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Sanskrit English Dictionary

SED-con-r1-indx.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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 SED-con-r1-indx.htm

Contents of this page

Introduction
The Consonants
{wag}-consonants or classifiables
  - row1 {ka.}-group
    - velar plosive-stops

 

The fricatives such as
   kS-219top2.htm , and,
   hk-med-058b3.htm
are best studied together.

 

{ka.} क /ka/ + {kn} - ka-043b3-2.htm
{ka.ta.} - ka1ta1-044b2-6.htm
{ka.ra.} कर - ka1ra1-045b4-2.htm
  {kar-} कर् - kar-046b2-4.htm
  {ka.la.} कल - ka1la1-048top-2.htm
  {ka.wa.} + {ka.bya.}- ka1va1-048b2-3.htm
  {ka.sha.} - ka1sha1-048b4.htm
     {ka.Sa.}, {ka.a.}, {ka.ha.} included
{ka} का /kaː/ - kaa-049b1.htm
  / {kaar-}/{ka:r-} कार् - kaar-050b3-2.htm
{ki.} कि + {ki} की + {kin}- ki-051b2-2.htm
  {kir-} : Logically {ki.} could be checked by {ra.} as in the case of {kar-} कर्  and {kur~} कुर् .
     However, we do not find such entries in OnlineSktDict instead of which the long-vowel {ki:r-}
     is found checked. See below.
  / {kiir-}/{ki:r-} - kiir-052top.htm
{ku.} कु + {kon} + {ku} कू  - ku-052top-2.htm
  {kur~} कुर् - kur-053b1-2.htm :
     Compare with {kar-} कर् . 
  / {kuur-}/{ku:r-} - kuur-054b1-3.htm
  {kRi.} (not {kri.}) - kRRi-054b2-2.htm 
    from highly rhotic {iR.} (see R-coloured-vowel or repha in my notes)
{k}-{k:} / के - कै - ke-055b2-2.htm
  {kau.}-{kau} / को कौ - kau-056top-3.htm
    Romabama does not use Pali transliteration of MLC को  ko
k-medials - k-med-056b3-2.htm
  k-medials (i.e. {ka.} with {ya.pinc}, {ra.ric}, {la.hsw:}, {wa.hsw:}

{hka.} ख /kʰa/ - hka-058top-2.htm
  kS-conjunct क ् ष = क्ष - kS-conj-219top2.htm 
    It is the one used in क्षत्रिय which in Pal-Myanmar is {hkat~ti.ya.}.
{hkya.} ख्य / {hk~ra.} ख्र - hk-med-058b3.htm
  {hk~ra.} ख्र is with rhoticity - not Bur-Myan {hkra.} which is without rhoticity.

UKT 110825. Thus, I am proposing for the BEPS languages, series with increasing rhoticity:
{hkya.}     > {hkra.}    > {hk~ra.} ख्र = ख ् र (rhotic)
{kyi.} क्यि > {kri.} क्रि > {kRi.} कृ (rhotic)

{ga.} ग - ga-058b3-3.htm
  {gar-} गर् - gar-060b1-3.htm
  {ga} गा - gaa-060b3-2.htm : {gi.} included
  {gu.} गु - gu-061b1-3.htm
  {goap} गुप् - goap-062b1.htm
  {gRi.} (not {gri.} - gRRi-062b3.htm
    from highly rhotic vowel {iR.}. (see R-coloured-vowel or repha in my notes)
  {g} गे - ge-063top-2.htm
  {gau:} गो - gau-063top-3.htm

{Ga.} छ + {GRi.} - gga-63b3-4.htm

 {nga.} ङ - not found in OnlineSktDict

The paucity of words beginning with {nga.} ङ /ŋa/, is surprising as this grapheme is found in the Brahmi script on the Asoka stone inscription. It represents the nasal phoneme /ŋ/ and belongs to the velar POA aka {kN~HTa.za. HTaan}. It is present in the coda of many English syllables, e.g. <singer> /'sɪŋ.əʳ/ without the /g/ sound.
   In the family of five nasal phonemes ( /m/, /n/, /ɳ/, /ɲ/, /ŋ/), extending from bilabial {auT~HTa.za.HTaan} to velar {kN~HTa.za. HTaan}, {nga.} ङ /ŋa/ is at the extreme end of nasal sounds and is the most difficult to produce. The phoneme {ma.} म /m/ on the other hand is the easiest nasal to produce. It is the one of the very first sounds produced by a human baby. It is present in most of the world's languages. - UKT110823

 

UKT notes :
Paat-hsin / {paaT-hsing.} R-coloured vowel repha रेप Two-three tone problem vocalic R (German)

UKT: Listing order in TOC: Myanmar - Romabama - Devanagari - IAST (ITRANS)
The principal Skt Dict. I'm using is from Sanskritdocuments.org , and the second is
SpokenSkt: www.spokensanskrit.de 091111. Entries are marked and respectively. You will meet 3 types of transliterations: IAST without brackets, ITRANS within (...) from OnlineSktDict, and ASCII within <...> from SpkSkt.

CAVEAT: In the following pages, entries in Burmese-Myanmar may NOT be in conjunct {paaT-hsing.} forms.

Note: {a.} and {aR.} : Unlike {a.} of Burmese-Myanmar, the {aR.} vowel sound is present in very rhotic languages such as Sanskrit and other Indic languages. It is pronounced with a rolling burring guttural sound which I am tentatively representing as {aR.}. The {R} here is not a consonant: it is known as repha रेप (placed over the next consonant ) similar to a Myanmar {a.tht}. It represents a burring guttural sound. From this sound we get a pair of Sanskrit short-long vowels, ऋ {iR.} and ॠ {iR} -- UKT 100101

Some entries in the format:
  कंस्य kaṁsa (kansya)
    Skt: कंस्य (kansya) - bronze - OnlineSkt
    Pal: {kn-a.}/{kn-tha.} - UHS-PMDict0275
    Pal: कंस kaṁsa - m. metal, bronze, a gong, bowl - UPMT-PEDict061
line 1 Skt: in Devanagari (IAST or ITRAN) usually from OnlineSktDict PDF page
line 2 Pal: IAST, from UPMT-PEDict to cue in line 3 entry.
    * preceding Pal means the entry may not be exactly the same as Skt
line 3 Pal: in Pal-Myan (Romabama), usually from UHS-MPDict for the equivalent or near-equivalent Pali word, 
line 4 Bur: in Bur-Myan (Romabama), usually from MLC MEDict only for those words which can be related to Pal-Myan .
  Note: There are cases where neither UPMT-PEDict nor Pali-Text-Soc gives an entry, yet it is found in UHS-PMDict which agrees with the Skt entry of line 1. See: आवेगः (aavegaH) Skt:  m.  impulse - a2va1-031b1-3.htm . Such cases must be checked by more knowledgeable persons.

Some of the information given in "Introduction" given below on this file has been moved into a separate files: SED-intro.htm and SED-intro-vow.htm .

Contents of this page

Consonants

The consonants are divided into two main groups, the {wag}-consonants from {ka.} through {ma.}, and {a.wag}-conjuncts from {ya.} through {ha.}. The {wag}-consonants are the regular consonants that can be cross-grouped as voiceless (vl.), voiced (vd.), and nasals, whereas the {a.wag}-consonants are not easily group-able and are known as the approximants. In the abugida system of writing, the consonants can form innumerable consonants in the form of conjuncts by use of virama (viram). These conjuncts are all pronounceable in Hindi (and Sanskrit), but only some are pronounceable in Burmese (and possibly Pali-Myanmar). Thus, for the Burmese speakers, the medials are those conjuncts that can be pronounced, and the rest are simply conjuncts. The tables of contents of consonants are:
  SED-con-r1-indx.htm 
  SED-con-r2-indx.htm 
  SED-con-r3-indx.htm , etc.

IAST (International alphabet of Sanskrit transliteration) - Wikipedia: Devanagari
Pali-Myanmar & Skt-Myanmar - UHS-PMD - U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary, {pa.dat~hta.mi-zu-tha}, in 4 volumes, vol.1 1st. printing ca. 1954, ... vol.4 1st printing ca. 1959, Ministry of Religious Affairs publication, Rangoon. Entries in Pali-Myanmar and in Skt-Myanmar -- Skt. within [...].

Contents of this page

{wag}-consonants
- the classifiables : row 1 - the {ka.}-group

Note: The IPA symbols I have given are the nearest phonemic pronunciation that I speak and hear, and would be different for another person.
   Be careful of the environmental Romabama vowel change due to the killed coda consonant. Example:
{ka.ka.} --> {kak~ka.} (/a/ -> // )
{ka.ma.} --> {km~ma.} (/a/ -> /ʌ/ ) -- UKT 100616

Another point of interest on comparing Devanagari on one hand to Asoka (Brahmi) and Myanmar on the other is in the graphemes of the nasals.
   Why is Devanagari r1c5 ङ so similar r3c3 ड except for a presence of an extra "dot" in r1c5.
   In both Asoka and Myanmar, the r1c5's and r3c3's seem to have dedicated graphemes.
   Another curiosity is the shape of the Bur-Myan r4c5 {na.}, particularly the short variety . Why is it so similar to the shape of the mythical creature Naga? Before King Anawrahta's religious reform of the 11th century the population of Upper Myanmar had been Naga worshippers. Did they embed their beloved Naga in their script? According to Chronicles, the Pyu king Duttabaung, who had lived centuries before Anawrahta, had in his service Naga youths in human forms. He even had an ocean-going ship that had been propelled by the scales of the Naga, and manned by Naga sailors in human form. Of all the mythical creatures, it is only the Naga who had been the guardian of the Buddha. They had been his faithful disciples from the earliest days of Buddhism. And according to Mahayana Buddhist legends, the Buddha had first preached his Lotus Sutra in the realm of the Nagas, similar to his preaching of Abidhamma in the realm of the Devas

Note: A sea-going vessel can be propelled by a magnetohydrodynamic drive or MHD propulsor using only electric and magnetic fields with no moving parts. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetohydrodynamic_drive 110511. If the naga-scales could have their polarities changing in turn, sea-water may be forced through them propelling the boat. If the ancients (the nagas - those who were intelligent enough to listen to the Mahayana Lotus Sutra) had known enough of electricity and magnetism, King Duttabaung's boat may not be fiction after all. -- UKT110511

Row 1 {ka.}-group

UKT: According to Hindu Mythology, During the Churning of the Ocean , Kaustubha (aka Kaustubh) the divine jewel - now in the possession of lord Vishnu who lives in the Ksheer Sagar - "the ocean of milk", is produced. Of course, I haven't seen it. However, on the right I am giving what it might have looked like: Blue/yellow sapphire from Ceylon. Emeralds from Zambia & Navratnas. - from: http://www.rudraksha-ratna.com/articledt.php?art_id=170 080826, 110826.

Contents of this page

Introduction

IAST (International alphabet of Sanskrit transliteration)

The following are for akshara-to-akshara transliteration between Devanagari and Myanmar. 

UKT: Note to digitizer/Devanagari transcriber :
you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā  Ē ē  Ī ī  Ō ō  Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ  Ḥ ḥ  Ḷ ḷ  Ṁ ṁ  Ṃ ṃ  Ṅ ṅ    Ṇ ṇ  Ṛ ṛ  Ṝ ṝ  Ś ś  Ṣ ṣ  Ṭ ṭ    ɕ ʂ
Instead of Devanagari ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Root sign √
Sanskrit-Devanagari : श ś [ɕ]; ष ṣ [ʂ]; स s [s];

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Paat-hsin / {paaT-hsing.}

UKT - 100528:

Contrast कर् (kar) {ka.kri: ra.kauk-tht} with र् क  =  र ् क   and {kra.} क्र (kra) = क ् र .

A Burmese-Myanmar word similar to the above is {maar} which on rendering into Devanagari is मार् = {maar} (MED359) derived from Pali-Latin māra 'the evil one' (UPMT-PED171) .

Because many words such as कर्क (karka) are pronounced as a conjunct, Romabama has tentatively inserted a tilde ~ after {kar~} e.g.

Skt {kar~ma.} is usually found as Pal  {kam~ma.}
which is usually written as a vertical conjunct {kam~ma.}.

Such vertical conjuncts are usually found in words derived from Pali, because of which they are commonly known as {paaT-hsing.} . However, it is regrettable that the horizontal conjuncts such as {~a.} have not been given a group name with the result that many including the learned monks has come to think of them as regular consonants. In fact {~a.} is actually a horizontal conjunct and should have been named {paaT-tw:}.

Go back paat-hsin-note-b

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R-coloured vowel

From: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-colored_vowel 100117
UKT: my inserts in [...] .

In phonetics, vocalic r refers to the phenomenon of a rhotic segment such as [r] or [ɹ] occurring as the syllable nucleus. This is a feature of a number of Slavic languages such as Czech, Macedonian [UKT: Alexander the Great was Macedonian] and Serbo-Croatian, as well as some western Bulgarian and eastern Slovene (Stirian) dialects. It also appears in languages like English and Mandarin Chinese, where it occurs as an r-colored vowel, a vowel whose distinctive feature is a low third formant.

UKT: It is my conjecture that hard rolling R sound or rhotic sound was not known in languages just south of the Himalayas in Tibeto-Burman languages until the invasion of the Macedonian Alexander the Great into Persia and India. I have arrived at this position from the fact that Burmese-Myanmar is almost entirely free of this sound, and that in Pali-Myanmar, this sound is not as frequent as in Sanskrit-Devanagari. -- UKT 100118

In most rhotic accents of English such as General American [GA], vocalic r occurs in words like butter and church.

UKT: The name of the country "Myanmar" spelled with an <r> at the end is pronounced in GA as in <butter> with a rolling sound at the end. It is not found in RP or BBC accent where the end <r> is not prominent. The correct Burmese pronunciation is without <r> resembling the RP and not GA.

A vowel [such as Schwa /ə/ or /ɚ/] may have either the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or with the tip of the tongue down and the back of the tongue bunched. Both articulations produce basically the same auditory effect, a lowering in frequency of the third formant. Although they are rarely attested, they occur in some non-standard varieties of Dutch and in a number of rhotic accents of English like GA. The English vowel may be analyzed phonemically as an underlying /ər/ rather than a syllabic consonant.

A few dialects of English, particularly GA and Ulster English, contain a vocalic R sound, equivalent to the consonantal R sound [ɹ]. In Ulster English, both long and short versions exist, conditioned by the Scots Vowel Length Rule:

[wɹ̩k] work (short vowel before the voiceless consonant /k/ [equivalent to Burmese-Myanmar {ka.} - not {hka.}]
[kɹ̩ːv] curve (long vowel before the voiced consonant /v/

UKT: During my very first trip to the US in 1957-59, I find it very difficult to pronounce <work>, and my good American friends from Main, particularly Karl Krasky, took great pains in helping me pronounce it differently from <walk> . Finally, I learned how to pronounce <work> as [wɜːk] which in Burmese-Myanmar derived through Romabama is s {w:k}.

This is a little different from rhotacization described below ([wɝk], [kɝv] as opposed to non-rhotic [wɜːk], [kɜːv]), as [ɹ̩] is not a rhotic vowel or even a vowel, but may be treated as a similar phenomenon in this case, because this [ɹ̩] is phonemically identical to [ɝ], just realized differently. In general, however, a syllabic r (a vocalic r) and a rhotic vowel are different concepts.

The r-colored vowels of GA are written with vowel-r digraphs. Any vowel can be used:

Stressed [ɝ]: hearse, assert, mirth, work, turkey, myrtle
Unstressed [ɚ]: standard, dinner, Lincolnshire, editor, measure, martyr

An example of an r-colored vowel written as a vowel following "r" can be found in the word iron [ˈaɪɚn].

In Mandarin Chinese, the rhotacized ending of some words is the prime way by which to distinguish speakers of Standard Mandarin such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shenyang, Harbin accents from those of other forms of Mandarin such as Sichuan. Mandarin speakers call this phenomenon Erhua. In many words, -r suffix is added to indicate some meaning changes. In simplified written Chinese, the change is indicated with the suffix 儿. (If the word ends in a nasal, the final consonant is lost and the vowel becomes nasalized if what is lost is a nasal velar.)

In rhotic accents of Standard Mandarin Chinese such as accents in cities Beijing, Tianjin, most of Hebei province (e.g. Tangshan, Baoding, Chengde), Eastern Inner Mongolia (e.g. Chifeng, Hailar), and the three Northeastern provinces, vocalic r occurs as a diminutive endings to nouns (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: r) and the past tense indicative (Chinese: ; pinyin: le). This also occurs in the middle syllables of compound words consisting of 3 or more syllables. For example, restaurant 'Gou Bu Li' (狗不理; Gǒublǐ -> Gǒurlǐ) in Tianjin and 'B zhī do' (不知道 Bzhīdo -> Brdo) meaning 'Do not know'.

Vocalic r (syllabic r)

Sanskrit. The ancient Indian language Sanskrit possessed short and long versions of a vowel sound often referred to as "vocalic r".[2] It is represented in Devanagari by ऋ (short form) and ॠ (long form), and in IAST transliteration by (short form) and (long form), and is thought to correspond to original vocalic "l" or "r" in Proto-Indo-European [PIE].[2] (UKT )

The grammarian Pāṇini classified this vowel as retroflex[3] and its pronunciation is thought to have been a retroflex approximant [ɻ] in classical Sanskrit (c. 500 BC). (UKT )

UKT: Gautama Buddha and Pāṇini had lived in the same period, the so-called Iron Age of India. It has been recorded that Buddha was against "standardization" of his sermons in Sanskrit particularly because of Sanskrit's preoccupation of "accent" or vocalization and allowed that his teachings be passed on to the audience in the local language which in all probability would be a Tibeto-Burman language. I contend that the Buddha himself had used a Tib-Bur pronunciation because his audience had been Tib-Bur speakers who spoke with a non-rhotic thibilant accent similar to the present day mainland Burmese-Myanmar.
   What Pāṇini had described as a retroflex approximant [ɻ] (retroflex) would probably be similar to Burmese-Myanmar {ra.} /ɹ/ (alveolar). It should be noted that Burmese-Myanmar {ya.} is described as /j/ (palatal).
   I admit that my logic on Buddha's pronunciation is very fuzzy at this point.-- UKT 100118

Earlier grammarians classified its sound in the Vedic period [preceding Pāṇini] as velar. [3] In Middle Indo-Aryan languages, the sound developed into a short vowel, usually /i/, but sometimes /a/ or /u/ (the latter sound especially when adjacent to a labial consonant).

However, when Sanskrit words containing this sound are borrowed into modern IE [Indo-Aryan] languages such as Hindi or Nepali its pronunciation changes to [ɾɪ] (short form) or [ɾiː] (long form), [4] leading to forms such as "Krishna" for Kṛṣṇa and " Rigveda" for ṛgveda, a pronunciation that is also prevalent among contemporary pandits.[5] In the Southern Indo-Aryan language Sinhala [UKT: Sinhala is Dravidian, i.e. Austro-Asiatic, not IE], vocalic r in Sanskrit words is pronounced as [ur] or [ru], depending on the phonological context.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

Go back R-vowel-note-b

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repha रेफ

From: Sanskrita: http://www.sanskrita.org/wiki/index.php/repha 100117
UKT: Searching the internet for this word is not easy. I still have to solve what all the 'meanings' below mean.

repa रेप

mfn. low, vile, wicked, cruel, savage cf. L.

repha रेफ

m. a burring guttural sound, the letter r ( as so pronounced ) cf. Prāt. cf. ŚrS. ; a word cf. BhP. ; ( in prosody ) a cretic ( ? ) cf. Piṅg ; passion, affection of the mind cf. L. ; mfn. low, vile, contemptible cf. L. ( cf. repa )

From: Devanagari eyelash Ra , Indic Working Group, Nov. 7, 2004 : http://unicode.org/~emuller/iwg/p8/utcdoc.html 100101

1. Eylash ra in Marathi and Nepali:
Eyelash-ra refers to the written sign which represents some kind of /r/ sound.

All sources agree that when a /r/ sound follows another consonant (in pronunciation), it is written either as a stroke attached to that other consonant (e.g. प्र = प ् र ) or a circumflex-like sign below it (e.g. ट्र = ट ् र ). In the remaining cases, the /r/ sound is written in one of three ways: using र , using a repha over the next consonant, or using an eyelash-ra . The description of those cases differs across the sources.

UKT: More in the original article.

Go back repha-note-b

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The two-three tone problem

by UKT 100705

Our task of comparing English to Burmese is not easy because English have only two "tones" for vowels the short and the long, whereas Burmese has three - the creak, the modal, and the emphatic. The one way to reconcile them is to think in terms of 5 registers:

creak, short, modal, long, emphatic

The English short vowel is sometimes close to creak and sometimes to modal. Similarly the English long vowel is between modal and emphatic. For the vowel /a/, we have

{aa.}/ӑ/, {a}, {/ə/}, {aa}, {aa:}/aː/
  -- the short-a and the long-a are transcribed as a and ā in Pali-Latin. I am citing Pali because it can serve as the bridge between Burmese and English. Since both Burmese and English do not have dedicated graphemes to represent the central vowel, schwa /ə/, I have to use {/ə/} for the modal. The Burmese schwa is found in words like {a.ni} meaning the "color red" in which schwa is represented by {a.}. In most Burmese-Myanmar words {a.} stands for the sound of {aa.} .
  -- I have tentatively approximated Romabama {aa.} as IPA /ӑ/ and {aa:} as /aː/ . Note the colon in {aa:} is the ordinary 'circular' colon but the colon of IPA /aː/ is the 'triangular' colon.

This problem (as far as I know) lacks a concise name, because of which I will refer to it as the two-three tone problem.

Go back two-three-note-b

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vocalic R (German) : pronounced as vowel

From: Paul Joyce, German Course, Univ. of Portsmouth. http://userweb.port.ac.uk/~joyce1/abinitio/pronounce/consonr3.html 100102

The German vocalic 'r' is so-called because it is pronounced as a vowel, not a consonant. Sometimes referred to as a 'dark schwa', vocalic 'r' is articulated with the tongue slightly lower and further back in the vowel area than the 'schwa' sound heard at the end of such German words as 'Liebe', 'Katze' and 'Ratte'.

Vocalic 'r' can only be used in certain specific situations which are outlined below. Its most common usage is in unstressed "-er" syllables at the end of German words.

Sounds 1: Vocalic 'r' in final position: 83.mp3 <))
Bruder <brother> ; Schwester <sister>; Mutter <mother>; Vater <father>

The vocalic 'r' is also used in the final position in a word when the 'r'  follows a long vowel. Listen to the following six words, all of which end with a vocalic 'r' after a long vowel.

Sounds 2: Vocalic 'r' after a long vowel: 82.mp3 <))
Tor <gate; goal> ; Uhr <clock> ;
mehr <more> ; vier <four> ;
Bier <beer> ; Chor <chorus>

Vocalic 'r' is also heard when the letter 'r' follows a long vowel but precedes another consonant. Listen to the following four words in which vocalic 'r' occurs before a following consonant.

Sounds 3: Vocalic 'r' after long vowel + before another consonant: 81.mp3 <))
Pferd <horse> ; Herd <cooker> ;
sprte <felt> ; fhrte <led>

You will also hear vocalic 'r' in the unstressed German prefixes er-, ver-, zer- and her-. Listen to the vocalic 'r' in four words containing these prefixes.

Sounds 4: Vocalic 'r' in unstressed prefixes: 84.mp3 <))
erlauben <to allow> ; vergessen <to forget> ;
zertren <to destroy) ; hereinkommen <to come in>

Distinguishing between vocalic 'r' and consonantal 'r' 

In the following pairs of words, the first word contains a vocalic 'r' in final position. The second word in each pair however contains a consonantal 'r'. Listen and note the distinction between the sounds that are made in each pair of words.

Sounds 5: Vocalic 'r' or consonantal 'r' ? : jnger.wav <))
jnger <younger> ; die jngere <the younger one>
Meer <sea> ; Meere <seas>
clever <clever> ; der clevere <the clever one>

Finally, listen to these words in which vocalic 'r' and consonantal 'r' occur within the same word. Note in particular how adding an '-in' suffix can change the articulation of what was previously a vocalic 'r' sound.

Sounds 6: Vocalic and consonantal 'r' within the same word: bruder.wav<))
Frankfurter (Frankfurter sausage) ; Bruder <brother>
Lehrer (male teacher) ; Lehrerin (female teacher)
Reporter (male reporter) ; Reporterin (female reporter)

Go back vocalic-R-note-b

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End of TIL file