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Sanskrit English Dictionary

SED-semivow-r6-indx.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{ya.} [IPA /j/] य - ya1-149b2-2.htm : includes equivalents of {ya.hka.} and {ya.za.}
    {ya.ta.} - ya1ta1-149b3-3.htm
    {ya.ya.} - ya1ya1-150b4.htm 
{ya} या - ya2-151b3-4.htm
{yu.} यु - yu1-152b1-7.htm
{yau:}-{yau} यो yo यौ yau - yau1-153b2-4.htm

{ra.} र - ra1-155top-4.htm
{ra} रा - ra2-157b1-4.htm
{ri.} रि - ri1-159b1-2.htm

{la.} ल la - la1-160b2-2.htm
{la} ला lā - la2-161b3-3.htm
{li.} - li1-162top-2.htm

{wa.} व + {wän} - wa1-163b1-5.htm 
  {wa.ya.} - wa1ya1-164b3-5.htm : repha रेफ with {wa.} ( {war~} वर् = व र ् ) included
  {wa.la.} - wa1la1-166top-2.htm
 {wa} वा + {waäin} - wa2-167top-4.htm
  {wa-ya.} वाय - wa2ya1-168b1.htm
{wi.} वि + {wäin} - wi1-169top-2.htm
  {wi.ga.} - wi1ga1-169b3-6.htm
  {waid} विद् - wi1da1-170b3-4.htm
  {wi.na.} विन - wi1na1-172top-3.htm
  {wi.Ba.} विभ - wi1BBa1-173b1-6.htm
  {wi.ya.} विय - wi1ya1-174b1-4.htm
  {wi.sha.} विश - wi1sha1-175b1-5.htm 
  {wi.Sa.} विष - wi1ssa1-176b1-3.htm 
  {wi.þa.} विस - wi1tha1-176b3-7.htm
{wé}-{wè:}  वे  वै - we2-178b3-6.htm
{wya.} व्य - wya1-180b1-4.htm : some change with {bya.} ब्य

UKT notes :
{a.wag} consonants : approximant-semivowels • Nalanda University, Bihar, India • vocalic R

 

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UKT notes

{a.wag}-consonants : approximant-semivowels

by UKT

{a.wag} aka unclassifiable approximants can be subdivided into:
• semivowels aka semiconsonants
• fricatives made up of sibilants and thibilants, and
• pharyngeal or glottal <h>

The unclassifiable approximant-semivowels

In Bur-Myan, these phonemes, as onset-consonants, can form medials, but as coda-consonants they are incapable of checking the vowel. Hence, they can be considered to have vowel-like properties. In Eng-Latin, they give rise to diphthongs with gliding sounds. In Bur-Myan these "diphthongs" are pronounced without gliding sounds -- as monophthongs. I am waiting for comments from my peers. -- UKT 110317

The fricatives

Many phoneticians, especially those from the West, cannot differentiate the thibilant sounds (e.g. Eng-Lat <th> in <thin> and <that>) from the sibilant or hissing sounds (e.g. <s> <sh> <z>). However these two groups are differentiable to Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat speakers.

There is no sibilant-fricatives in Bur-Myan. There is only a palatal-plosive-stop {sa.} [= च ]. To incorporate Eng-Lat and Skt-Dev into Romabama, I need to invent one which will be designated {Sa.} [= ष ]. However, I am reluctant to invent a grapheme for a basic akshara unless absolutely necessary and I have decided to use the same grapheme for both as onset-consonants: {sa.} (palatal-stop) [= च ], and {Sa.} (sibilant-fricative) [= ष ]. Please note that I have not used {ca.} [= च ] for palatal-stop.
   Since, it is absolutely necessary to have different graphemes for coda-consonants, I have used: {c} and {S}. Please note again that I have used the killed {ca.} aks {c} [= च् ] for the palatal-stop. -- UKT110321

- the unclassifiable innermost akshara  {ha.} ह

[UKT: I still have to write in this space.]

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Nalanda University, Bihar, India

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nalanda 110315

Nālandā (Hindi/Sanskrit/Pali: नालंदा) [ {na-län-da} ] is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India. The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from 427 to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the first great universities in recorded history." Some buildings were constructed by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka the Great (i.e. Raja Asoka: 273–232 BCE) which is an indication of an early establishment of the Buddhist learning center Nalanda. The Gupta Empire also patronized some monasteries. According to historians, Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Gupta king Śakrāditya (also known as Kumāragupta, reigned 415-55) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from Buddhist emperors like Harsha as well as later emperors from the Pala Empire.  The complex was built with red bricks and its ruins occupy an area of 14 hectares. At its peak, the university attracted scholars and students from as far away as China, Greece, and Persia. Nalanda was sacked by Turkic Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khalji in 1193, a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. The great library of Nalanda University was so vast that it is reported to have burned for three months after the Mughals set fire to it, sacked and destroyed the monasteries, and drove the monks from the site. In 2006, Singapore, China, India, Japan, and other nations, announced a proposed plan to restore and revive the ancient site as Nalanda International University.

Nalanda means "insatiable in giving."

The Chinese pilgrim-monk Xuanzang gives several explanations of the name Nālandā. One is that it was named after the Nāga [presumably {na.ga:}] who lived in a tank in the middle of the mango grove. Another – the one he accepted – is that Shakyamuni Buddha once had his capital here and gave "alms without intermission", hence the name.

Sariputta died at the village called 'Nalaka,' which is also identified as Nalanda by many scholars.

History: In the time of the Buddha (500 BCE)

The Buddha is mentioned as having several times stayed at Nalanda. When he visited Nalanda he would usually reside in Pāvārika's mango grove, and while there he had discussions with Upāli-Gahapati and Dīghatapassī,[7] with Kevatta,[8] and also several conversations with Asibandhakaputta.[9]

The Buddha visited Nālandā during his last tour through Magadha, and it was there that Sariputta uttered his "lion's roar," affirming his faith in the Buddha, shortly before his death.[10] The road from Rājagaha to Nālandā passed through Ambalatthikā,[11] and from Nālandā it went on to Pātaligāma.[12] Between Rājagaha and Nālandā was situated the Bahuputta cetiya.[13]

According to the Kevatta Sutta,[14] in the Buddha's time Nālandā was already an influential and prosperous town, thickly populated, though it was not until later that it became the centre of learning for which it afterwards became famous. There is a record in the Samyutta Nikaya,[15] of the town having been the victim of a severe famine during the Buddha's time. Sāriputta, the right hand disciple of the Buddha, was born and died in Nālandā.[1]

Nālandā was the residence of Sonnadinnā.[16] Mahavira is several times mentioned as staying at Nālandā, which was evidently a centre of activity of the Jains. Mahavira is believed to have attained Moksha at Pavapuri, which is located in Nalanda (also according to one sect of Jainism he was born in the nearby village called Kundalpur).

King Asoka (250 BC) is said to have built a stupa in the memory of Sariputta. According to Tibetan sources, Nagarjuna taught there.[17]

Founding of the university and the Gupta heyday

Historical studies indicate that the University of Nalanda was established during the reign of the Gupta emperor Kumaragupta.[1] Both Xuanzang and Prajñavarman cite him as the founder, as does a seal discovered at the site.[4]

As historian Sukumar Dutt describes it, the history of Nalanda university "falls into two main divisions -- first, one of growth, development and fruition from the sixth century to the ninth, when it was dominated by the liberal cultural traditions inherited from the Gupta age; the second, one of gradual decline and final dissolution from the ninth century to the thirteen -- a period when the tantric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in eastern India."[18]

History: In the Pāla

A number of monasteries grew up during the Pāla period in ancient Bengal and Magadha. According to Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas stood out: Vikramashila, the premier university of the era; Nalanda, past its prime but still illustrious, Somapura, Odantapurā, and Jaggadala.[19] The five monasteries formed a network; "all of them were under state supervision" and there existed "a system of co-ordination among them . . it seems from the evidence that the different seats of Buddhist learning that functioned in eastern India under the Pāla were regarded together as forming a network, an interlinked group of institutions," and it was common for great scholars to move easily from position to position among them.[20]

During the Pālā period the Nālānda was less singularly outstanding, as other Pāla establishments "must have drawn away a number of learned monks from Nālānda when all of them . . came under the aegis of the Pālās."[18]

History: Decline and end

In 1193, the Nalanda University was sacked by the Islamic fanatic Bakhtiyar Khilji, a Turk;[21] this event is seen by scholars as a late milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. The Persian historian Minhaj-i-Siraj, in his chronicle the Tabaquat-I-Nasiri, reported that thousands of monks were burned alive and thousands beheaded as Khilji tried his best to uproot Buddhism and plant Islam by the sword;[22] the burning of the library continued for several months and "smoke from the burning manuscripts hung for days like a dark pall over the low hills."[23]

UKT: The following is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bakhtiyar_Khalji 110315
   "He [Bakhtiyar Khilji] was one of the military generals of Qutb-ud-din Aybak. Muhammad Khilji raided Bihar in 1193. Bakhtiyar and his troops burned and destroyed one of the oldest universities in the world,the famous Buddhist university at Nalanda (in modern Bihar State) in the year 1193. Here he committed documented executions and had the monks beheaded, and others burned.
   "He also brought Bengal’s ruler Lakshman Sen under his authority, and captured his capital in 1205. He is the founder of the Khilji dynasty and is considered to be the first Muslim ruler of Bengal.
   "... ... ...
"In 1193 AD Khilji destroyed Nalanda university, the oldest university in the world and that point the highest seat of higher education in India. he killed 15,000 scholars and 200 faculty of the university and razed the entire building complex to the ground. He burnt the library at Nalanda that houses some of the most precious collections of Buddhist history and Indian history. "

The last throne-holder of Nalanda, Shakyashribhadra, fled to Tibet in 1204 CE at the invitation of the Tibetan translator Tropu Lotsawa (Khro-phu Lo-tsa-ba Byams-pa dpal). In Tibet he started an ordination lineage of the Mulasarvastivadin lineage to complement the two existing ones.

When the Tibetan translator Chag Lotsawa (Chag Lo-tsa-ba, 1197–1264) visited the site in 1235, he found it damaged and looted, with a 90-year-old teacher, Rahula Shribhadra, instructing a class of about 70 students.[24][25] During Chag Lotsawa's time there an incursion by Turkish soldiers caused the remaining students to flee. Despite all this, "remnants of the debilitated Buddhist community continued to struggle on under scarce resources until c. 1400 CE when Chagalaraja was reportedly the last king to have patronized Nalanda."[26]

Ahir considers the destruction of the temples, monasteries, centers of learning at Nalanda and northern India to be responsible for the demise of ancient Indian scientific thought in mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, and anatomy.[27]

According to some Indian historians, increasing pressure was felt on Nalanda from Brahmanical society over the course of the 10th century.[28] According to historian Prakash Buddh, a Yajna a fire sacrifice performed by Hindus resulted in a great conflagration which consumed Ratnabodhi, the nine-storeyed library of Nalanda.[29] In his Social history of India, the historian Sadasivan states, "the enormous manuscript library of the University was set on fire by Trithikas (all sects of Brahmins) with the support of Jainas due to the mounting jealousy they nurtured against the great center of learning."[28]

Overview

Nalanda was one of the world's first residential universities, i.e., it had dormitories for students. It is also one of the most famous universities. In its heyday it accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. The university was considered an architectural masterpiece, and was marked by a lofty wall and one gate. Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples, along with many other meditation halls and classrooms. On the grounds were lakes and parks. The library was located in a nine storied building where meticulous copies of texts were produced. The subjects taught at Nalanda University covered every field of learning, and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey.[2] During the period of Harsha the monastery is reported to have owned 200 villages given as grants.

The Tang Dynasty Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang left detailed accounts of the university in the 7th century. Xuanzang described how the regularly laid-out towers, forest of pavilions, harmikas and temples seemed to "soar above the mists in the sky" so that from their cells the monks "might witness the birth of the winds and clouds."[30] Xuanzang states: "An azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned with the full-blown cups of the blue lotus; the dazzling red flowers of the lovely kanaka hang here and there, and outside groves of mango trees offer the inhabitants their dense and protective shade."[31]

The entrance of many of the viharas in Nalanda University ruins can be seen with a bow marked floor; bow was the royal sign of Guptas'.

Libraries

The library of Nalanda, known as Dharma Gunj (Mountain of Truth) or Dharmagañja (Treasury of Truth), was the most renowned repository of Buddhist knowledge in the world at the time. Its collection was said to comprise hundreds of thousands of volumes, so extensive that it burned for months when set aflame by Muslim invaders. The library had three main buildings as high as nine stories tall, Ratnasagara (Sea of Jewels), Ratnodadhi (Ocean of Jewels), and Ratnarañjaka (Delighter of Jewels).

Curriculum

The Tibetan tradition holds that there were "four doxographies" (Tibetan: grub-mtha’) which were taught at Nālandā, and Alexander Berzin specifies these as:[34]

  1. Sarvāstivāda Vaibhāṣika
  2. Sarvāstivāda Sautrāntika
  3. Mādhyamaka, the Mahāyāna philosophy of Nāgārjuna
  4. Cittamatra, the Mahāyāna philosophy of Asaṅga and Vasubandhu

According to an unattributed article of the Dharma Fellowship (2005), the curriculum of Nalanda University at the time of Mañjuśrīmitra contained:

...virtually the entire range of world knowledge then available. Courses were drawn from every field of learning, Buddhist and Hindu, sacred and secular, foreign and native. Students studied science, astronomy, medicine, and logic as diligently as they applied themselves to metaphysics, philosophy, Samkhya, Yoga-shastra, the Veda, and the scriptures of Buddhism. They studied foreign philosophy likewise.

Administration

Yijing wrote that matters of discussion and administration at Nālandā would require assembly and consensus on decisions by all those at the assembly, as well as resident monks:[35]

If the monks had some business, they would assemble to discuss the matter. Then they ordered the officer, Vihārapāla, to circulate and report the matter to the resident monks one by one with folded hands. With the objection of a single monk, it would not pass. There was no use of beating or thumping to announce his case. In case a monk did something without consent of all the residents, he would be forced to leave the monastery. If there was a difference of opinion on a certain issue, they would give reason to convince (the other group). No force or coercion was used to convince.

Xuanzang also writes: "The lives of all these virtuous men were naturally governed by habits of the most solemn and strictest kind. Thus in the seven hundred years of the monastery's existence no man has ever contravened the rules of the discipline. The king showers it with the signs of his respect and veneration and has assigned the revenue from a hundred cities to pay for the maintenance of the religious."[31]

Influence on Buddhism

A vast amount of what came to comprise Tibetan Buddhism, both its Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions, stems from the late (9th–12th century) Nalanda teachers and traditions. The scholar Dharmakirti (ca. 7th century), one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic, as well as and one of the primary theorists of Buddhist atomism, taught at Nalanda.

Other forms of Buddhism, such as the Mahāyāna Buddhism followed in Vietnam, China, Korea and Japan, flourished within the walls of the ancient university. A number of scholars have associated some Mahāyāna texts such as the Śūraṅgama Sūtra, an important sūtra in East Asian Buddhism, with the Buddhist tradition at Nālandā.[36][37] Ron Epstein also notes that the general doctrinal position of the sūtra does indeed correspond to what is known about the Buddhist teachings at Nālandā toward the end of the Gupta period when it was translated.[38]

According to Hwui-Li, a Chinese visitor, Nalanda was held in contempt by some Theravadins for its emphasis on Mahayana philosophy. They reportedly chided King Harshavardhana for patronizing Nalanda during one of his visits to Orissa, mocking the "sky-flower" philosophy taught there and suggesting that he might as well patronize a Kapalika temple.[39]

Ruins

A number of ruined structures survive. Nearby is the Surya Mandir, a Hindu temple. The known and excavated ruins extend over an area of about 150,000 square metres, although if Xuanzang's account of Nalanda's extent is correlated with present excavations, almost 90% of it remains unexcavated. Nālandā is no longer inhabited. Today the nearest habitation is a village called Bargaon.

In 1951, a modern centre for Pali (Theravadin) Buddhist studies was founded nearby by Bhikshu Jagdish Kashyap, the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. Presently, this institute is pursuing an ambitious program of satellite imaging of the entire region.

The Nalanda Museum contains a number of manuscripts, and shows many examples of the items that have been excavated. India's first Multimedia Museum was opened on 26 January 2008, which recreates the history of Nalanda using a 3D animation film narrated by Shekhar Suman. Besides this there are four more sections in the Multimedia Museum: Geographical Perspective, Historical Perspective, Hall of Nalanda and Revival of Nalanda.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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vocalic R (German) : pronounced as vowel

From: Paul Joyce, German Course, Univ. of Portsmouth. http://userweb.port.ac.uk/~joyce1/abinitio/pronounce/consonr3.html 100102

The German vocalic 'r' is so-called because it is pronounced as a vowel, not a consonant. Sometimes referred to as a 'dark schwa', vocalic 'r' is articulated with the tongue slightly lower and further back in the vowel area than the 'schwa' sound heard at the end of such German words as 'Liebe', 'Katze' and 'Ratte'.

Vocalic 'r' can only be used in certain specific situations which are outlined below. Its most common usage is in unstressed "-er" syllables at the end of German words.

Sounds 1: Vocalic 'r' in final position: 83.mp3 <))
Bruder <brother> ; Schwester <sister>; Mutter <mother>; Vater <father>

The vocalic 'r' is also used in the final position in a word when the 'r'  follows a long vowel. Listen to the following six words, all of which end with a vocalic 'r' after a long vowel.

Sounds 2: Vocalic 'r' after a long vowel: 82.mp3 <))
¤ Tor <gate; goal> ; Uhr <clock> ;
¤ mehr <more> ; vier <four> ;
¤ Bier <beer> ; Chor <chorus>

Vocalic 'r' is also heard when the letter 'r' follows a long vowel but precedes another consonant. Listen to the following four words in which vocalic 'r' occurs before a following consonant.

Sounds 3: Vocalic 'r' after long vowel + before another consonant: 81.mp3 <))
¤ Pferd <horse> ; Herd <cooker> ;
¤ spürte <felt> ; führte <led>

You will also hear vocalic 'r' in the unstressed German prefixes er-, ver-, zer- and her-. Listen to the vocalic 'r' in four words containing these prefixes.

Sounds 4: Vocalic 'r' in unstressed prefixes: 84.mp3 <))
¤ erlauben <to allow> ; vergessen <to forget> ;
¤ zertören <to destroy) ; hereinkommen <to come in>

Distinguishing between vocalic 'r' and consonantal 'r' 

In the following pairs of words, the first word contains a vocalic 'r' in final position. The second word in each pair however contains a consonantal 'r'. Listen and note the distinction between the sounds that are made in each pair of words.

Sounds 5: Vocalic 'r' or consonantal 'r' ? : jünger.wav <))
¤ jünger <younger> ; die jüngere <the younger one>
¤ Meer <sea> ; Meere <seas>
¤ clever <clever> ; der clevere <the clever one>

Finally, listen to these words in which vocalic 'r' and consonantal 'r' occur within the same word. Note in particular how adding an '-in' suffix can change the articulation of what was previously a vocalic 'r' sound.

Sounds 6: Vocalic and consonantal 'r' within the same word: bruder.wav<))
¤ Frankfurter (Frankfurter sausage) ; Bruder <brother>
¤ Lehrer (male teacher) ; Lehrerin (female teacher)
¤ Reporter (male reporter) ; Reporterin (female reporter)

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