.

11. Skt-Dev has no thibilant {a.}, but like English /ʃ/ (husher),  and /s/ (hisser). Taking a clue that the shape of my new akshara, which I will call Pseudo-Tha or Silibant-Tha, must be close to {hsa.} and also to {a.}, I decided on a hybrid  {Sa.} or Open-Hsa.
   BEPS:  {sha.} श /ʃ/ (husher),  {Sa,} ष /s/ (hisser),  {Sa.} स (sibilant)
   Bur-Myan:  {hya.}/ {rha.} ------ {a.} (thibilant present in Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat, but absent in Skt-Dev).

Contents of this page

Scope ol Romabama

The four BEPS languages - Burmese (in Myanmar script), English (in Latin script), Pali (in Myanmar script), and, Sanskrit (in Devanagari script) - comprise the main scope of Romabama. These 4 languages belong either to Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur) language group or to the Indo-European  (IE) language group. Most of the other indigenous languages of Myanmarpre belong to Tib-Bur and other language-groups.

UKT 210608: Though not important, by speaker-count, Mon-Myan (Aus-Asi group) was important at one time, but still important for Theravada religious examinations: a Mon monk can still learn Pali texts in Mon-Myan language. I've been looking for an South Indian script with which to study Mon-Myan, and the script most suitable found is the Telugu script. Note that though Telugu phonology is extremely different from Bur-Myan, what I am trying to do is to compare it Mon-Myan whose phonology is quite different from Bur-Myan. Perhaps, Telugu phonology is similar to Mon-Myan. The following is the Telugu akshara.

stop:
క {ka.}   ఖ {hka.}  గ {ga.}  ఘ {Ga.}  ఙ {gna.}
చ {sa.}  ఛ {hsa.}  జ {za.}  ఝ {Za.}  ఞ {a.}
ట {Ta.} ఠ {HTa.} డ {a}    ఢ {a}      ణ {Na.}
త {ta.}  థ {hta.}   ద {da.}  ధ {Da.}   న {na.}
ప {pa.}  ఫ {hpa.}  బ {ba.}  భ {Ba.}  మ {ma.}

approx - semi-consonants:
య {ya.} ర {ra.}  ఱ {Ra.} / ల {la.} వ {wa.} /
approx - fricative: sibilant, thibilant, and deep-H
శ {sha.} ష {Sa.} స {a.} / హ {ha.}

vowel: only 8 corresponding to Pal-Myan
అ {a.} ఆ {a} ఇ {I.} ఈ {I} ఉ {U.} ఊ {U} / ఎ {} ఒ {AU}

Note: We can say that Bur-Myanmar is based on perfectly rounded circles: Telugu and Kanada are based on ovals .
UKT 210624: I'm getting curious on the similarity of shapes of some aksharas:
Telugu : {AU} o, {gna.}, {za.}, {ba.}, {Ba.} : what about their pronunciation?
Kannada: {AU} o, {gna.}, {za.},  {ba.},    {Ba.}

UKT 210624 Internet search string: Why do certain Telugu akshara have shapes similar to ?
What I found:
Quora : Is the Sinhala language closely related to Telugu? How is that possible? - Quora 210624
Answer: Sathyanarayana Sastry (సత్యనారాయణ శాస్త్రి)
" Telugu, which is the fourth most spoken language in India, has been praised from people like Sri Krishnadevaraya to Italian merchants, such as Niccolo de Conti. Its sweetness led Rabindranath Tagore to question if  it [is] a language or music. ... ...

Lets start with how the word Telugu came into being. There are two main theories ... ... [1] from the Sanskrit word Trilinga reference ... Shiva Linga Temples ... [in] core area of the Telugu-speaking people). ... [2] the word Telugu originated from ... a Proto-Dravidian word - that means South. ...

Because of historical reasons, English (Eng-Lat in General American dialect) has now become important, and Romabama has to accept Lisping Consonants. Though most in Myanmarpre think that Pali is of prime importance, it is not so. Most of the literature in Traditional Medicine and Astrology have Sanskrit words which are derived form Skt-Dev.

Because of all these reasons, I've to devise many new Aksharas, which you can either accept or reject. They are important because IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet), and IAST (International Alphabet for Sanskrit Transliteration) fail to adequately convey the Burmese-Myan phonology used by Romabama.

Contents of this page

Number, punctuation, and stand-in

- , , , , , , , , , ,
- [poad1],  [poad2] : ordinarily you can use /,  //,  and comma, but not semi-colon and colon
- {On}, {lkan:}, {nheik}, {yw.}, {ae.} : some Romabama transcriptions do not follow definite rules.
- {ya.} -->
- {ra.} -->  /,
- {la.} --> Since regular Bur-Myan medial formers change in shape on becoming a medial, I've to borrow La'hsw from Mon-Myan.
- {wa.} --> / (modified as in Mon-Myan), 
- {sha.} : not a medial former
- {a.} (thibilant) not a medial former: changes to --> {Sa.} (sibilant)  -->  / (used for transcription of Eng-Lat to Romabama)
- {ha.} --> 
- {a.} "red for negation" (used for transcription of Pali and Sanskrit to Romabama), e.g. {a.awN}
- {na.} and {ma.} are other words in red for negation.

Segmental fill-ins

Before we go into "Vowels and Vowel-extensions" below, below are some illustrative examples with {ka.} akshara. This list is linked to BNK1-fill-sg and BNK1vow-ex  folders:

Simple vowels
- {ka.} + [-a2] --> {ka}

Split vowels: they are filled in 2 steps
- [e-] + {ka.} -->   
- + [-a1] --> {kau.} 

Contents of this page

Vowels and Vowel-extensions

- UKT 210427 :
You should acquaint yourself with the terms below. Then for the most useful part, go to CV-words. It is the most extensive, and also because I'm using it as a form of research.

Abugidic-consonants  contain an inherent vowel {a.} // which in effect make them vowels. Because of this property when I sculpt individual glyphs, I can legitimately attach the following vowel-extensions to the aksharas. The following is a list of operations: Tha'w-hto {a.w-hto:}, Re'cha {r:hkya.} (which is further divided into Mauk'cha {mauk-hkya.} and Weik'cha {weik-hkya.}), Auk'mric {auk-mric},  etc.
For your work you'll need the following "parts":

  [-aa1], [-a2], [-a2f],  [-u1],  [-u2],  [e-],  [flag-top], [-eiy2], [-dot2], [-dot-top], [-dot-mid], [-dot-sub]

Extreme Left-hand part :
the only member is Tha'w-hto {a.w-hto:}, e.g.,

[e-] + [-k1]  -->  {k.}
[e-] + [kya.] + [-dot-sub]  -->  {ky.}

UKT 210628: I still need to transcribe English <eye> /eɪ/.
There are possibilities for the digraph in stressed syllables: <they> /eɪ/, <geyser> /'gaɪ-zəʳ/. See: DJPD16-194
I propose to transcribe <eye> as , or , and <they>

 

Miss Turkey Toothsome graphemes
/ / //
Though not included in the above, I usually write: [-Daa1],  [-Da2], [+],

[-hkaa1], [-hka2], [+] /
[-gaa1], [-ga2],  [+] /  
[-gnaa1],  [-gna2],  [+] /
[-daa1], [-da2] , [+] /  
[-paa1], [-pa2], [+] / /
 [-waa1], [-wa2], [+] /  

Very short vowels
Vowels with very short duration are produced by Auk'mric {auk-mric}  [-dot-sub] 
in Romabama.

  , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,

 However in Mon-Myan and Skt-Dev, they are produced by Visarga {wic~sa. pauk},  [-dot2] ,
{na:.} नः . I've used the sign {:.} borrowed from Tamil ஃ .

Flag-graphemes - stops and affricates

[-ak], [-aKK], [-ag], 
[-ic], [-iz],  [-aeNNYY1],  [-aeNNYY2],  [+]
[-uT], [-uHHTT], [-ud3], [-ud3-DD3a1]
[-ut],  [-ud], 
[-up], 

Flag-graphemes - nasals

[-ng1],  [-ng2],  [+]
[-iny1],  [-iny2],  [-iny3] 
Though Nya-major has  3 registers, it is more of an approximant than nasal: [-aeNNYY1],  [-aeNNYY2],  [+]
[-uNN1], [-uNN2]
[+],  [-un2],  [+]
[-um1],  [-um2],  [+]

Flag-graphemes - approximants,

[-eiy1], [-eiy2], [-ar2],  [-al2],  [-aO2],  [-ish2],  [-iSS2],  [-ath2],  [-ah2]

Conjuncts

[-ak-ka1], [-ak-hka1], [-ar-ka1], [-ar-ma1], [-ar-NN1], [-ar-ya1]
[-ing-ka1],  [-ing-kyi2], [-ing-ga1], [-ing-GGa1], [-ing-pa2], [-ing-tha1]
[-ag-ga1], [-ag-gi1],
[-ic-sa1], [-ic-hsa1],
[-iz-za1], [-iz-ZZi1]
[-iny-sa1]
[-uTT-TTa1], [-TT-HTa1]
[-uN-di1], [-uN-Na1]
[-ut-ta1], [-ut-tan02], [-ut-hta1], [-ut-hti1],
[-ud-hka1] , [-ud-da1] , [-ud-DDa1],
[-un-ta1], [-un-tan02], [-un-DDa1], [-un-na1]
[-up-pa1], [-up-pa1],
[-ub-ba1], [-ub-bi1], [-ub-BBa1],
[-ar-va1],
[-um-ba1], [-um-BBa1], [-um-ma1], 
[-ar-wa1],
[-aeth-tha1] = ~
[-ah-ma1]

Some examples: 
- stops: {kak}, {moaK}
- approximants: {k}, {ky}, {kr}, {kl}, {kw}
- semi-nasals: {kn.} , {kn}
- true-nasals: {kum.}, {kum}
- disyllabic stops:  {tak~ka.}, 

Contents of this page

CV : Onset-consonant and Vowel ending words :
Some of the entries below are combined characters, which you must copy whole, e.g., , and
They are presented to make your copying faster.

Note: I'm using this section for my research. I use arrays to see what oddities can come up!

The following are what I consider to be Burmese
phonemes which have 3 registers with vowel duration:
1 eye-blink, 2 eye-blink, and 2 eye-blink+emphasis.
  , , / , , , ,

The following having less than 3 registers are Pali, Sanskrit and Mon
, , ,

You'll need: [-aa1], [-a2], [-a2f],  [-u1],  [-u2],  [e-],  [flag-top], [-eiy2], [-dot2], [-dot-top], [-dot-mid], [-dot-sub]

Forming  phonemes ------ : --- ----- ---- -- --- --- //
Forming  English <ska> -- : ----- ----- ---- -- --- -- //
Forming Sanskrit ksa  क्ष  (क ् ष)  - different from English <ska> =  ष्क (ष ् क)
Forming  phonemes ------- : ---- ---- , --- --- ---- ---- // 
Forming  phonemes ------- : ---- ---- , ---- --- ---- ---- // 
Forming  (r1c4) phonemes: ------------------------- ---  
Forming  phonemes ------- : ---- --- , ---- ---- ---- ---- //
Forming  palatal phonemes: ---- ------ ------- ---- ---- ---- // 
Forming English <kya>: - unfortunately English has no tenuis sounds.
Forming  phonemes ------ : --- ---- ----- --- --- --- //
Forming English <cha> -- : ---------------------------- ---- ----- ---
Forming  phonemes ------- : ----- -----  ------- ---- ---- --- //
Forming  English <ja> --- : -----------------------------  
Forming  (r2c4) phonemes: -- [-z-ZZi1]
Forming Major phonemes : --- ---- ----  --------- --- //
Forming Minor phonemes : 
Forming  phonemes ------- : --------------------------- -- 
Forming Sanskrit {S~Ta.} : --
Forming  phonemes ------- : --------------------------- -- 
Forming Sanskrit {S~HTa.} : --
Forming  phonemes ------- : --
Forming  (r3c4) phonemes: , --
Forming  phonemes ------ : -------------------------- ---- --- --
Forming  phonemes ------ : --- ---- ----- ----- --- --- //
Forming  English <sta> -- : ----- ---- ----- ----- --- --
Forming  phonemes ------ : --- ----- ---- ----- ---- --- // 
Forming  phonemes ------- : ---- ---- , --- ------ ----- ---- // 
Forming  (r4c4) phonemes:  -- ------ ------ ------- ---- ---- //
Forming  phonemes ------- : -------- ------- -------- --- --- --- //
Forming  English <sna> -- :
Forming  phonemes ------ :    --- ---- , --- --- --- --- //
Forming  English <spa> -- : ---- -- , ---
Forming  phonemes ------- : --- ------ ------ --- --- -- // 
Forming  English <fa> ---- :
Forming  phonemes ------- : --- ------ ------ --- --- -- //
Forming  English <va> --- :
Forming  (r5c4) phonemes: -- -- -- -- -- -- //
Forming  phonemes ------- :   --- ------ ----- ---- --- -- // 
Forming  English <sma> -- :
Forming  phonemes ------- : -- --- ---- -- -- -- //
Forming  phonemes  ------- : --- ----- ----- --- --- --- //
Forming  phonemes -------- : -- --- ---- -- -- -- //
Forming  English <sla> --- :
Forming  phonemes -------- : ---- -- ,   -- --- --- -- //  
Forming  English <swa> -- :
Forming  / (sibilant) phonemes: / -- / -- / -- / / -- -- / / --  / //
Forming  dental phoneme: ---
Forming  (thibilant) phonemes: -- --- --- ---- ---- --- ---- //
Forming  {Sa.} (sibilant) phonemes: -- --
Forming  phonemes: -------------- -- -- -- -- -- -- //
Forming  phonemes:  ---------------- --  -- 
Forming  phonemes: -------------- -- -- -- -- -- -- //

 

Medials phonemes from one-medial former : ---- / / / / (Ha'hto is confined to nasals )
The medials, and their first- & second- derivatives can be substituted to give other series.
You must take care to differentiate for Bur-Myan, Pali-Myan, and Skt-Myan
Forming medials ------- : -- -- -- -- -- -- -- //
Forming  medials --------------- : -------- -------- ---------- ----------- --------- --------- ----- //
Forming  medials --------------- : ------ -------- -------- -------- ------ ------- ----- //
Forming  (r1c4) medials ------ :
Forming  medials -------------- : / ---- / ---- / ----- / ---- / ---- / ----- / ---- / //
Forming  stop/ च affricate medials : --------- ---------- ---------- -------- ----------- ------------ ---------  //
Forming  -stop medials ------- : ---------- ----------- ----------- ---------- ------------ -------------- ---------- //
Forming  -stop medials -------- : ----------- ------------ ------------ ----------- ------------ --------------- ----------- //
Forming  (r2c4) medials ----- : nil
Forming  -stop medials ------- : -------- -------- ------- --------- --------- ---------- //
Forming  row#3 medials ------- :  
Forming  medials ------------- : ----- ----- -------- ---------- ------------ ------------- //
Forming  medials ------------- : --------- ----------- ----------- --------- ------------ ---------------- //
Forming  medials -------------- : ---- ---------- ------------ ---------- ------------ ---------------- //
Forming  (r4c4) medials ------ : nil ?
Forming  medials -------------- : -------------- ---------- ----------   ------- --------- ----------- //
|Forming  medials -------------- : ----- ----- ------- --- ------ ----- --- //
Forming  medials -------------- : ----------- ----------   --------  ------   ----------  -------------    //
Forming  medials -------------- :   --------   ------- ------     -----   ------ -----    //
Forming  (r5c4) medials ----- : -------------- ----------- --------- ------ ----- ----- //
Forming  medials -------------- : -- -----   --------  --------  -----  -------   //
Forming  medials ------------- : ----- ----- --- --- --- --- //
Forming  medials -------------- : ----------- --------- -------- ------- -----
Forming  medials ------------- : ----- ----- --- --- --- --- //
Forming  medials -------------- : --------- ------- ----- ---- ---
Forming  श (sibilant) medials :
Forming  ष (sibilant) medials :
Forming  (thibilant) medials - : ------- -------- ----
Forming  medials ------------- :
Forming medials -------------  : --------- ----------

 

Medials from two-medial formers: . / . / . / . / .  
The number of second-derivatives are very musch reduced
Forming  medial phonemes : -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Forming  medial phonemes : ----
Forming  medial phonemes : ---
Forming  medial phonemes : ---
Forming  medial phonemes : --- -- --   
Forming  medial phonemes : ---   
Forming  (thibilant) medial phonemes: -- -- --

 

Medials from three-medial formers: .. / ..
The third-derivatives are so rare that you can almost ignore them.
Forming  medial phonemes : --- {mhwya.} --- {mhwra.}

Contents of this page

Unusual Mon aksharas: , , , ,

 

The following are what I consider to be Pali-Lanka and Skt-Dev tainted Burmese phonemes:

, , , ,  

, , , , ,

, , ,

,   / , ,

, , , , ,  ,

Contents of this page

 

UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:  
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher and hisser, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā ă ấ  Ē ē ĕ ế  Ī ī ĭ  Ō ō ŏ  Ū ū ŭ ː
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ ɴ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Book marks: * star, dagger (alt0134), double dagger (alt0135).
Bur-Myan: for {gna.}-onset use c ċ (U010B) - unfortunately ċ is non-ASCII
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Repha spelling: exemplified by
  dharma: ध र ् म --> धर्म 
  spota: ष ् प र ् श ा ः --> ष्पर
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: भ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ
  च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev Row #3: ट ठ ड ढ ण ; conjunct ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
IAST Dev: Repha & Viram-position, e.g. तर्ज tarj [ targ ] = त र ् ज
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa क ् ष = क्ष
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Using ZWNJ (ZeroWidthNonJoiner), e.g. , क्‌ष (code: क्&zwnj;ष)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-width_non-joiner 150630
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ɲ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::tn}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols:
 ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /ʰ/ /ʳ/ /ː/
  <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) 
  <kick> /kɪc/ (DJPD16-299 gives /kik/) and <kiss> /kɪs/ (DJPD16-301)
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ
Subscripts: ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ : CO₂
Special brackets: 〈...〉 U+2329. U+122A

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file