Update: 2012-01-03 10:15 PM +0630


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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 {pa.} प
{pn-ka.} पंक 
{pa.ka.} पक
{pa.sa.} पच
{pa.Ta.} पट
{pa.Hta.} पठ
{pa.Na.} पण
{pa.ta.} पत
  {pa.ti.} पति
  {pa.tya.} पत्य
  {pa.tra.} पत्र
{pa.hta.} पथ
{pa.da.} पद
  {pd~Da.} पद्ध
  {pd~ma.} पद्म
  {pn~ka.} पन्क
  {pn~hta.} पन्थ

UKT: Using Romabama in transliteration is bringing out differences in pronunciation between Translit-UPMT-Pal and UHS-Pal : e.g.,
 'cook' : पचति (pachati) :
  - pacati (= {pa.sa.ti.}) - UPMT-PED128
  - {pic~sa.ti.} - UHS-PMD0562
Other pronunciation dissimilarities, especially those involving
{::ting} and {kn~Si:} are also being observed. The reader should also pay attention to Romabama vowels, e.g. <but> /bʌt/ --> {bt} ; <put> /pʊt/ --> {pwut}
Need to recheck on consonants of row1-row2 and row3-row4. 110101

UKT notes
The {king:si:} and {::ting:} Lotus posture Parsvottanasana

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{pn-ka.} पंक : Pal: {pn~ka.}

पंक (pa.nka)
Skt: पंक (pa.nka) - mud - OnlineSktDict
Pal: paṅka - mn.  mud, sin - UPMT-PED128
  Translit-UPMT-Pal: {pn-ka.}

Skt: पङ्क paṅka  m. clay, mud, slush, morass - SpkSkt
Pal: {pn~ka.} - UHS-PMD0560

There seems to be two spellings (and pronunciations) for <mud>: पङ्क and पंक
See my note on {kn:~Si:} and {::ting:}

पंगु (pa.ngu)
Skt: पंगु (pa.ngu) - cripple - OnlineSktDict
Pal: paṅgu  *la , adj. lame, crippled - UPMT-PED128
Translit-UPMT-Pal: {pn-gu.}

Skt: पुङ्गु  puṅgu  adj. lame - SpkSkt
*Pal: {pn~gu.} - UHS-PMD0561


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पंच (pa.ncha)
Skt: पंच (pa.ncha) - five - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पञ्च (= प ञ ् च ) paca - num.adj. five - SpkSkt
Pal: paca  num. five - UPMT-PED130
Pal: {pi~sa.} - UHS-PMD0569 

पंचत्वंगं (pa.nchatva.ngaM)
Skt: पंचत्वंगं (pa.nchatva.ngaM) - to die - OnlineSktDict

पंचमः (pa.nchamaH)
Skt: पंचमः (pa.nchamaH) - m.nom.sing. the fifth - OnlineSktDict

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पंडितः (pa.nDitaH)
Skt: पंडितः (pa.nDitaH) - m.nom.sing. learned person - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पण्डित paṇḍita (= प ण ् ड ि त ) - adj. conversant with, learned, skilful in, wise,
  wise, clever, shrewd. m. teacher, scholar, earned man (?), pundit, Pandit, philosopher - SpkSkt
Pal: {pN~i.ta.} - - UHS-PMD0592

पंथा (pa.nthaa)
Skt: पंथा (pa.nthaa) - way - OnlineSktDict

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पंथाः (pa.nthaaH)
Skt: पंथाः (pa.nthaaH) - masc.Nom.sing.  path, way - OnlineSktDict

पंथानः (pa.nthaanaH)
Skt: पंथानः (pa.nthaanaH) - ways; paths - OnlineSktDict

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{pa.ka.} पक

पक्वं (pakvaM)
Skt: पक्वं (pakvaM) - ripe - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पक्क pakka - adj. ripe - SpkSkt
Pal: {pak~ka.} - - UHS-PMD0557

पक्षवाद्यं (pakShavaadyaM)
Skt: पक्षवाद्यं (pakShavaadyaM) - n. pakhaavaj - OnlineSktDict

See my note on pakhavaj

पङ्क (pa.nka)
Skt: पङ्क (pa.nka) - mud - OnlineSktDict
Pal: {pn~ka.} - UHS-PMD0560

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पङ्कि्त (pa.nkti)
Skt: पङ्कि्त (pa.nkti) - spectrum - OnlineSktDict

पङ्कि्तदर्शी (pa.nktidarshii)
Skt: पङ्कि्तदर्शी (pa.nktidarshii) - spectroscope - OnlineSktDict

पङ्कि्तमापी (pa.nktimaapii)
Skt: पङ्कि्तमापी (pa.nktimaapii) - spectrometer - OnlineSktDict

पङ्कि्तलेखा (pa.nktilekhaa)

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{pa.sa.} पच

पचति (pachati)
Skt: पचति (pachati) - 1pp. to cook - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पचति { पच् } pacati {pac} - v1. cook - SpkSkt
Pal: pacati  v. (√pac) to cook, dress food - UPMT-PED128
  Translit-UPMT-Pal: {pa.sa.ti.}
*Pal: {pic~sa.ti.} - UHS-PMD0562

- UHS-PMD0562


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पचन्ति (pachanti)
Skt: पचन्ति (pachanti) - prepare food - OnlineSktDict

पचामि (pachaami)
Skt: पचामि (pachaami) - I digest - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पाचन pācana n. digestion - SpkSkt

पच्यन्ते (pachyante)
Skt: पच्यन्ते (pachyante) - are cooked? - OnlineSktDict

पञ्च (paJNcha)
Skt: पञ्च (paJNcha) - five - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पञ्च  paca  - num.adj.  five  - SpkSkt
Pal: paca  num. five - UPMT-PED130
Pal: {pi~sa.} - - UHS-PMD0569 

पज्न्चमं (paJNchamaM)
Skt: पज्न्चमं (paJNchamaM) - the fifth - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पञ्चम pacama - fifth - SpkSkt

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{pa.Ta.} पट

पट (paTa)
Skt: पट (paTa) - spectrogram - OnlineSktDict
Pal: paṭa - mn. cloth, garment - UPMT-PED131

पटगृहम् (paTagRiham.h)
Skt: पटगृहम् (paTagRiham.h) - n. a tent - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पटगृह  paṭagṛha - n. tent - SpkSkt 

पटल paṭala
Skt: पटल paṭala - n. mass - SpkSkt

पटु (paTu)
Skt: पटु (paTu) - adj. skilled, clever - OnlineSktDict
Pal: paṭu - adj. sharp, skillful, sensible, healthy - UPMT-PED134
Pal: {pa.Tu.} - - UHS-PMD0589

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{pa.Hta.} पठ

पठ् (paTh.h)
Skt: पठ् (paTh.h) - to read - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: paṭhati  v. (√paṭh) to read - UPMT-PED134
  *Translit-UPMT-Pal: {pa.Hta.ti.}
*Pal: {pa.Hta.ya.ti.}, {pa.Hti.ta.} - - UHS-PMD0590

पठनं (paThanaM)
Skt: पठनं (paThanaM) - reading - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पठन paṭhana - n. reading - SpkSkt

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पठनीया (paThaniiyaa)
Skt: पठनीया (paThaniiyaa) - should be read - OnlineSktDict

पठामि (paThaami)
Skt: पठामि (paThaami) - read - OnlineSktDict

पठित्वा (paThitvaa)
Skt: पठित्वा (paThitvaa) - after reading - OnlineSktDict

पठेत् (paThet.h)
Skt: पठेत् (paThet.h) - may read - OnlineSktDict

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{pa.Na.} पण

पण (paNa)
Skt: पण (paNa) - play - OnlineSktDict
Pal: paṇa  m.  a bet, wager, hire, wealth, trade, shop - UPMT-PED134
Pal: {pa.Na.} - UHS-PMD0591

पणन (paNana)
Skt: पणन (paNana) - bargain - OnlineSktDict

पणनयोग्य (paNanayogya)
Skt: पणनयोग्य (paNanayogya) - marketable - OnlineSktDict

पणनयोग्यता (paNanayogyataa)
Skt: पणनयोग्यता (paNanayogyataa) - marketability - OnlineSktDict

पणवानक (paNavaanaka)
Skt: पणवानक (paNavaanaka) - small drums and kettledrums - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: paṇava  m. a small drum or tabor - UPMT-PED135
*Pal: {pa.Na.wa.} - UHS-PMD0591

पण्डित (paNDita) = प ण ् ड ि त
Skt: पण्डित (paNDita) - learned man - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पण्डित pandita - adj. shrewd, conversant with, learned, skilful in, wise, clever.
  m. learned man, pundit, Pandit, philosopher, teacher, scholar. - SpkSkt
Pal: paṇḍita - adj. wise, learned - UPMT-PED135
Pal: {paN~i.ta.} - UHS-PMD0591

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पण्डितं (paNDitaM)
Skt: पण्डितं (paNDitaM) - learned - OnlineSktDict

पण्डिताः (paNDitaaH)
Skt: पण्डिताः (paNDitaaH) - the learned - OnlineSktDict

पण्दित (paNdita)
Skt: पण्दित (paNdita) - the wise man - OnlineSktDict

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{pa.ta.} पत

पत् (pat.h)
Skt: पत् (pat.h) - to fall - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पतति { पत् } patati  {pat } - v. fall - SpkSkt
Pal: {pa.ta.} -  - UHS-PMD0593

पतग (pataga)
Skt: पतग (pataga) - bird - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: patanga , patanta  m. a bird - UPMT-PED135
*Pal: {pa.tn~ta.} - UHS-PMD0593

पतङ्गाः (pata.ngaaH)
Skt: पतङ्गाः (pata.ngaaH) - moths - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पतङ्ग pataṅga m. moth - SpkSkt
Pal: {pa.tn~ga.} - - UHS-PMD0593

पतित patita
Skt: पतित patita - adj. fallen - SpkSkt

पतति (patati)
Skt: पतति (patati) - 1pp. to fall - OnlineSktDict
Pal: patati  v. (√pat)  to fail (UKT: sp?), alight - UPMT-PED135
Pal: {pa.ta.ti.} - UHS-PMD0593

पतत्रिन् (patatrin.h)
Skt: पतत्रिन् (patatrin.h) - bird - OnlineSktDict
Pal: {pa.tn~ta.} - - UHS-PMD0593

पतन (patana)
Skt: पतन (patana) - falling - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पतन patana n. fall, falling - SpkSkt

पतन्ति (patanti)
Skt: पतन्ति (patanti) - fall down - OnlineSktDict

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पतये (pataye)
Skt: पतये (pataye) - husband - OnlineSktDict

पद्यते { पद् } padyate { pad } (= प द ् य त े { प द ् } )
Skt: पद्यते { पद् } padyate { pad } - v4. fall - SpkSkt

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{pa.ti.} पति

पति (pati)
Skt: पति (pati) - husband - OnlineSktDict
Pal: pati  m. master, lord, husband - UPMT-PED135
Pal: {pa.ti.} - UHS-PMD0594

पतिगृहं (patigRihaM)
Skt: पतिगृहं (patigRihaM) - Nr. Acc.sing husband's house

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पतितं (patitaM)
Skt; पतितं (patitaM) - past part. fallen - OnlineSktDict

पतिरेक (patireka)
Skt: पतिरेक (patireka) - He is the One Lord - OnlineSktDict

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पत्तः (pattaH)
Skt: पत्तः (pattaH) - m. lease - OnlineSktDict

Skt: पत्नि(patni) - wife - OnlineSktDict

पत्नी (patnii)
Skt: पत्नी (patnii) - wife - OnlineSktDict

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{pa.tya.} पत्य

पत्युः (patyuH) = प त ् य ु ः
Skt: पत्युः (patyuH) - Lord's - OnlineSktDict

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{pa.tra.} पत्र

पत्रं (patraM) = प त ् र ं
Skt: पत्रं (patraM) - a leaf - OnlineSktDict

पत्रकारः (patrakaaraH)
Skt: पत्रकारः (patrakaaraH) - m. journalist - OnlineSktDict

पत्रता (patrataa)
Skt: पत्रता (patrataa) - f. eligibility - OnlineSktDict

पत्रपेटिका (patrapeTikaa)
Skt: पत्रपेटिका (patrapeTikaa) - m. letter-box - OnlineSktDict

पत्रप्रेषयितु   patrapreṣayitu
Skt: पत्रप्रेषयितु   patrapreṣayitu   m. sender of a letter - SpkSkt

पत्रव्यवहार   patravyavahāra
Skt: पत्रव्यवहार   patravyavahāra   m. usage of letters - SpkSkt

पत्रस्वीकर्तु   patrasvīkartu
Skt: पत्रस्वीकर्तु   patrasvīkartu   m. receiver of a letter - SpkSkt

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पत्रम् (patram.h)
Skt: पत्रम् (patram.h) - n. a letter, note - OnlineSktDict

पत्रवाहः (patravaahaH)
Skt: पत्रवाहः (patravaahaH) - m. postman - OnlineSktDict

पत्रालयम् (patraalayam.h)
Skt: पत्रालयम् (patraalayam.h) - n. post office - OnlineSktDict

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{pa.hta.} पथ
not entered in OnlineSktDict

पथिक pathika
Skt: पथिक pathika - m. traveller - SpkSkt

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पथ् (path.h)
Skt: पथ् (path.h) - road - OnlineSktDict
Pal: patha  m. a path, road, course, way - UPMT-PED136
Pal: {pa.hta.} - UHS-PMD0599

पथ्य  pathya  (= प थ ् य )
Skt: पथ्य  pathya adj. digestible - SpkSkt

UKT: The word पथ्य  pathya can be pronounced in two ways on the basis of Bur-Myan phonology (note the position of syllable break |):
- {paht ya.} (= प थ ् | य ): not allowed in Bur-Myan and is reduced to {pat~ya.}
- {pa. htya.} (= प | थ ् य ): allowed in Bur-Myan
- I'm waiting for comments from my peers - UKT110101

पथि (pathi)
Skt: पथि (pathi) - on the path - OnlineSktDict

पथिक (pathika)
Skt: पथिक (pathika) - traveller - OnlineSktDict

पथ्य (pathya)
Skt: पथ्य (pathya) - suitable - OnlineSktDict

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{pa.da.} पद

पद (pada)
Skt: पद (pada) - step - OnlineSktDict
Pal: pada  n. step, stride, footprint, trace, track, mark, site, office, rank,
 abode, business, part, foot of stanza; m. word, sentence, the foot - UPMT-PED136
Pal: {pa.da.} - UHS-PMD0600

पदं (padaM)
Skt: पदं (padaM) - the step - OnlineSktDict

पदकम् (padakam.h)
Skt: पदकम् (padakam.h) - n. medal - OnlineSktDict

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पदानि (padaani)
Skt: पदानि (padaani) - words or steps - OnlineSktDict

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पदैः (padaiH)
Skt: पदैः (padaiH) - by the aphorisms - OnlineSktDict

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पदोन्नातिः (padonnatiH)
Skt: पदोन्नातिः (padonnatiH) - f. promotion - OnlineSktDict

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{pd~Da.} पद्ध

पद्धति (paddhati) (= प द ् ध त ि )
   [UKT: 3 entries were made on the same word in OnlineSktDict]
Skt: पद्धति (paddhati) - method, system. f. mode - OnlineSktDict
Skt: पद्धति paddhati - f. mode, method, system, way - SpkSkt
*Pal: paddhati  f. a road, line - UPMT-PED137
*Pal: {pd~Da.ti.} - UHS-PMD0603

कार्य-पद्धति kārya-paddhati - f. methodology -- SpkSkt


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{pd~ma.} पद्म

पद्म (padma) = प द ् म
Skt: पद्म (padma) - lotus - OnlineSktDict

पद्मनाभ (padmanaabha)
Skt: पद्मनाभ (padmanaabha) - a name of Vishnu - OnlineSktDict

पद्मपत्रं (padmapatraM)
Skt: पद्मपत्रं (padmapatraM) - a lotus leaf - OnlineSktDict

पद्मासन (padmaasana)
Skt: पद्मासन (padmaasana) - the lotus posture - OnlineSktDict

See my notes on Lotus posture


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पद्माक्षं (padmaakShaM)
Skt: पद्माक्षं (padmaakShaM) - lotus-eyed - OnlineSktDict

पनपरः (panaparaH)
Skt: पनपरः (panaparaH) - Succedant houses. Houses 2, 5, 8 and 11 - OnlineSktDict

पनसफलम् (panasaphalam.h)
Skt: पनसफलम् (panasaphalam.h) - n. jackfruit - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: panasa - m. the jack tree - UPMT-PED137

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{pn~ka.} पन्क

पन्कजस्थीत (pankajasthiita)
Skt: पन्कजस्थीत (pankajasthiita) - adj. gutter fallen - OnlineSktDict

पन्चमी (panchamii)
Skt: पन्चमी (panchamii) - 5th lunar Tithi - OnlineSktDict

पन्चाङ्ग (panchaa.nga)
Skt: पन्चाङ्ग (panchaa.nga) - Fivefold method of forecasting.
   Also, the name of a Vedic astrological almanac which is based on
   Vara, nakshatra, Tithi, karaNa, and Yoga - OnlineSktDict

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{pn~hta.} पन्थ

पन्थ (pantha)
Skt: पन्थ (pantha) - sects, based on the word path - OnlineSktDict

पन्थः (panthaH)
Skt: पन्थः (panthaH) - wayfarer - OnlineSktDict

पपकर्तरियोग (papakartariyoga)
Skt: पपकर्तरियोग (papakartariyoga) - Hemmed in between 2 malefics - OnlineSktDict

पन्न panna (= प न ् न )
Skt: पन्न panna adj. fallen, fallen down - SpkSkt

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UKT notes

The {kn~Si:} : an idiosyncrasy of the Burmese?

by UKT100930

The curious way in which the killed {nga.} - {nga.tht} - is written as the Bur-Myan {kn~Si:} has always intrigued me. Is it just an idiosyncrasy of the Burmese or is there a pronunciation aspect peculiar to the language? I have always wanted to see if a transliteration-translation between Skt-Devanagari, Pali-Latin, and, Bur-Myan would give me an answer to my question. In the following examples, you can see the results of such transliteration-translation:

#1. 'mud'
 Skt-Devan: पंक (pa.nka) --> Pal-Latin: paṅka --> Pal-Myan: {pn~ka.}

#2. 'cripple'/'dumb' (physically challenged)
 Skt-Devan: पंगु (pa.ngu) --> Pal-Latin: paṅgu --> Pal-Myan: {pn~gu.}

In the second example, though there is a perfect match between Skt-Devan and Pal-Latin, there is a difference in surface-meaning with Pal-Myan. However, since the words refer to a physical-body defect, I would tentatively take the transliteration-translation to be a match. There is still a need to study further to answer my question.

The problem can be seen from another aspect. The nasals {nga.} and {a.} are so difficult to pronounce by the non-Tib-Bur speakers that they have to use the {th:th:ting:} as a substitute for such sounds.

#3. 'five'
Skt-Devan: पंच (pa.ncha) --> Pal-Latin: paca  --> Pal-Myan: {pi~sa.}

I wait for comments from my peers - UKT100930

Go back kingsi-note-b

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Lotus posture

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_position 1101109

The lotus position (Skt: पद्मासन padmāsana; Turkish: bağdaş ; Japanese: kekka fuza (結跏趺坐?)) is a cross-legged sitting posture originating in meditative practices of ancient India, in which the feet are placed on the opposing thighs. It is an established posture, commonly used for meditation, in the Hindu Yoga and Buddhist contemplative traditions. The position is said to resemble a lotus, to encourage breathing proper to associated meditative practice, and to foster physical stability.

Famous depictions of the lotus position include Shiva, the meditating ascetic god of Hinduism, and Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism.

Padmāsana means "Lotus throne" and is also a term for actual thrones, often decorated with lotus foliage motifs, on which figures in art sit. In Balinese Hinduism, a prominent feature of temples is a special form of padmasana shrine, with empty thrones mounted on a column, for deities, especially Acintya.

UKT: More in Wiki article.

Go back lotus-pose-note-b

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakhavaj 110423

The Pakhavaj, also called Mardal, Pakhawaj, Pakuaj, Pakhvaj, Pakavaj or Mardala, is an Indian barrel-shaped, two-headed drum, the North Indian equivalent to the Southern mridangam. It is the standard percussion instrument in the dhrupad style and is widely used as an accompaniment for various forms of music and dance performances. The pakhavaj has a low, mellow tone, very rich in harmonics. Set horizontally on a cushion in front of the drummer's crossed leg, the larger bass-skin is played with the left hand, the treble skin by the right hand. The bass face is smeared with wet wheat dough which acts as the kiran and is the cause of the vivid, bass sound the Pakhawaj produces. This makes it very traditional in its built and rich in sound.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

Go back pakhavaj-note-b

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Parsvottansana posture

From: http://www.yogajournal.com/poses/1675 100526

parsva = side, flank
ut = intense
tan = to stretch or extend (compare the Latin verb tendere, to stretch or extend)

Step by Step

1. Stand in Tadasana . With an exhalation, step or lightly jump your feet 3 to 4 feet apart. Rest your hands on your hips. Turn your left foot in 45 to 60 degrees to the right and your right foot out to the right 90 degrees. Align the right heel with the left heel. Firm your thighs and turn your right thigh outward, so that the center of the right knee cap is in line with the center of the right ankle.

2. Exhale and rotate your torso to the right, squaring the front of your pelvis as much as possible with the front edge of your mat. As the left hip point turns forward, press the head of the left femur back to ground the back heel. Press your outer thighs inward, as if squeezing a block between your thighs. Firm your scapulas against your back torso, lengthen your coccyx toward the floor, and arch your upper torso back slightly.

3. With another exhalation, lean the torso forward from the groins over the right leg. Stop when the torso is parallel to the floor. Press your fingertips to the floor on either side of the right foot. If it isnt possible for you to touch the floor, support your hands on a pair of blocks or the seat of a folding chair. Press the thighs back and lengthen the torso forward, lifting through the top of the sternum.

4. In this pose the front-leg hip tends to lift up toward the shoulder and swing out to the side, which shortens the front-leg side. Be sure to soften the front-leg hip toward the earth and away from the same-side shoulder while you continue squeezing the outer thighs. Press the base of the big toe and the inner heel of the front foot firmly into the floor, then lift the inner groin of the front leg deep into the pelvis.

5. Hold your torso and head parallel to the floor for a few breaths. Then, if you have the flexibility, bring the front torso closer to the top of the thigh, but dont round forward from the waist to do this. Eventually the long front torso will rest down on the thigh. Hold your maximum position for 15 to 30 seconds, then come up with an inhalation by pressing actively through the back heel and dragging the coccyx first down and then into the pelvis. Then go to the left side.

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