Update: 2012-01-03 06:14 PM +0630


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{wag}-consonants - the classifiables : contd

{ta.} त ta - ta-073b2-2.htm
  {ta.hta.} - ta1hta1-p074top-6.htm
  {ta.ya.} - ta1ya1-075b2-2.htm
{ta} - ta2-076b1-4.htm
{ti.} ति - ti1-077top-5.htm
{tu.} तु + {tRi.} - tu1-077b2-2.htm
{t}-{t:} / ते तै - te-078top-3.htm
{tau:}-{tau} / तो तौ - tau-078b3-2.htm
t-medials - t-med-078b3-4.htm

Bur-Myan medials (formed with {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}) are supposed to be easily pronounceable conjuncts, however, in the case of r4 consonants (except the nasal), they are not. They are pronounced as disyllables: with schwa /ə/ in the first.

{da.} द - da1-080b2-2.htm
  {da.ya.} - da1ya1-081b1-4.htm
  {dar~} - dar-081b2-2.htm
  {da.la.} - da1la1-081b3-3.htm
{da} - da2-082b2-2.htm

{di.} दि - di1-083b2-2.htm
{di} दी - di2-084top-3.htm

{du.} दु du - du1-0842-3.htm
  {dur~} - dur-p085top-2.htm
{du} + {dRi} - du2-p086top.htm

{d}-{d:} / दे दै - de-086b3-3.htm
{dau:}-{dau} / दो दौ - dau-088b1.htm
d-medials - d-med-088b2-5.htm

{Da.} ध - DDa1-089b4.htm
  {Dar~} धर् - DDar-090b2-2.htm
{Da} धा - DDa2-091top-6.htm
{Di.} धि - DDi1-091b3.htm
  {DRi.} धृ - DDRRi1-092top-6.htm

{na.} न - na1-093top-3.htm
  {na.ya.} नय - na1ya1-094top-2.htm
  {na.la.} नल - na1la1-094b2-5.htm
  {na.sha.} नश - na1sha1-094b3-5.htm
     Includes my notes on my accepting conjunct {hya.} as a regular consonant {sha.}
{na} ना - na2-095top-4.htm
  {na-ya.} नाय - na2ya1-096top-2.htm
(ni.} ति - ni1-096b3-2.htm
  {ni.ya.} निय - ni1ya1-098b2-2.htm
  {nir~} निर्  - nir-099b2.htm
  {ni.yya.} निर्य - ni1yya1-100top.htm 
{ni} नी - ni2-101b2-2.htm


UKT notes :
vocalic R

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- the classifiables : continued

Note: The IPA symbols I have given are the nearest phonemic pronunciation
that I speak and hear and would be different for another person.
   Be careful of the environmental Romabama vowel change due to the killed coda consonant
inserted into a syllable shown in
black in the following examples:
{ka.ka.} --> {ka
k~ka.} (/a/ -> // )
{ka.ma.} --> {k
m~ma.} (/a/ -> /ʌ/ ) -- UKT 100616

The consonants are divided into two main groups, the {wag}-consonants from {ka.} through {ma.}, and {a.wag}-conjuncts from {ya.} through {ha.}. The {wag}-consonants are the regular consonants that can be cross-grouped as voiceless (vl.), voiced (vd.), and nasals, whereas the {a.wag}-consonants are not easily group-able and are known as the approximants. In the abugida system of writing, the consonants can form innumerable consonants in the form of conjuncts by use of virama (viram). These conjuncts are all pronounceable in Hindi (and Sanskrit), but only some are pronounceable in Burmese (and possibly Pali-Myanmar). Thus, for the Burmese speakers, the medials are those conjuncts that can be pronounced: the rest are simply conjuncts.

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UKT notes

vocalic R (German) : pronounced as vowel

From: Paul Joyce, German Course, Univ. of Portsmouth. http://userweb.port.ac.uk/~joyce1/abinitio/pronounce/consonr3.html 100102

The German vocalic 'r' is so-called because it is pronounced as a vowel, not a consonant. Sometimes referred to as a 'dark schwa', vocalic 'r' is articulated with the tongue slightly lower and further back in the vowel area than the 'schwa' sound heard at the end of such German words as 'Liebe', 'Katze' and 'Ratte'.

Vocalic 'r' can only be used in certain specific situations which are outlined below. Its most common usage is in unstressed "-er" syllables at the end of German words.

Sounds 1: Vocalic 'r' in final position: 83.mp3 <))
Bruder <brother> ; Schwester <sister>; Mutter <mother>; Vater <father>

The vocalic 'r' is also used in the final position in a word when the 'r'  follows a long vowel. Listen to the following six words, all of which end with a vocalic 'r' after a long vowel.

Sounds 2: Vocalic 'r' after a long vowel: 82.mp3 <))
Tor <gate; goal> ; Uhr <clock> ;
mehr <more> ; vier <four> ;
Bier <beer> ; Chor <chorus>

Vocalic 'r' is also heard when the letter 'r' follows a long vowel but precedes another consonant. Listen to the following four words in which vocalic 'r' occurs before a following consonant.

Sounds 3: Vocalic 'r' after long vowel + before another consonant: 81.mp3 <))
Pferd <horse> ; Herd <cooker> ;
sprte <felt> ; fhrte <led>

You will also hear vocalic 'r' in the unstressed German prefixes er-, ver-, zer- and her-. Listen to the vocalic 'r' in four words containing these prefixes.

Sounds 4: Vocalic 'r' in unstressed prefixes: 84.mp3 <))
erlauben <to allow> ; vergessen <to forget> ;
zertren <to destroy) ; hereinkommen <to come in>

Distinguishing between vocalic 'r' and consonantal 'r' 

In the following pairs of words, the first word contains a vocalic 'r' in final position. The second word in each pair however contains a consonantal 'r'. Listen and note the distinction between the sounds that are made in each pair of words.

Sounds 5: Vocalic 'r' or consonantal 'r' ? : jnger.wav <))
jnger <younger> ; die jngere <the younger one>
Meer <sea> ; Meere <seas>
clever <clever> ; der clevere <the clever one>

Finally, listen to these words in which vocalic 'r' and consonantal 'r' occur within the same word. Note in particular how adding an '-in' suffix can change the articulation of what was previously a vocalic 'r' sound.

Sounds 6: Vocalic and consonantal 'r' within the same word: bruder.wav<))
Frankfurter (Frankfurter sausage) ; Bruder <brother>
Lehrer (male teacher) ; Lehrerin (female teacher)
Reporter (male reporter) ; Reporterin (female reporter)

Go back vocalic-R-note-b

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End of TIL file