Update: 2012-01-03 03:22 PM +0630


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{wag}-consonants or classifiables
row3 {Ta.} - row4 {ta.}-groups
- the retroflex, and the dental plosive-stops.

{đa.} ड ḍa (Da) - d3a1-073b1-2.htm 

UKT notes :
Razakuma inscription

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- the classifiables : continued

Note: The IPA symbols I have given are the nearest phonemic pronunciation that I speak and hear and would be different for another person.
   Be careful of the environmental Romabama vowel change due to the killed coda consonant inserted into a syllable shown in
black in the following examples:
• {ka.ka.} --> {ka
k~ka.} (/a/ -> /ć/ )
• {ka.ma.} --> {kű
m~ma.} (/a/ -> /ʌ/ ) -- UKT 100616

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Rows 3 {Ta.} and 4 {ta.}-groups

-- by UKT 100424, rewritten 120102

The retroflex, alveolar and dental groups are usually pronounced the same by most Bur-Myan speakers in ordinary rapid speech. However there is a possibility that a few might pronounce them differently in careful speech:
-- for the retroflex: the underside of the tongue-tip touching the roof of the mouth , and
-- for the dental:  the tongue-tip touching the upper or lower teeth for the dental.
When I say "a few", I mean to include myself - I still have to observe more even on myself. 

Above shown the row 3 (retroflex) and row 4 (dental-alveolar) of the Asoka or Brahmi script, and the Edict of Asoka at Girnar. Try to find the pure circle r3c2. You'll find the circle with the inserted dot, r4c2, and the half-circle, r4c4, but not the pure circle itself. Does it mean that the Prakrit (Pali? or Magadhi?) did not have many retroflex sounds?

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UKT notes

Razakuma inscription

-- UKT 091005

From Ancient Pagan.com , Stone Inscriptions : http://www.ancientbagan.com/stone-inscriptions.htm 091001

Prince Rajakumara, son of King Kyansittha inscribed this stone inscription in AD 1113. Although he missed the chance of succeeding to the throne because King Kyansittha had chosen the grandson Alaungsithu as his immediate successor, Rajakumara was still loyal to his father. Rajakumara harbored no ill will or grudge against his father. He even showed his filial love and gratitude. This stone inscription was discovered at the foot of Myazedi Pagoda near Myinkaba Village to the south of old Bagan. A similar stone inscription was found in an old building near Myazedi Pagoda. It is now set up at the southeast corner of the precinct of Myazedi Pagoda. Both stone pillars have each four faces on which are inscribed in Pali, Pyu, Mon and Myanmar languages recording the same subject. The Myazedi stone inscription was one of the earliest writings discovered so far in the history of Myanmar literature. The stone pillar measures 55 inches high, 14 inches long and 14 inches broad.

The following are the texts on four sides of the pillar. Note that language can mean either the speech or the  script. Here by "language", I mean "speech". Thus, Burmese-Myanmar means spoken Burmese written in the Myanmar script, and by Mon-Myanmar I mean spoken Mon written in Myanmar script. What we do not know is the spoken Pyu (unless you take it be similar to Burmese spoken in modern Mindon township). The script in which Pyu was written is supposed to be that shown on one face of the stone, and is shown below. The caption I have given for it is simply "Pyu" without identifying the script to be Myanmar. Please remember, I am not an epigraphist, and I hesitate to commit myself. Now, some of my observations.


• I am a native Burmese-Myanmar (Bur-Myan), meaning my first language (L1) is Burmese and I write Burmese in Myanmar script. I can read many words on the Burmese panel and thus I am able to identify it as Bur-Myan.


• I do not speak Mon, but still I could identify many Mon words from the script on the third panel. And therefore I am justified in identifying the script as Mon-Myanmar (Mon-Myan).


• In both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan panels, there are aksharas which could be taken to be {ra.ric}. However, this sign is noticeably absent in the Pali panel. Though the shape of the aksharas are squarish, there are those which can be identified as {ka.}, {ma.}, {ya.}, and {loän:kri:ting} 'circle above'. And therefore, this panel can also be identified as Pali-Myanmar (Pal-Myan).


• As for Pyu, I and my staff could not identify a single grapheme with Myanmar, and therefore I hesitate to identify the script as Myanmar.


PIX above: The Myazedi {mra.sé-ti} stone inscription, written 1113 CE, a story about Prince Yazakuma {ra-za.ku.mar} . Source: unknown. The charcoal rubbings white on black has been color-inversed for better reading.

The charcoal rubbings are from an unidentified source (meaning my record has been lost). If you are a Bur-Myan, try to identify some words in the inscription on the right with the help of U Tun Aung Chain's text given below.

The text contains the word {ra.za.ku.mar} in many places, try to identify it in the inscription. Have fun!

The following is an excerpt from U Tun Aung Chain, Rajakumar Inscription http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/Perspective/persp2001/9-2001/raj.htm 091005

Myanmar Text (A 39 lines, B 34, lines)
Prosperity! Honour to the Buddha! One thousand six hundred and twenty-eight years of the Buddha's religion having elapsed, Sri Tribhuvanadityádhammaráj become king in this city of Arimaddanapur . A beloved wife of that king was named Trilokavatamsakádevě, and that beloved wife's son was named Rájakumár. That king gave the beloved wife three villages of slaves. That beloved wife having died, the king gave her ornaments and the three villages of slaves to her son named Rájakumár. At the time that that king having reigned twenty-eight years, became sick even unto death that son of the beloved wife, who was named Rájakumár, calling to mind the favours of the great king who had nurtured him, made an image of the Buddha all in gold. At the time he offered (it) he spoke thus: "I, your slave, made this golden Buddha for my lord; the three villages of slaves which my lord gave me, I gave to this golden Buddha." At that time the king, being  delighted, said: "Good, Good!" and, in the presence of the great monk Mahather, the great monk Muggaliputtatissatther, the great monk Sumedha the learned, the great monk Brahmapal, the great monk Brahmadiv, the great monk Son and the great monk Sanghasena the very learned, the king poured water. That being done, that son of the beloved wife who was named Rájakumár enshrined that golden Buddha, and made this cave-pagoda with a golden spire. Having finished (it), at the time he dedicated this cave-pagoda and Buddha, he brought up (the folk of) Sakmunalon, one village, Rapáy, one village, Henbuiw, one village, these three villages of slaves. That son of the beloved wife, who was named Rájakumár, poured water for this cave-pagoda and Buddha, and thus said: "Let this deed of mine be the cause of my obtaining Omniscience! After me, (whosoever) whether (he be) my son, or grandson, or relative, or any other person, if he oppresses the slaves I have offered to this Buddha, may he not behold the Buddha Arimittiyá!"

Go back Razakuma-note-b

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