Update: 2019-12-12 04:58 PM -0500

TIL

Eleven Holy Discourses of Protection

Mahā Paritta Pāḷi : TIL version

paritta.htm

Based on Eleven Holy Discourses of Protection , transliterated and translated from the Burmese Pāḷi (aka Pali-Myan) Scriptures (The Sixth Buddhist Council Version) into English (aka Pal-Latin), - by Sao Htun Hmat Win (SHHW), M.A; A.M; S.R.F. (Harvard), Director of Research and Scriptures., Dept. of Religious Affairs, Rangoon, Burma, 1981

Digitized and edited, and Pal-Myan & Romabama added, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) and staff of TIL . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : 
- http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com
Text, 2nd impression 1991, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- SaoHtunHmatWin-ElevenParittaPali-1991<> / Bkp<> (link chk 191201)

index.htm | Top
fam-web-indx.htm

Contents of this page:

UKT 191208: This work, in a way to check the efficacy of Romabama as a transcription in comparison to International Pali which is a transliteration. It is important to remember that a transliteration will give a wrong pronunciation, whereas a transcription will give the correct or almost correct pronunciation. Because of this, I contend that International Pali will give you the wrong pronunciation, whereas Romabama being a transcription will give the correct pronunciation which will be very close to that of the Old Magadhi - the language in which Gautama Buddha preached.
Pali-Lat transcript used: Ā ā , Ḷ ḷ , Ṁ ṁ , Ṅ ṅ , Ṇ ṇ , Ṭ ṭ , mid-dot schwa: Alt0183  
UKT: Many years ago, I'd come to the following site online, and then lost access to it:
- http://www.myanmarnet.net/nibbana/mahapri1.htm 191208
Another site from which I copied, and edited for my work:
- http://www.tathagata.org/sites/default/files/ParittaSutta%20v2.1%20-%20Sayadaw%20U%20Silananda.pdf

Mahā Paritta Pāḷi transcription by UKT, and transliteration by SHHW
Vocal recitations from different sources added by UKT.

P00. Invocation : {nt-pn.}
P01. Mangala Sutta: {mn~ga.la. oat~ta.}
P02. Ratana Sutta : {ra.ta.na. oat~ta.}
P03. Metta Sutta : {mit~ta. oat~ta.}
P04. Khandha Sutta : {hkn~Da. oat~ta.}
P05. Mora Sutta : {mau:ra. oat~ta.}
P06. Vaṭṭa Sutta : {wT~Ta. oat~ta.}
P07. Dhajagga Sutta : {Da.zag~ga. oat~ta.}
P08. Ātānātiya Sutta : {a-Ta-na-Ti.ya. oat~ta.}
P09. Aṅgulimāla Sutta : { n~gu.li.ma-la. oat~ta.}
P10. Bojjhaṅga Sutta : {bauz~Zn~ga. oat~ta.}
P11. Pubbaṇha Sutta : {poab~ba.Nha. oat~ta.}

Original TOC
2.0. Mahā Paritta Pāḷi
2.1. Method of Translation
2.2. Buddhism as Religion

2.3. Apotropic Buddhism
2.3.1. Solutions for Natural Kammaic causes
2.3.2. Solutions for Supernatural Kammaic causes

Note: Pali-Lat transliteration: Ā ā , Ḷ ḷ , Ṁ ṁ , Ṅ ṅ , Ṇ ṇ , Ṭ ṭ ,
mid-dot schwa: Alt0183   .
The trouble is with the Eng-Lat Alphabet-Letter system with the canonical structure CVC. The number of its Consonants-Letters and Vowels are smaller than the Abugida-Akshara system of Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan, which uses the canonical structure CV, where is the "killed akshara". Moreover English is non-phonetic, whereas both Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan are with almost one-to-one correspondence between phoneme and grapheme.

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P00. Invocation
------ {nt pn.}

(p091begin)
Paritta-parikamma


{na.mau:t~a.  Ba.ga.wa.tau:  ara.ha.tau:  m~ma-m~boad~D~a.}
namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa

or, you may take the Five Precepts, in accordance with the Theravada tradition. Listen to:
Pal-Lanka: BkCndLankaPali<))

Pal-Myan: BkCndP00<))

01. ,
---- {a.mn~ta  sak~ka.wa-L-u., a.tRa-gic~hsn~tu.  d-wa.ta}
---- samantā  cakkavāḷesu,  atrāgacchantu  devatā
---- (p022) 01. O deities, who are residing in the environs of various (ten thousand) universes, may you come here to this place,

---- ,
---- {d~Dm~mn  mu.ni.ra-za~a., u.Nn~tu.  ag~ga.mauk~hka.dn}
---- saddammaṁ  munirāssa,  suṇantu  saggamokkhadaṁ.
---- (p022) and listen to the sacred doctrine of the Lord of Sages, which can yield the divine bliss and perfect emancipation.

02.
---- {Dm~m~a.wun-na.ka-lau:  ayn  Ba.dn~ta}
---- dhammassavannakālo  ayaṁ  bhadantā.
---- (p022) 02. O deities, this is the right time to listen to the doctrine.

03.
---- {na.mau:t~a.  Ba.ga.wa.tau:  ara.ha.tau:  m~ma-m~boad~D~a.}
---- namo tassa  bhagavato  arahato  sammā  sambbhuassa.
---- (p022) 03. May our veneration be dedicated to Him, the Almighty, the most Infallible, and the Self-enlightened Buddha.

04. ...
---- {y n~ta  n~ta.sait~ta , ...
---- ye santā  santacittā, tisaraṇasaraṇā,  ettha  loanterevā,
---- (p022) Those who are tranquil and peaceful in mind, who have taken refuge in the three holy creeds, here in this world or in other spheres


---- bhummābhummā  ca  devā, guṇagaṇagahaṇa,  byāvāṭā  sabbakālaṁ.
---- (p023) the deities of terrestrial and celestial, who always are anxious to accrue the accumulation of merits

---- ete āyantu devā, varakanakamaye, merurāje vasanto,
---- (p023) Those deities (and the King of gods) who are residing on royal Meru, the majestic golden mountain,

---- santo santosahetuṁ, munivaravacanaṁ, sotumaggaṁ samaggā.
---- (p023) and all those virtuous ones may come here in unity to listen to the noble words of the Great Sage, which are the root cause of contentment.

05.
---- sabbesu cakkavalesu yakkha deva ca brahmano;
---- (p023) The demons, the deities, and the Brahmah-gods in all universes

---- yaṁ amhehi kataṁ puaṁ, sabba-sampatti-sādhakaṁ.
---- (p023) (may rejoice in ) whichever meritorious deeds we have done for the accomplishment of all enjoyments.

(p091end-p092begin)

06.
---- sabbe taṁ anumoditvā, samaggā Sāsane ratā;
---- pamāda-rahitā hontu, ārakkhāsu visesato.

07.
---- sāsanassa ca lokassa, vuḍḍhī bhavatu sabbadā,
---- sāsanam pi ca loka ca, devā rakkhantu sabbadā.

08.
---- saddhiṁ hontu sukhī sabbe, parivārehi attano,
---- anīgha sumanā hontu, aha sabbehi atibhi.

09.
---- rājato vā corato vā
---- manussato vā amanussato vā
---- aggito vā udakato vā
---- pisācato vā khāṇukato vā
---- kaṇṭakato vā nakkhattato vā
---- janapada-rogato vā asaddhammato vā
---- asandiṭṭhito vā asappurisato vā
---- caṇḍa-hatthi-assa-miga-goṇa-kukkura
---- ahi-vicchika-maṇisappa-dīpiaccha
---- taraccha-sūkara-mahiṁsayakkha-rakkhasādīhi
---- nānābhayato vā nānārogato vā
---- nānā-upaddavato vā arakkhaṁ gaṇhantu.

UKT: End of Invoccation
(p092end)

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P01. Magala Sutta
------ {mn~ga.la. oat~ta.}

Pali-Lat tranliteration : Ā ā , Ḷ ḷ , Ṁ ṁ , Ṅ ṅ , Ṇ ṇ , Ṭ ṭ , mid-dot schwa: Alt0183  
Because IE speakers are not good at reproducing the sounds of r1c8 phoneme, Pal-Lat pronunciation of the first syllable is entirely different from that of Bur-Myan speakers. What they pronounce as /mun/ is our /mn/. Since Gautama Buddha spoke with Magadha (Tib-Bur) accent, his accent would be similar to that of Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur) speakers.

BkCndP01<))

(p093begin)


{U.yyau:za.na.}
uyyojaa

10. yaṁ mangalaṁ dvādasahi,
---- cintayiṁsu sadevakā;
---- sotthānaṁ nādhigacchanti,
---- aṭṭhattiṁsa ca Maṅgalaṁ.

11. desitaṁ Devadevena,
---- sabbapāpavināsanaṁ ,
---- sabbalokahitatthāya,
---- maṅgalaṁ taṁ bhaṇāma he.

12. evaṁ me sutaṁ.
----    ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaṁ viharati Jetavane Anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.  atha kho aatarā devata abhikkantāya rattiyā abhikkantavaṇṇā kevalakappaṁ Jetavanaṁ obhāsetvā , yena Bhagavā tenupasaṅkami, upasaṅkamitvā Bhagavantaṁ abhivadetva eka-mantaṁ aṭṭhāsi.  eka-mantam ṭhitā kho sā devatā Bhagavantaṁ gāthāya ajjhabhāsi:

13. bahū devā manussā ca,
---- maṅgalāni acintayuṁ;
---- ākaṅkhamānā sotthānaṁ, Brūhi maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

14. asevanā ca bālānaṁ,
---- paṇḍitana ca sevanā;
---- pūjā ca pūjaneyyānaṁ,
---- etaṁ maṅigala-muttamaṁ.

(p093end-p094begin)

15. Patirūpadesavāso ca,
---- pubbe ca katapuatā ;
---- attasammāpaṇidhi ca,
---- etaṁ maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

16. bāhusacca ca sippa ca,
---- vinayo ca susikkhito;
---- subhāsitā ca yā vācā,
---- etaṁ maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

17. mātāpitu-upaṭṭhānaṁ,
---- puttadārassa saṅgaho;
---- anākulā ca kammantā,
---- etaṁ maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

18. dāna ca dhammacariyā ca,
---- ātakāna ca saṅgaho;
---- anavajjāni kammāni,
---- etaṁ maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

19. āratī viratī pāpā,
---- majjapānā ca saṁyamo;
---- appamādo ca dhammesu,
---- etaṁ maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

20. gāravo ca nivāto ca,
---- santuṭṭhi ca katautā;
---- kālena dhammassavanaṁ,
---- etaṁ maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

21. khantī ca sovacassatā,
---- samaṇāna ca dassanaṁ;
---- kālena dhammasākacchā,
---- etaṁ maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

(p094end-p095begin)

22. tapo ca brahmacariya ca,
---- ariyasaccāna dassanaṁ:
---- nibbāna-sacchikiriyā ca,
---- etaṁ maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

23. phuṭṭhassa lokadhammehi,
---- cittaṁ yassa na kampati;
---- asokaṁ virajaṁ khemaṁ,
---- etaṁ maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

24. etādisāni katvāna,
---- sabbattha maparājitā;
---- sabbattha sotthiṁ gacchanti,
---- taṁ tesaṁ maṅgala-muttamaṁ.

 
{mn~ga.la. oat~ta.}
maṅgala-suttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

(p095end-p096begin)

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P02. Ratana Sutta
------ {ra.ta.na. oat~ta.}

Pali-Lat tranliteration : Ā ā , Ḷ ḷ , Ṁ ṁ , Ṅ ṅ , Ṇ ṇ , Ṭ ṭ , mid-dot schwa: Alt0183  
The phrases in the verses are a problem, when they are long. SHHW cuts are no longer reliable compared to the vocal recitation by Mingun Sayadaw.

BkCndP02<))

(p096begin)


{U.yyau:za.na.}
uyyojaa

 

25. paṇidhānato paṭṭhāya Tathāgatassa dasa pāramiyo;
---- dasa upapāramiyo, dasa paramattha pāramiyoti;
---- samattiṁsa paramiyo;
---- paca mahāpariccāge, lokatthacariyaṁ ātatthacariyaṁ buddhatthacariyanti tisso cariyāyo;
---- pacchimabhave gabbhavokkantiṁ, jatiṁ, abhinikkhamanaṁ;
---- padhānacariyaṁ, bodhipallaṅke māravijayaṁ;
---- sabbautaaṇappaṭivedhaṁ, dhammacakkappavattanaṁ, nava lokuttaradhammeti;
---- sabbepime Buddhaguṇe āvajjetvā;
---- Vesāliya tīsu pākārantaresu tiyāmarattiṁ parittaṁ karonto āyasmā Ānandatthero viya kāruacittaṁ upaṭṭhapetvā;

26. koṭīsatasahassesu, cakkavāḷesu devatā;
---- yassāṇaṁ paṭiggaṇhanti,
---- yaca Vesāliyā pure,

 

 

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P03. Metta Sutta
------ {mit~ta. oat~ta.}

BkCndP03<))

(p100)


{U.yyau:za.na.}
uyyojaa

 

 

 

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P04. Khandha Sutta
------ {hkn~Da. oat~ta.}

BkCndP04<))

(p102)


{U.yyau:za.na.}
uyyojaa

 

 

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P05. Mora Sutta
------ {mau:ra. oat~ta.}

Pal-Myan: BkCndP05<))
Pal-Myan: BkCndMora<))
Pal-Lanka: BkCndMora<))
Pal-Chinese: BkCndMora<))

 

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P06. Vaṭṭa Sutta
------ {wT~Ta. oat~ta.}

BkCndP06<))

 

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P07. Dhajagga Sutta
------ {Da.zag~ga. oat~ta.}

BkCndP07<))

 

Contents of this page

P08. Ātānātiya Sutta
------ {a-Ta-na-Ti.ya. oat~ta.}

BkCndP08<))

 

Contents of this page

P09. Aṅgulimāla Sutta
------ { n~gu.li.ma-la. oat~ta.}

BkCndP09<))

 

Contents of this page

P10. Bojjhaṅga Sutta
------ {bauz~Zn~ga. oat~ta.}

BkCndP10<))

 

Contents of this page

P11. Pubbaṇha Sutta
------ {poab~ba.Nha. oat~ta.}

BkCndP11<))

 

Contents of this page

Original TOC

2.4. Eleven Mahā Paritta Suttas
2.5. Textual Resources
2.6. Historical Resources
2.7. Paritta as Bhāvanā Meditation
2.8. Recite and Work

3.0. Mahā Paritta Pāḷi - the Text of Great Protection - p022
3.1. Maṅgala Sutta - Discourse on Auspices - p025
3.2. Discourse on Precious Jewels - an historical sketch - p030
----- Ratana Sutta - p032
3.3. Discourse on Loving kindness - historical sketch - p041
----- Metta Sutta -p043
3.4. Khandha Paritta Sutta - Discourse on Protection of the Aggregates - p047
3.5. Mora Sutta - Discourse on the Peacock's prayer - a historical sketch - p051
----- Because of similarities, I contend that Gayatri Mantra of Hinduism is the equivalent of Mora-Sutta
----- Skt-Dev: Gayatri Mantra-AnuradhaPaudwel<))
3.6. Vaṭṭa Sutta - Discourse on the Quail's confession [Asservation of Truth] - p056
3.7. Dhajagga Sutta - Discourse on the Crest of Banner - p60
3.8. Ātānātiya Sutta - Discourse on Ātānātiya [Cattāro Mahārājāno's command over Yakkhas] - p068
----- See: http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/aa/aataanaatiya_s.htm 191211
3.9. Aṅgulimāla Sutta - Act of Truth by Reverend Aṅgulimāla [mass murderer turned Saint] - p074
3.10. Bojjhaṅga Sutta - Discourse on the Seven Factors of Enlightment - p077
3.11. Pubbaṇha Sutta - Discourse on Good Morning - p083

4.0. Mahā Paritta Pāḷi transliteration - p089
----- The above has been expanded into individual paritta: Go to Mahā Paritta Pāḷi

5.0. Pabbājaniya Kammavācā
----- Monastic Sanction of Act of Banishment - p125
----- transliteration - p127

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UKT notes
1.0. Sao Htun Hmat Win, the author, abbreviated to SHHW.
----- Note: "Sao" in Shan-Myan is equiv. to "U" in Bur-Myan.
Acknowledgements
Doggie's Tale

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2.1. Method of Translation

(p001)
This is my (Sao Htun Hmat Win abbreviated to SHHW) modest confession. To the best of my ability and confidence in this instance, I am rendering the original version of the book of eleven Mahāparitta Suttas in Burmese Pāḷi (Pali-Myan) into English (and Pali-Lat). The translation has been so attempted that it will be as close to the literal Pāḷi phrases as possibe. In order to serve the readers a very faithful and readable rendering, the Pāḷi stanzas have been translated in word for word transformative design.

I (SHHW) have also endeavoured sincerely to help the readers to be able to refer to the original Pāḷi text [evidently Pal-Myan of the Sixth Council] , by indicating the number of the Pāḷi stanza at the head of each translated paragraph. To e in accordance with the standardised Sixth Buddhist Council version of the Mahāparitta Pāḷi  text printed in Burma 1956, the total number of stanzas in this book is set 164.

The English syntax may sometimes be not too clear or exact, but if the readers can grasp the inherent meaning and intrinsic value of the discourses however vaguely this work must be considered satisfactory. (p001end)

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2.2. Buddhism as Religion

(p002begin)
Moreover, to elucidate the unintelligible meaning of some passages in the translation, I (SHHW) have provided a brief historical sketch of each discourse at the beginning of every Sutta . This may serve as the exegetical introduction to each Paritta Sutta.

Not being contented with such a technical endeavour, I have committed myself to a research exploration on the religious character of Myanmar Burmese Buddhism in conjunction with the eleven Paritta Suttas .

In this presentation I am not prepared to argue about the salient diversity in the definitions of the term "Buddhism". The readers may already have conceived that Buddhism is all encompassing, wholesome, meaningful, global and a humanistic social philosophy -- though it may sometimes be with reference to the context, philosophical, theological, ethical, psychological, historical, mystical, and Religious .

This is a researcher's attempt to consider briefly the religious position of Myanmar Burmese Buddhism; and to reveal the status of Mahāparittas text in Buddhism; being prayers for prosperity and safety of the Buddhists in Myanmarpr Burma .

UKT 191201:  What SHHW has referred to as "Burmese Buddhism" , is the Theravada Buddhism that is practiced not only by the Bamah ethnics, but also by others such as Karen, Mon, Rakhine, Pa'O, Da'w, Shan, etc. Mahayana Buddhism is not encouraged in the country and Vajrayana or Tantric branch of Mahayana is banned since the days of religious reform of King Anawrahta of Pagan kingdom. The King suppressed the religion of the Arigyis {a.ri:kri:}, who were presumably Bur-Myan speaking monks, and introduced the Theravada Buddhism from southern Mon-Myan speaking monks.

My question is who were the Aris? Was their faith similar to the Weizzar {waiz~za} tradition of Bo Bo Aung {Bo:Bo:un}, which is currently practiced under the umbrella of Theravada Buddhism? These questions are beyond me to answer. But first let's see what the Vajrayana or Tantric Buddhism of Tibet is in The Tantric Buddhism of Tibet , by Reginald A. Ray, 2002, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- RARay-TantricTibet<> / Bkp<> (link chk 191201)

I (SHHWin) am quite reluctant to pronounce that Buddhism is a Religion; however I have to admit that here there are many vital religious (p002end-p003begin) elements enshrined in this faith, especially in Burmese Buddhism which usually claims to be the Pristine Form of Theravada Tradition.

UKT 191201: What is the dictionary meaning of Religion ?
- religion - n. . a. Belief in and reverence for a supernatural power or powers regarded as creator and governor of the universe. b. A personal or institutionalized system grounded in such belief and worship. . The life or condition of a person in a religious order. . A set of beliefs, values, and practices based on the teachings of a spiritual leader. 4. A cause, a principle, or an activity pursued with zeal or conscientious devotion. -- AHTD

In the daily life of a Burman Buddhist, critically speaking, the outlook is very much religious as in other great world religions.  The following statements may reveal how much Burmese Buddhism is religious.  

Buddhism is an Ideological System. It is a religion of Explicit Salvation and hence is to be called Nibbanic Buddhism. "

UKT 181012 - {naib~baan ayu wa-da.} which must be viewed as  {hso:kan:lwt ayu wa-da.} 'freedom from both suffering and enjoyment'. It is based on 3 observable facts, and a solution from suffering. It is in fact a scientific philosophy - not based on any Axiomatic beliefs.]

Again it is a religion of Proximate Salvation and can therefore can be classified  as Kammatic Buddhism. 

UKT 181012: {Ba.wa.kn a.kyo: ayu wa-da.} - an Axiomatic belief.

It may even be typified as a religion of Chiliastic Expectations, for imminent and immanent salvation, the enjoyment of better world as an event which occurs within history, to be known as Esoteric Buddhism."

UKT 181012: {myak-mhauk a.kyo: ayu wa-da.} - based on life's experience."

UKT 190516: To the three aspects of Buddhism noted by Sao Htun Hmat Win, I must add my view: Buddhism confined to the first two sermons of Gautama Buddha, is a natural Science just as Thermodynamics is. It is not based on any Axiom. The question of the Creator (YHVH, God, Allah and Maha-Dvas) has no place in it.

It may even be typified as a religion of Chiliastic Expectations, for imminent and immanent salvation, the enjoyment of a better world as an event which history, to be known as Esoteric Buddhism .

UKT 191201: On this remark of Chiliastic Expectations, you should read Buddhism and Society: A Great Tradition and its Burmese Viscissitudes, by Melford E. Spiro, 1982. Downloaded article, p162, in TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF webarchive section
- Buddhism-Soc<> / Bkp<> (link chk 191202)

It is quite obvious that Buddhism has a well-established monastic system too. Its normative structure, social structure, recruitment structure, character structure, and even the status of monkhood in Myanmar Burmese society can be all treated as the components of a religious institution.

And sometimes Buddhism can be treated as a Ritual System too, being endowed with various rites and rituals the obvious characteristic of a typical religion. (p003end-p004begin)

More specifically, Buddhism has an apotropiac phenomenon which also indicates it to be a religion of magical protection.

Contents of this page

2.3. Apotropic Buddhism

Of all the above mentioned religious characteristics of Myanmar Burmese Buddhism, this article is to discuss on the Apotropaic issue, the religious phenomena of Magical protection.

Apotropaion is a technical term derived from Greek, which means any amulet or supposed charm against evil influences.

Apotropaic therefore indicates avertin evil; of or pertaining to an Apotropaion .

Let us presume here, for the benefit of academic discussion, that apotropiac Buddhism is one of the peculiar phases of the Faith in Myanmar Burmese tradition. An the discussion will be encompassed within the boundary of apotropiac approach, even when we deal with the Mahāparitta Sutta discourses.

Apotropiac Buddhism is concerned with important matters in this present existence; illness and health, drought and rain, calamity and tranquility, danger and security.

It also assumes that the goals involved here can be attained by specific magical acts (p004end-p005begin) which either generate immediate power or invoke the assistance of supernatural forces. For Apotropiac Buddhism the religion as a whole (its devotion, ritual, ethics, scripture and what not) acts as protective measures against the dangers of the present existence. [UKT ]

The world (Loka {lau:ka.}) is viewed by [Theravada] Myanmars Burmans to be dangerous because ghosts, demons, evil spirits, Nats and evil souls [collectively known as {na-na-Ba-wa.}] existing everywhere; one is constantly and unpredictively in danger of being harmed. Therefore Buddhism is a refuge against all these dangers. Security is achieved by Buddhistic means. [UKT ]

UKT 191202: Another kind of danger is the spells of wizards {soan:} and geomancers {auk-lm:hsa.ra}. It is not only the Theravada Myanmars who believe in such dangers. I've seen Christian and Muslim Myanmars who also believe in such dangers. When these non-Buddhists believe that they are under the attack of evil forces, they would ultimately turn to the Buddhists, who would help them anyway without converting them to Buddhism. For what the Myanmars of the past generations had believed read The Burman, His Life and Notions, by Shway Yoe aka James G Scott, 1896, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- JGScott-ShweYoTheBurman<> / Bkp<> (link chk 191202)

Buddhism prevails as the haven of the [Theravada] Myanmar Burmese people. Most of the Burmese Buddhist rituals are apotropaic and they are performed to extricate the believer from a calamity which he is now suffering, or save the devotee from the danger which is impending. There are causes and occasions of these dangers.
They are: 1. Natural Kammaic,  and 2. Supernatural Kammaic resources.

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2.3.1. Solutions for Natural Kammaic causes

Because of natural Kammaic reasons, ills, hazards, and miserable troubles come into existence. [UKT ]

UKT 191202: In Milinda Paha {mi.lain~da. pa.a} or Questions of King Milinda, {mi.lain~da. mn:} questions Shin Nāgasena {rhin na-ga.-na.} - the Buddhist monk - on many things which included the result of a wrong doing in the past life taking effect in the present life. The why of Buddha's foot being injured by the splinter from a falling boulder, was a question. Shin Nāgasena simply replied that it was because of Devadatta pushing down the boulder. 
See The Debate Of King Milinda by Bhikkhu Pesala, 1991
- BhikkhuPesala-DebateMinlinda<> / Bkp<> (link chk 191202)
Note: In the title Paha which means that is probably Nya'major {a.}/ {} . The following is from

8. Purity of the Buddha
Question: ... why did he [Tathāgata] get hurt by a splinter of rock that was thrown by Devadatta? ..."
Answer: "... The ignorant go too far when they say that everything that is experienced is produced as the fruit of kamma. || When the Blessed Ones foot was grazed by the splinter of rock the pain was produced only by external agency. Although the Blessed One never suffered pain that was the result of his own kamma, or brought about by the stress of circumstances, he suffered pain from each of the other six causes.84 "

UKT 191203: From the above, I understand that
   "pain that was the result of his own kamma " as mental pain (anger against the perpetrator of the act, and
   "pain from each of the other six causes" as bodily pain .
The six causes had been elaborated by Shin Nāgasena earlier in medical terms of his day : "excess of wind, of bile and of phlegm, the mixture of the three bodily fluids, variations in temperature, stress of circumstances,".

For instance, accidents, imprisonment, sickness, dogbites, snakehits, drought, loss of wealth, defamation and other inevitable quarrels and fights are the resultant issues of natural kammaic resources. Such imminent and critical problems are solved (p005end-p006begin) in a variety ways by the Myanmars Burmans .[UKT ]

UKT 191203: The following solutions by way of charity, social work and labour, can be carried out by any individual who may poor and infirm.

Medical treatments are given to the sick [UKT ]:

UKT 191203: A poor person can give leaves and barks of medicinal value which can be obtained from plants in nearby forest or road side. It amounts to "Medical treatments to the sick".

agrarian and irrigation systems are improved and materialized [UKT ]

UKT 191203: You may just pick up your spade and hoe and clear a clogged drain, or dig a small ditch to drain away an unwanted pool in a monastery or your neigbourhood. It amounts to "improvement of agrarian and irrigation systems". You may do these public works alone or organize a few friends to help you.

to afford protection against famine and draught; legal, social and political measures are carried out to help those who have who have breached laws and regulation [including thieves and robbers and their families] [UKT ]

UKT 191203: Visiting a thief who had been punished, by public whipping, to give money and soothing words might be a charitable act - taking care not to get into trouble with the authorities. You may employ the widow of a robber who had been hanged, or who had been deported to penal colony.

Personal note: In my wife's family, the widow of a robber who had been deported to the penal colony had been employed as domestic servant. My wife told me of an incident when my wife who was about three at that time how the elderly servant, Daw Aye Tin, had escorted her to a monk's funeral which was held in great style. Daw Aye Tin had told her beforehand that there would be eatables and drinks handed out free at the ceremony. When the child did not get anything to eat, she demanded "Daw Aye Tin, where are the eatables?" in a very loud voice much to the embarrassment of the elder!

You will notice that the remedies I have outlined above are social and charitable acts. In a way that is how the country of Myanmarpr is the most charitable country in the whole world.

 

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2.3.2. Solutions for Supernatural Kammaic causes 

Yet these solutions these solutions are sometimes ineffective. If these problems cannot be sufficiently coped with by such naturalistic techniques, Myanmar Burmese Buddhists customarily resort to rituals of Apotropaic Buddhism [which maybe called] or Buddhist magical rituals.

Where the dangers and perils are not overcome by naturalistic techniques, then the causes of the incidents are ascribed to supernatural kammaic reasons - witchcraft, spirits, planetary influence, charms and bad luck.

UKT 191203: How we become aware of impending danger is by:
- consulting an astrologer
- seeing omens
- unusual dreams

UKT 191203: By "planetary influence" is not the influence actual astronomical planets and their gravitational forces. By "planet" is the luminaries - sun, moon, mercury, venus, mars, jupiter, saturn, rahu (the non-luminous lunar node - a calculated entity) (I usually spelled with small letters) - which travel against the background of fixed stars. By "planetary influence" is meant the action of the god of planet. I usually spelled them with capital letters: Sun (ruler of the astronomical body, and day of the week -Sunday), Moon (Monday), Mars (Tuesday), Mercury (Wednesday-morning), Jupiter (Thursday), Venus (Friday), Saturn (Saturday), and Rahu (Wednesday-afternoon). They are the astrological planets. Unlike the Greek-Roman counterparts, they are all males, some with masculine attributes, such as Mars, and some with feminine attributes, such as Venus, and some in-between (Mercury). They are all anthropomorphic entities. They also rule the 8 cardinal points of compass as depicted on the platform of every pagoda.

 

Consulting an astrologer

Astrological influence on the daily life of a [Buddhist] Myanmar Burman is great. The [Manipuri] Brahmins - "Poṇṇahs " {[poaN~Na:} are hereditary astrological advisors to the Burmese families. [UKT]

UKT 191204: Some families consult an astrologer regularly just as some would consult a medical doctor. Just as there are medical doctors who would take advantage of a patient's concern with his or her personal health - who are no better than quacks, there are charlatans who  pretend to give you sound astrological advice. To protect my family from medical quacks, I have to learn about tropical infectious diseases, and medicine in general. At present the Internet is a good help. But in years past, I had to use the library. I had to train myself using laboratory microscopes including the preparation of slides. In that way, I had looked after the health of my children. Similarly, I had to learn astrology.  

The role of Manipuri Brahmins as astrologers in modern Myanmarpr has greatly decreased since my childhood days. Their role as astrologers and masters of ceremonies at weddings and initiation ceremonies has been taken over by Burmese ethnics. At present almost none of the noted astrologers and palmists are Manipuri Brahmins. Their astrological role at present are as calculators of almanacs and writers of personal astrological horoscopes on palm-leaf.

As a personal note I must mention an incident after I earned some name as an astrologer at the Mandalay University. A girl student mine taking chemistry as major, a Manipuri Brahmin girl, approached me to teach Hindu astrology to her uncle. I specialize in a branch known as the Attawagga. I had to refused, saying that it would be like "showing a watery field of action to a crocodile" {mi.hkan:mn: r-hkn:pra.} .

Planetary reflections upon the destiny of the individual and the nation are watched with great interest, whether beneficent or maleficent. Immediate necessary actions must be carried out to avoid in time when signs of unhappy Planetary influences are detected.

Seeing Omens, and hearing Ta'baungs 

Good and bad omens [such as the appearance of a comet - an omen for the king and country, and the screeching of an owl on the roof of a person's home - an omen for a residence of the house] are also interpreted seriously by the nation or by the individual; and effective preventions must be carried [p006end-p007begin] out promptly. In such events the use of Buddhist sacra or spells for protection against the abovementioned dangers must be  employed. The devout Burman must tell many rounds of rosary beads daily citing the Buddhist sacra.

UKT 191204: An example of "Telling rounds of rosary beads, 108 in all stringed loosely on a string and tied as a loop, and citing the Buddhist sacra" would be counting one bead at a time while saying softly any appropriate words, such as an attribute of the Buddha {Bu.ra: goaN-tau}. You need to have your mind concentrating on the action of your fingers and the meaning of the Buddha's attribute.

Building of pagodas, constructing of roads and bridges; setting free fish or any living animal from the hands of fishmongers or butchers, [or freeing  caged birds such as sparrows and doves], or in the least to support the branches and water the Bodhi trees, must be done to avoid those forthcoming dangers and disasters. [UKT ]

Inset: Dakkhiṇasākhā  {dak~hki.Na.a-hka} image of the Buddha is one from a southern branch of the sacred Bo-tree. -- MLC MED2006-212

Sometimes the Nine Buddhas {Bu.ra: ko:hsu} [puja must be done], or the Dakkhiṇasākhā  {dak~hki.Na.a-hka} image of the Buddha must be consecrated and honoured by the help of Buddhist monks [presided by professional puja masters] to avert the predicted calamities.

See: Nine-god puja in - flk-ele-indx.htm > ch02.htm (link chk 191204)
Note: this file Paritta.htm will eventually be returned to the above Folk Elements in Buddhism .

Very often the yellow robe of the Buddha or of a respectable monk is considered to be endowed with magical power as protection against evil supernatural forces. Hence the ultimate protection for a victim is to be ordained as a Buddhist monk to be able to don on the yellow monastic robe, even if for a temporary period. Such monk is known as Dullabha Rahaṅ.

Buddhist spells in verbal formula are known as Gāthā or Mantrāh, the chanting of which is believed to achieve a desired result by generating magical power or by compelling the assistance of superhuman divinities. Parittas or Rakkhaṇas are ori-( p007end-p008begin )ginally prayers for prosperity, safety, and the welfare of the Buddhist devotees in Burma, but gradually the Paritta Gāthās become Buddist spells. Parittā is a technical term derived from the [Pali language] root.

- (rakkhati) to rescue, to protect, to guard; with the prefix
pari - all around (samantato), from all directions.

Paritta may therefore be interpreted as Buddhist Protecting Charms or Buddhist Raksha Mantras. Mahā means great; holy; sacred; auspicious; mighty; abundant. Thus the great collection of Buddhist spells is generally known as Mahā Paritta Suttas in Burma. [UKT - to begin another slightly different vein in ch01-2.htm ] ( mid-p008 )

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References cited in the original work
Language and script
Language, transcription and transliteration
Diacritical marks
Forms a and ɑ
Pali language and myself

 

UKT notes :
 

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2.0. Mahā Paritta Pāḷi
2.4. Eleven Mahā Paritta Suttas

Invocation BkCndlPkt00<))

1. O dieties, who are residing

01. <))

 

02. <))

 

03. <))

 

04. <))

 

05. <))

 

06. <))

 

07. <))

 

08. <))

 

09. <))

 

10. <))

 

11. <))

 

 

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References cited in the original work:
1. Eleven Holy Discourses of Protection: Maha Paritta Pali; by Sao Htun Hmat Win, 1991.
2. Mangala Sutta in Pali, from 'The Teachings of the Buddha', Basic Level, Ministry of Religious Affairs, Yangon, 1998
3. How to Live as a Good Buddhis (in Myanmar/Burmese), Ministry of Religious Affairs, Yangon, 1991

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UKT notes

Sao Htun Hmat Win

1.0. The author : Sao Htun Hmat Win abbreviated to SHHW.
-------- Note: "Sao" in Shan-Myan is equiv. to "U" in Bur-Myan.
----- Acknowledgements

The nativity of Sao Htun Hmat Win, the eldest son of U Gaw Ya (a) Sao Sam Hlaing and Nang Htay Htay was celebrated at Fort Stedman in Mong Hsauk Township of Yawnghwe State in the Shan Hills, on the 12th of August 1925.

UKT 191212: See Colonel Stedman, after whom the fort was named in The Uneasy Subordinate Alliance: The Relations between Myanmar and the Shan States in Late Nineteenth Century, by Shwe Zin Maw, Univ. of Mandalay, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- SZMaw-MyanShan19century<> / Bkp<> (link chk 191212)

He got through his elementary, secondary and higher education in Mong Hsawk, Yawnghwe, and Taunggyi American Boys High School successively, receiving outstanding awardments of Federation Scholarship. In 1942 he received the Diploma in Teaching of Japanese Language with first class honours.

Sao Htun Hmat Win was awarded the Rangoon University Collegiate Scholarship and the President's Prize of Distinction in the Matriculation Examination in 1947.                   )

Fully ordained as a monk with an epithet of Rev: Vannadhajasiri, he passed the Lower the Middle, and the Higher monastic examinations in Buddhist canonical scriptures. He also won first prizes in Literary Contests sponsored by the National Fine Arts and University Burmese Association, in 1949-50.

Soa Htun Hmat Win, graduated from Rangoon University with degrees of B.A. Hons: in 1952, M. A. in 1954, and was granted the Special Research Scholar Awardment in 1957 at the International Institute for Advanced Buddhistic Studies.

Nominated by the Government, he was sent abroad to the United States of America and had successfully gone through his master degree in the History and Philosophy of Religion at Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. He was also enrolled in the Ph.D. Class as a Senior Research Fellow at the Harvard Divinity School in the Comparative Study of World Religions Program (1959-62).

In 1962 he returned home, to serve at the International for Advanced Buddhistic Studies as Head of Research Department; and eventually as the Director of Research in the Ministry of Religious Affairs.

In 1968 he gained the National Literary Award for his masterpiece, " Elements of (                )  Reserch Methods". Having enlisted as a pioneer member of the Writers and Journalists Organisation, he had devoted himself in research works for decades and contributed 27 books to the world of knowledge. He reads various languages such as Shan, Burmese, English, Japanese, German, Pali, Sanskrit, French, and Tibetan to the engender his intensive research exploration.

Well-known in the country for his piety and devotion in religion, this scholar, Sao Htun Hmat Win, at the age of 55, soon after his publications of "The Mudras in Burmese Buddhist-Iconography", and "The Seats, Postures, Vehicles in Burmese Buddhist Iconography with an Historical Sketch of Burmese Buddhist Culture", here again presents another invaluable treatise " The Eleven Holy Discourses of Protection" or "The Mahaparitta Suttas and Pabbajaniya Kammavaca. (                   )

 

Acknowledgements

I express my deepest feeling of regard and gratitude to Professor Dr. Elizabeth K. Nottingham who as my affectionate proctor took pains to go through the entire manuscripts with scrupulous care, suggesting improvements, and always favouring me with her wide scholoarship and experience. She opened the doors for my further studies abroad and she released all that she could to make my three years stay in U.S.A. profitable. It was through her kind efforts and by virtue of her recommendations that the authority of the Harvard University in New England States gave me special privilege as a Senior Research Fellow to study in the program of Ph.D. in the History and Philosophy of Religion.

To Nang Htay Htay of the Harvard Graduate School of Education, and also to Dr. Robert Lawson Slator of the Center for the Study of World Religious, Harvard Divinity School, I take the opportunity to offer my sincere thanks and gratitude. Their words of encouragement and affectionate concern for success in my endeavours have been a source of strength and inspiration to me. My feeling of regard and gratitude (              )towards these three people are too deep for words and I cannot do more than merely record here my indebtedness to them.

This treatise owes its publication in this present form to the generosity of Daw Khin Thein Dine (Synthia) who even in the midst of her heavy duties at the Institute of Education has spared her precious time to go through my papers and has contributed her wise suggestions to improve my command of English gratitude. I treasure here the ever-affectionate memory of her colaboration and friendship.

Of course, I do thank most sincerely the International Institute for Advanced Buddhistic Studies for without which I would have no privilege to bring about this writing.

 

Sao Htun Hmat Win.
Rangoon, Burma.
August. 1980

 

 

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Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:  
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher and hisser, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā ă ấ  Ē ē ĕ ế  Ī ī ĭ  Ō ō ŏ  Ū ū ŭ ː
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ ɴ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Book marks: * star, dagger (alt0134), double dagger (alt0135).
Bur-Myan: for {gna.}-onset use c ċ (U010B) - unfortunately ċ is non-ASCII
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Repha spelling: exemplified by
  dharma: ध र ् म --> धर्म 
  spota: ष ् प र ् श ा ः --> ष्पर
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: भ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ
  च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev Row #3: ट ठ ड ढ ण ; conjunct ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
IAST Dev: Repha & Viram-position, e.g. तर्ज tarj [ targ ] = त र ् ज
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa क ् ष = क्ष
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Using ZWNJ (ZeroWidthNonJoiner), e.g. , क्‌ष (code: क्&zwnj;ष)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-width_non-joiner 150630
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ɲ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::tn}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols:
 ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ħ ʔ /ˌ / /ʰ/ /ʳ/ /ː/
  <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) 
  <kick> /kɪc/ (DJPD16-299 gives /kik/) and <kiss> /kɪs/ (DJPD16-301)
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ
Subscripts: ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ : CO₂

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

----- from my older work

UKT 130927: International Pali or Pal-Lat (Pali speech in Latin script) does not give the pronunciations of Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur) languages exemplified by Bur-Myan. I believe that our teacher the Gautama Buddha, had lived in Magadha Mahajanapada { ]born and died in a Tib-Bur speaking area, spoke in Magadhi - a Tib-Bur language - very close to Pal-Myan, the TOC is given in Romabama representing Pal-Myan. I was told that Mingun Sayadaw was also of the opinion that Pal-Myan is close to the language used by the Buddha. Mingun Sayadaw Ven. U Wicttarasa - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mingun_Sayadaw 130927 . The following Paritta are recited by Mingun Sayadaw in Pal-Myan.

Pix on the right shows {u-ra~a.ti. m-tau} - born in the Himalayas - holding a salver in the shape of pedestal on which are placed three palm-leaf books representing Tipitika. {u-ra~a.ti. m-tau} was a Tib-Bur goddess, taken over by the Hindu Brahmin-Poannas, and made into one of their goddesses. They placed a veena (वीणा {wi-Na} - related to the Burmese harp - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veena 130928) in her hands, and forcibly married her to one of their Trinity Deva-gods - the Mahabrahma. Below, I am showing what an artist can do: he must be thinking that the Hindu goddess has gone modern - she still has one of her mounts, the swan, to show that she is indeed Saraswati!

 

 

 

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