Update: 2012-01-01 06:10 AM +0630


BEPS Sanskrit Dictionary


by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Daw Khin Wutyi, B.Sc., and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{On} ॐ
{n} अं
a+fricatives from Monier-Williams

   In the following, expect to see killed-{nga.}
   represented by {king:si:} in Pal-Myan, and
   other killed coda-consonants
{n-ka.} अंक / {n~ka.}
{n-ga.} अंग / {n~ga.}
{n-za.} अंज / {i~za.} 
{n-ta.} अंत / {n~ta.}
{n-ba.} अंब
/ {n-sha.} अंश : official Bur-Myan orthography is
{n-a.}/{n-tha.} अंस

Note: If you are a native Bur-Myan speaker, just like me, who is only used to Pal-Myan pronunciations, Skt-Dev pronunciations would be very difficult to articulate. In such a case, just be content to use the Bur-Myan pronunciations indicated by /{...}/ where the included script is Bur-Myan or Romabama. Of course, you might be laughed at by authentic Sanskrit and Hindi speakers: my own experience with my friends in Canada. Of course what else could you do - you as a human being has every right to be vocal. And your good friends would help you along with your pronunciation.

A word about Monier-Williams and Macdonell dictionaries: In the original both are in 3 columns. However, in the downloaded pages the entries could be displaced. Bear this in mind when referring to these dictionaries.

UKT notes
Adi Parashakti Aditya AUM Buddhist Shakti (non-Theravada Buddhism) Sudra

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UKT: The best AUM symbol I have come across (e.g. in Wikipedia) is probably that written in Tamil script. It reminds me of the human brain! - UKT110529

UKT: English transliteration-cum-transcription are a source of problem for me. I am not sure how a word is spelled out in Devanagari: to decide whether it should be spelled with a {::ting} or a {nga.t} which in Pal-Myan would appear as a {king:si:}. One way to resolve this problem is to find out how the entries are entered in Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary which I have downloaded from University of Washington website (MonWilliWash). Unfortunately, my downloaded copy is without Devanagari. To decide how it would be spelled out in Devanagari, I have to go on line, open Spoken Sanskrit Dictionary (SpkSkt), and enter the English meaning. Another method I have used is to look into the scanned pages of A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary by A. A. Macdonell, 1929, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg in which the entries were in Devanagari.  -- UKT, first written on 110609, followed by rewrites: 110822 

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{On} ॐ

ॐ (AUM) {On}  /
Skt:  ॐ (AUM) - Primordial Sound  - OnlineSktDict
Skt: ॐ { ओंकार } oṃ { oṃkāra } - phrase Om [Aum, Omkara ] - SpkSkt
Skt: aum  ind. the sacred syllable of the Śūdras ( 3. au ) - MonWilliWash
Bur: {AUng:} - n. Om ; word prefacing Pali verse or mantra
  to ensure potency or success [Sans ] - MED2010-624

See my notes on AUM , Adi Parashakti , and Sudra

Listen to Moola Manthirum from Tamil website: <)) : http://www.omsakthi.org/mantras/moola_manthirum.html 110828
   Ohm Saktheeyei! Paraa Saktheeyei!
   Ohm Saktheeyei! Aadhi Paraa Saktheeyei!
   Ohm Saktheeyei! Maruvoor Araseeyei!
   Ohm Saktheeyei! Ohm Veenaayagaa!
   Ohm Saktheeyei! Ohm Kaamaatcheeyei!
   Ohm Saktheeyei! Ohm Bangaaru Kaamaatcheeyei!
   Ohm Sakthi!

ॐकार (OM-kaa-ra) {on-ka-ra.}
Skt: ॐकार (OM-kaa-ra) - the syllable om - OnlineSktDict
Skt: ओंकार oṃkāra - m. beginning, prosperous or auspicious beginning of - SpkSkt

ओंकारा oṃkārā
Skt: ओंकारा oṃkārā - f. Buddhist Shakti or female personification of divine energy - SpkSkt

See my note on Buddhist Shakti . Note: the word "Buddhist" here refers to non-Theravada Buddhism. It can mean Mahayana, Tantric, or Waikzayana.


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{n} अं --> { n~} / { i~}

Note the change: Skt-Dev अं aṅ --> Pal-Myan { n~} - the {kn~si:} 'ridden by a centipede'. This changes the pronunciation drastically. The {kn~si:} is not indicated in Pal-Lat (as given by U Pe Maung Tin in his dictionary), making the pronunciation essentially the same as in Skt-Dev. However, it is explicitly indicated in Pal-Myan (as given by U Hoke Sein in his voluminous dictionary). This perhaps indicates that Pal-Myan is the older form of Pali whereas Pal-Lat (presumably originating from the Pali of Sri Lanka) was the newer form of Pali.
   The second point to note is on the grapheme of /ŋ/ in Devanagari. It is ङ . Note that it is simply ड + dot --> ङ ,   where ड is the r3c3 grapheme suggesting ङ  to be a modified grapheme which is introduced into the akshara matrix as an after thought. This should be contrasted with the Bur-Myan {nga.} which is the rounded form of the Asoka grapheme. This suggests to me that Myanmar is directly related to the Asoka aksharas and not derived from some south-Indian script. -- UKT 110513



अ (a)
Skt: अ (a) - not - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अ a - 1. a the first letter of the alphabet - MonWilliWash
  [There was no differentiation between alphabet and abugida until a few decades ago - UKT110529]
Pal: a - negative prefix  - an, before a vowel - UPMT-PED001
Bur: {a.}/{aa.} 1. - n. 1. the last letter of the Myanmar [consonant] alphabet.
  2. first in the set of 12 traditionally-taught vowels - MED2010-534 [ed. by UKT]
Bur: {a.}/{aa.} 4. -part [arch & rare] particle prefixed to some words to effect negation - MED2010-536

UKT: The 6 entries given by MonWilliWash for अ a .

अ a 1. - a  the first letter of the alphabet
  # the first short vowel inherent in consonants. [Page 1, Column 1]
  akāra - ○ kāra - m. the letter or sound a
अ a 2. - a (pragṛhya, q.v.), a vocative particle [a ananta, O Vishṇu] T
  # interjection of pity, Ah!
अ a 3. - a  (before a vowel an, exc. a-ṛṇin), a prefix corresponding to Gk. ?, ?, Lat. in, Goth. [1, 1] and Germ. un, Eng. in or un, and having a negative or privative or contrary sense (an-eka not one)
  # an-anta endless # a-sat not good # a-paśyat  not seeing
  # rarely prefixed to Inf. (a-svaptum not to sleep TāṇḍyaBr.) and even to forms of the finite verb (a-spṛhayanti they do not desire BhP. Śiś.) and to pronoun (a-saḥ not he Śiś
  # a-tad not that BhP.)  # occasionally denoting comparison (a-brāhmaṇa like a Brahman T.) 
  # sometimes disparagement (a-yaja a miserable sacrifice)
  # sometimes diminutiveness (cf. -karṇa, an-udarā)
  # rarely an expletive (cf. a-kupya, a-pūpa). According to Pāṇ. 6-2, 161, the accent may be optionally either on the first or last syllable in certain compounds formed with a (as -tīkṣṇa or a-tīkṣṇ, -śuci or a-śuc, n-anna or an-ann)
  # the same applies to stems ending in tṛ accentuated on the first syllable before a is prefixed
  # cf. also -tūrta and a-tū́rta, -bhinna and a-bhinn, &c
अ a 4. - a  the base of some pronouns and pronom. forms, in asya, atra, &c
अ a 5. - a  the augment prefixed to the √in the formation of the imperfect, aorist, and conditional tenses (in the Veda often wanting, as in Homer, the fact being that originally the augment was only prefixed in principal sentences where it was accentuated, whilst it was dropped in subordinate sentences where the root-vowel took the accent)
अ a 6. - a  m. N. of Vishnu L. (especially as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syllable om

UKT: Entries in MonWilliWash are in the following order:

a1, akāra , a2, a3, a4, a5, a6, aṛṇin, aṃś, aṃśa,  
aṃśakaraṇa, aṃśakalpanā, aṃśaprakalpanā, aṃśapradāna, aṃśabhāgin, 
aṃśabhāj, aṃśabhū, aṃśabhūta, 
aṃśavat, aṃśasavarṇana, aṃśasvara, aṃśahārin, 
aṃśāṃśa, aṃśāṃsi, aṃśāvatarana, aṃśīkṛ, 
aṃśaka1, aṃśaka2, aṃśala, aṃśin, aṃśitā, 
aṃśu, aṃśujāla, aṃśudhāna, aṃśudhāraya, aṃśunadī,
aṃśupaṭṭa,  aṃśupati, aṃśubhartṛ, aṃśumat,
aṃśumatphalā, aṃśumālin, aṃśumālā
aṃśuvāṇa, aṃśuvimarda,  aṃśuhasta,
aṃśūdaka, aṃśvādi, aṃśuka, aṃśula,
aṃs, aṃsa, aṃsakūṭa, aṃsatra,
aṃsadaghna, aṃsadhrī, aṃsapṛṣṭha,
aṃsaphalaka, aṃsabhāra, aṃsebhāra, aṃsabhārika,
aṃsebhārika, aṃsemūla, aṃsala, aṃsya,
aṃh1, aṃhri, aṃhripa, aṃhriskandha, aṃhriśiras,
aṃh2, aṃhati, aṃhas, aṃhaspati  [Page 1, Column 2]
aṃhasaspati, aṃhasaspatya, aṃhomuc, aṃhiti,
aṃhu, aṃhubhedī, aṃhura, aṃhūraṇa, aṃhoyu,
ak, aka1, aka2, akaca, akaṭuka,
akaṭuphala, akaṭhora, akaḍama, akaḍamacakra,
akaṇṭaka, akaṇṭha, akatthana, akathaha, akathya,
akaniṣṭha, akaniṣṭhaga, akaniṣṭhapa, akanyā,

I have also downloaded some pages from Macdonell Sanskrit Dictionary Scanned Images http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 110610 . The page is in three columns. Click here to see the first two columns of the downloaded page. The order is:
   p001: अ , अंश , अक , अका , अकि , अकी , अकु , अकू , अकृ ,
   p002: अकृ , अके , अकै , अको , अकौ , अक्त (= अ क ् त ), अक्न (= अ क ् न ), ...

The order in MonWilliWash shows one thing clearly: that a is followed by a+fricatives, and then comes a+ka. Macdonell shows that in Devanagari, the order is अ, अंश, अंशि, अंशु, अंस, अंह, अक, ... . That is, {a.-::ting} follows {a.}. Only after that comes {a.ka.} -- UKT110609


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from Monier-Williams

अऋणिन् aṛṇin (= अ ऋ ण ि न ् )
Skt: अऋणिन् aṛṇin adj. free from debt - SpkSkt
Skt: aṛṇin - a-ṛṇin mfn. free from debt L - MonWilliWash

aṃś - aṃś  cl. 10. P. aṃśayati, to divide, distribute L. ;
  also occasionally Ā. aṃśayate L. ; also aṃśāpayati L
   - MonWilliWash

अंश aṃśa
Skt: अंश aṃśa - m. inheritance - SpkSkt
Skt: अंश [ msa ] m. part, share; N. of a god: in. partly. - Mac001
Skt: aṃśa -  ṃśa m. (probably fr. √1. , perf. ān-ṃśa, and not from
  the above √aṃś fictitiously formed to serve as root), a share, portion, part, party
  # partition, inheritance # a share of booty # earnest money
  # stake (in betting) RV. v, 86, 5 TāṇḍyaBr # a lot (cf. 2. prs)
  # the denominator of a fraction # a degree of latitude or longitude
  # a day L # N. of an Āditya - MonWilliWash
Pal: aṁsa - mn. (√am) the shoulder. m. (√as) a part, portion, share; a period of time. - UPMT-PED001
Pal: {n-a.} - - UHS-PMD0001
Pal: {n-a} - - UHS-PMD0001
Bur: {n-a} - n. astrol  degree  - MED2010-617

See my note on Aditya Aṃśa

aṃs  -  aṃs (cf. √aṃś)L. vyaṃs - MonWilliWash

अंसफलक aṃsaphalaka
Skt: अंसफलक aṃsaphalaka - n. shoulder-blade - SpkSkt
Skt: अंस [ msa ] m. shoulder. - Mac001
Skt: aṃsa -  ṃsa m. the shoulder, shoulder-blade
  # corner of a quadrangle # N. of a king
  # (au), m. du. the two shoulders or angles of an altar
  # a share (for aṃśa) ; [Goth. amsa # Gk. ?, ? ; Lat. humerus, [1, 2] ansa.] - MonWilliWash
Pal: {n-a.} - - UHS-PMD0001

Skt: aṃśu - aṃś m. a filament (especially of the Soma plant)
  # a kind of Soma libation ŚBr # thread # end of a thread, a minute particle [Page 1, Column 2]
  # a point, end # array, sunbeam # cloth L # N. of a Ṛishi RV. viii, 5, 26
  # of an ancient Vedic teacher, son of a Dhanaṃjaya VBr # of a prince
Pal: aṁsu - mn. a thread, ray, sunbeam, filament - UPMT-PED001

aṃsya -  ṃsya (3), mfn. belonging to the shoulder RV. i, 191, 7 - MonWilliWash

अंहते aṃhate
Skt: अंहते aṃhate - v. set out - SpkSkt
Skt: aṃh 1 -  aṃh (cf. √aṅgh), cl. 1. Ā. aṃhate, to go, set out, commence L
  # to approach L # cl. 10. P. aṃhayati, to send Bhaṭṭ
  # to speak Bhaṭṭ # to shine L - MonWilliWash

= अ ं ह ् र ि
Skt: अंह्रि [ amhri ] m. foot. - Mac001
Skt: aṃhri -  aṃhri m. a foot Hpar
  # √of a tree L # [cf. aṅghri.] - MonWilliWash

अङ्घ्रि aṅghri - m. foot of a seat - SpkSkt

अंहति aṃhati
Skt: अंहति aṃhati - f. anxiety - SpkSkt
Skt: aṃhati -  aṃhati f. anxiety, distress, trouble RV
  # illness L. ; [Lat. ango] # a gift (also aṃhatī f.) L - MonWilliWash
Pal: aṁhati, *tī - f. a present, disease, abandonment - UPMT-PED001
Pal: {n-ha.ti.} - - UHS-PMD0001

= अ ं ह स ् ्  
Skt: अंहस्् [ mh-as ] n. distress, need; sin. - Mac001
Skt: aṃhas -  ṃhas n. anxiety, trouble RV. &c
  # sin L. # [cf. agh, ā́gas # Gk. ?, ?, ?, ?.]   - MonWilliWash

aṃhasaspati -  aṃhasas-pat Vṣ., m. lord of perplexity, i.e. an intercalary month
  # cf. āṃhaspatya  - MonWilliWash

असंक्रान्त asaṃkrānta
= अ स ं क ् र ा न ् त
Skt: असंक्रान्त asaṃkrānta - m. intercalary month - SpkSkt

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{n-ka.} अंक / Pal-Myan: {n~ka.}
not entd in OnlineSktDict

UKT: "aṅka" comes before "aṅkusa" in UPMT-PED.

Pal: aṅka - m. (√ac) a mark, the flank or side, hip, place - UPMT-PED004 
Pal: {n~ka.} - - UHS-PMD0011
Skt: aṅka - aṅk m. a hook RV. i, 162, 13, &c
  # part of a chariot (used in the dual) TS. TBr # a curve
  # the curve in the human, especially the female, figure above the hip
  (where infants sitting, astride are carried by mothers hence often = 'breast' or 'lap')
  # the side or flank # the body # proximity, place # the bend in the arm
  # any hook or crooked instrument # a curved line
  # a numerical figure, cipher, a figure or mark branded on an animal, &c
  # any mark, line, stroke, ornament, stigma # a number
  # the numbers one and nine # a co-efficient # an act of a drama
  # a drama # a military show or sham-fight
  # a misdeed, a sin L. [Gk. ?, ?, [7, 1] ?, ?, and Lat. uncus] - MonWilliWash

Pal: aṅkusa - mn. (√ac) a hook to guide an elephant with - UPMT-PED004
Pal: {n~ku.a.} - - UHS-PMD0011 
Skt: Skt: अंकुश (a.nkusha) - a goad (metal stick used to control elephants) - OnlineSktDict
Skt: aṅkuśa - aṅkuś as, am m. n. a hook, especially an elephant-driver's hook
  # (ā) or (ī) f. one of the twenty-four Jaina goddesses L.
  [Gk. ? ; Germ. [Page 7, Column 2] āngel ] - MonWilliWash

Skt: aṅkī - aṅkī f. a small drum L - MonWilliWash
Pal: aṅkī - f. a long cask - UPMT-PED004

Skt: aṅkura - aṅkura m. a sprout, shoot, blade, a swelling, a tumour Suśr
  # a hair L # blood L # water L - MonWilliWash
Pal: aṅkura - m. (√ac) a sprout, shoot - UPMT-PED004
Pal: {n~ku.ra.} - - UHS-PMD0011


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अंकुश (a.nkusha) 
Skt: अंकुश (a.nkusha) - a goad (metal stick used to control elephants) - OnlineSktDict
Skt: aṅkuśa - aṅkuś as, am m. n. a hook, especially an elephant-driver's hook
  # (ā) or (ī) f. one of the twenty-four Jaina goddesses L.
  [Gk. ? ; Germ. [Page 7, Column 2] āngel ] - MonWilliWash
Pal: aṅkusa - mn. (√ac) a hook to guide an elephant with - UPMT-PED004
Pal: {n~ku.a.} - - UHS-PMD0011 

Burmese war elephant with four-man crew: 1. mahaut with the elephant-goad. 2. mid-mount - usually a prince. 3. rear-mount - trained gunner. 4 foot-guard - a common soldier. The war-elephant was trained to use its raised trunk and tusks to attack, and a charging elephant was a formidable 'tank' of ancient warfare. -- UKT111019

UKT: According to MonWilliWash order of entries, aṅkuśa comes after aga and agha . This indicates that aṅkuśa belongs to {a.nga.} group indicating that aṅkuśa is related to killed {nga.} or {king:si:}.

अंकुशधारिणम् (a.n-ku-sha-dhaa-ri-Nam.h)
Skt: अंकुशधारिणम् (a.n-ku-sha-dhaa-ri-Nam.h) - bearing 'ankusha' - OnlineSktDict

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{n-ga.} अंग

अंग (a.n-ga)
Skt: अंग (a.n-ga) - body, organ - OnlineSktDict
Skt: aṅga 2 - ṅga n. (√am Uṇ.), a limb of the body # a limb, member # the body
  # a subordinate division or department, especially of a science, as the six Vedāṅgas
  # hence the number six # N. of the chief sacred texts of the Jainas
  # a limb or subdivision of Mantra or counsel (said to be five, viz.
    1. karmaṇām ārambhpāyaḥ, means of commencing operations
    2. puruṣa-dravya-sampad, providing men and materials
    3. deśa-kāla-vibhāga, distribution of place and time
    4. vipatti-pratīkāra, counter-action of disaster
    5. kārya-siddhi, successful accomplishment ; whence mantra is said to be pacṅga)
  # any subdivision, a supplement
  # (in Gr.) the base of a word, but in the strong cases only Pāṇ. 1-4, 13 seqq
  # anything inferior or secondary, anything immaterial or unessential, aṅga-tā
  # (in rhetoric) an illustration # (in the drama) the whole of the subordinate characters
  # an expedient # a mental organ, the mind L
  # m. sg. or (ās), m. pl., N. of Bengal proper or its inhabitants
  # (sg.), N. of a king of Aṅga # (mfn.), having members or divisions L
  # contiguous L -- MonWilliWash
Pal: aṅga - n. (√aṅg) a limb, member, body, division, quality, requisite - UPMT-PED004
Pal: {n~ga.} - - UHS-PMD0011

अंगण (a.n-ga-Na)
Skt: अंगण (a.n-ga-Na) field - OnlineSktDict
Skt: aṅgaṇa - aṅgaṇa n. aṅgana - MonWilliWash
Skt: aṅgana - aṅgana n. walking L
   # 'place to walk in', yard # s.v
Pal: aṅgaṇa - (√aṅg) a courtyard, house floor, sin - UPMT-PED004
Pal: {n~ga.Na.} - - UHS-PMD0011

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अंसंगिनौ (a.n-gasa.ngi-nau)
Skt: अंसंगिनौ (a.n-gasa.ngi-nau) - with - OnlineSktDict

अंगै (a.ngaiH)
Skt: अंगै (a.ngaiH) limbs, body parts - OnlineSktDict

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अंगैस्तुष्टुवांसस्तनूभिः (a.n-gaistushhTuvaa.nsastanuubbhiH)
Skt: अंगैस्तुष्टुवांसस्तनूभिः (a.n-gaistushhTuvaa.nsastanuubbhiH)
  - having satisfied with strong limbs - OnlineSktDict

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{n-za.} अंज

अंजन (a.njana)  //
Skt: अंजन (a.njana) - anointment - OnlineSktDict
Skt: ajana - ajana m. a kind of domestic lizard L
  # N. of a fabulous, serpent # of a tree Pacat
  # of a mountain, of a king of Mithilā, of the elephant of the west or south-west quarter
  # (ā), f. N. of Hanumat's mother # of Pravarasena's mother
  # (am), n. act of applying an ointment or pigment, embellishing, &c., black pigment or collyrium applied to the eyelashes or the inner coat of the eyelids
  # a special kind of this pigment, as lamp-black, Antimony, extract of Ammonium, Xanthorrhiza, &c
  # paint, especially as a cosmetic # magic ointment # ink L
  # night L # fire L. (In rhetoric) making clear the meaning of an equivocal expression, double entendre or pun, &c
Pal: ajana - m. tuktoo. f. chameleon. n. collyrium, night - UPMT-PED007
Pal: {i~za.na.} - - UHS-PMD0021

collyrium n. pl. collyriums or collyria 1. A medicinal lotion applied to the eye; eyewash. [Latin from Greek kollurion eye salve, poultice, diminutive of kollura roll of bread] - AHTD

 अंजन शुल्बेय  aṃjana śulbeya  
Skt: अंजन शुल्बेय  aṃjana śulbeya - n.   antimony sulphide - SpokenSkt

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{n-ta.} अंत
not entd in OnlineSktDict

Skt: antar - antr ind. within, between, amongst, in the middle or interior.
  (As a prep. with loc.) in the middle, in, between, into ;
  (with acc.) between ;
  (with gen.) in, in the middle. (ifc.) in, into, in the middle of, between,
  out of the midst of [Zend. ? ; Lat. inter ; Goth. undar] - MonWilliWash
Pal: antara - adv. prep. within, between, among, in - UPMT-PED017
Pal: antara - n. interior, included space, interval, opportunity, difference,
  peculiarity, a hole, inner garment, the heart or mind - UPMT-PED017
Pal: {n~ta.ra.} - - UHS-PMD0080

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अंतरंग (a.ntara.nga)  //
Skt: अंतरंग (a.ntara.nga) - inner body or inner nature, feelings, inside - OnlineSktDict
Skt: antaraṅga - ○aṅga mfn. interior, proximate, related, being essential to,
  or having reference to the essential part of the aṅga or base of a word
  # (am), n. any interior part of the body VarBṛS - MonWilliWash

अंतर्गत (a.ntargata)
Skt: अंतर्गत (a.ntargata) - internal - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अन्तर्गत  antargata = अ न ् त र ् ग त - adj. internal - SpkSkt

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{n-ba.} अंब

अंबा (aMbaa)  //
Skt: अंबा (aMbaa) - mother - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अम्बाला ambālā = अ म ् ब ा ल ा - f.  mother - SpkSkt
Skt: अम्बिका ambikā = अ म ् ब ि क - f.  mother - SpkSkt
Pal: ambā - f. a mother - UPMT-PED025
Pal: {m~ma.} - - UHS-PMD0121
Pal: {m~ba} - - UHS-PMD0121

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/ {n-sha.} अंश  /

UKT: Though the official Burmese-Myanmar spelling is , which could only be transcribed as {n-rha.} with an <r> /ɹ/ as in English <Arab> /'r.əb/ (US) /'er-/, I am forced to use the unofficial (my suggestion) {n-sha.} or its compressed form . -- UKT 100305


अंश (a.nsha) 
Skt: अंश (a.nsha) - part, angle - OnlineSktDict
Skt: aṃśa - ṃśa m. (probably fr. √1. , perf. ān-ṃśa, and not from the above √aṃś fictitiously formed to serve as root), a share, portion, part, party
  # partition, inheritance # a share of booty # earnest money
  # stake (in betting) RV. v, 86, 5 TāṇḍyaBr
  # a lot (cf. 2. prs) # the denominator of a fraction # a degree of latitude or longitude
  # a day L # N. of an Āditya - MonWilliWash
Pal: अंस  aṁsa - m. (√as) a part, portion, share; a period of time -- UPMT-PEDict001
Pal: {n-a.} - - UHS-PMDict0001

अंशभूतं (a.nshabhuutaM)
Skt: अंशभूतं (a.nshabhuutaM) - has been a part of her - OnlineSktDict

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अंशः (a.nshaH)
Skt: अंशः (a.nshaH) - fragmental particle - OnlineSktDict

अंशुमान् (a.nshumaan.h)
Skt: अंशुमान् (a.nshumaan.h) - radiant - OnlineSktDict

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अंशेन (a.nshena)
Skt: अंशेन (a.nshena) - part - OnlineSktDict

अंश aṃśa 
Skt: अंश aṃśa - m.  ingredient; part; portion; fraction; denominator (math.) - SpkSkt
*Pal:  aṁsa - m. a part, portion, share; a period of time - UPMT-PED001
Pal: {n-a.} - - UHS-PMDict0001

  अंशुमत्  aṃ-śu-mat
Skt: अंशुमत्  aṃ-śu-mat , adj. radiant = अ ं श ु म त ् - SpkSkt
Skt: aṃśumat - ○mt  mfn. fibrous, rich in filaments
  # rich in Soma plants or Soma juice # radiant, luminous # pointed
  # (ān), m. the sun, the moon
  # N. of various persons, especially of a prince of the solar race, son of A-samajas, grandson of Sagara
  # (mtī), f. N. of a river (Yamunā?) RV. viii, 96, 13-15 # Hedysarum Gangeticum Suśr 

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  {n-a.}/{n-tha.} अंस
not entered in OnlineSktDict

अंस  aṃsa 
Skt:  m.  shoulder; bull's hump - SpokenSkt
Pal: aṁsa - mn. (√am) the shoulder - UPMT-PEDict001
Pal: {n-a.} - - UHS-PMDict0001

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UKT notes

Adi Parashakti

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_parashakti 110828

According to the Hindu Mythology, Adi Parashakti - the Goddess, Divine Mother - is the Supreme Being and recognized as Para Brahman.[1] The Devi Bhagwata Mahapurana suggests that She is the original creator, observer and Destroyer of whole universe. Hence She is Param prakriti. Parvati, the goddess of power is considered as her Sagun Swaroop. They both are not same but Parvati is having all the material qualities (Sat, rajo or tamo) of the Goddess. But at the same time the Goddess Adi Parashakti is also considered as nirgun or Nirakaar i.e. without any form. In fact she is the creator of Trimurti, the Hindu male trinity. She is Devi as original.


Adi Parashakti means the power who is beyond any limit, hence she is referred as the power beyond this universe. This makes the point that she is the active energy of God that both manifests and unmanifests the total universe. Major difference between Shakti and Adi Parashakti is that Shakti can be treated as power of trimurti or any other demi-god. But Adi parashakti is the deity of Hindu religion who is referred as Power of Param Brahman. Some texts says She is Goddess Bhuvaneshvari, the fifth of Mahavidya group.


In Devi Gita, it is Suggested that before transforming or taking birth to her Sagun form i.e. Parvati, She appears before King Himalaya to teach him some sort of divine and eternal knowledge. In that she explained herself in the word of Vedas that she has neither start nor end, she is neither male nor female. She is the only truth, eternal truth. The whole universe is her creation, She is same as Param Brahman. She is one without second. She is the only victor and victory as well. She is manifested (Lord Brahma), transcendent (Lord Shiva) and unmanifested (Lord Vishnu) divinity. She further shows her virat swaroop in which, Satyaloka was situated on the top of her Forehead, Space was her hairs, sun and moon were her eyes, her ears are quaters, Vedas are her words Yama was her larger teeth, the affection and the emotions are her small teeths. Goddess Maya is Her smileand happiness and So on.[2] Her that appearance shows that all the different gods, goddesses, even trimurti and tridevi as her partial forms.

Legend: Role in Creation of Universe

In Devi-Bhagwata Purana, Goddess claims in front of trimurti that,

I am adi-parashakti, Goddess Bhuvaneshvari I am owner of this universe and is regarded as ultimate reality, Param-Brahman. I am dynamic in feminine form and static in Masculine form. You three are parts of me. So you all are me and mine partial expansions. You are appeared because you will be going to govern the universe. You are masculine form of ultimate reality i.e. GOD and me is Feminine form of the reality, I myself is in non-dimensional from which is beyond everything and all the powers of GOD are vested in me. You shall admit that I am the endless power or adi-shakti. So I am giving you the task to be performed by you Three. Then She orders, Oh Brahma! You will be generator of the universe; the Goddess Sharda is your Shakti then She said she is her that form will be recognized as Goddess of Knowledge she is the personification of Sound energy. She is generated from the voice of big bang due to which the universe is created the sound is OM. The Goddess will be with you when there would be generation done by You lord Brahma.

After this She Said oh Lord of Lords Narayana! you are the Supreme Soul means the soul of Universe you are immortal both dimensionless and dimensional your this activity will make You to take different incarnation on one of the loka which will be recognized as the Prithvi or Mrityuloka. Oh Narayana you are the supreme in all the sagun deities. As you have created Lord Brahma and Brahma will further create other 33 crores gods and goddesses more over my one of Maha-Shakti Devi Mahakali has been born from your Yog-nindra. You are the Paramatman your consort will be Goddess Shri and which is none other than personification of light. As without light, no one can reach to you as you will be then not able to see. She is also my one of the form. Oh when there will be the evolution of life then you will be changed to Vishnu. The one who will perform the task of observing and preserving.

Oh Lord Rudra, the Greatest God, you are the personification of time which is above all you will perform the task of destroying and regeneration.You nirgun form is Static Time, which is greatest of all nirgun forms you are static in that form and me is dynamic in that from. It is due to my power that you will be dynamic and will be able to perform the task of Destroying. Your actual Power is Goddess Mahakali but due to meditation you will be able to clear all the nine level of power i.e. then I will be manifested from your left half in my sagun swaroop the form which you all are seeing is my nirgun from. The form will be my sagun swaroop and she will perform the task of destroying evils and will be consort of Lord Shiva. [3]

Om Shakti is used to describe the actual name of the goddess.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%80dityas 110618

In Hinduism, Āditya (Skt: आदित्य, pronounced [ɑːd̪it̪jɐ]), meaning "of or related to Aditi", refers to the off-springs of Aditi. Adityas are solar class deities. In later Hinduism, Aditya is used in the singular to mean the sun.


In the Rigveda, the Ādityas are the seven celestial deities, sons of Āditi, headed by Varuna, followed by Mitra: 1. Varuna, 2. Mitra, 3. Aryaman, 4. Bhaga, 5. Anśa or Aṃśa, 6. Dhātṛ or Dakṣa, 7. Indra .

The eighth Āditya (Mārtanda) was rejected by Aditi, leaving seven sons. In the Yajurveda (Taittirīya Samhita), their number is given as eight, and the last one is believed to be Vivasvāna. Hymn LXXII of Rig Veda, Book 10, also confirms that there are eight Adityas, the eight one being Mārtanda, who is later revived back as Vivasvāna. [1]

"So with her Seven Sons Aditi went forth to meet the earlier age. She brought Mārtanda thitherward to spring to life and die again."

As a class of gods, the Rigvedic Ādityas were distinct from other groups such as the Maruts, the Rbhus or the Viśve-devāḥ (although Mitra and Varuna are associated with the latter). [2]


The Adityas being Solar deities have been described in the Rig Veda as bright and pure as streams of water, free from all guile and falsehood, blameless, perfect.

These class of deities have been attributed to as upholding the movables and immovable Dharma. Aditya is weird are beneficent Gods who act as protectors of all beings, who are provident and guard the world of spirits. In the form of Mitra-Varuna, the Adityas are true to the eternal Law and act as the debt exactors.[3]

In present day usage in Sanskrit, the term Aditya has been made singular in contrast to Vedic Adityas, and are being used synonymously with Surya, the Sun.

There is differences regarding the number of Adityas as per various non-vedic texts.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aum 100507

Aum (also Om, written in Devanagari as ,written in Tamil as ஓம், in Chinese as , in Japanese as オーム or オーン, in Tibetan as , in Sanskrit known as praṇava प्रणव lit. "to sound out loudly" or oṃkāra ओंकार lit. "oṃ syllable") is a mystical or sacred syllable in the Indian religions which originated from Hinduism.

UKT: In Bur-Myan Aum is {On}. One thing that has been troubling me for a long time is the script accorded to the phoneme / {on}/. The Devanagari script is ॐ whereas Burmese- and Pali-Myanmar is . Though ॐ seems to me अ - a front open vowel, under chandrabindu अँ , in this Wikipedia article, the phoneme is said to be a back vowel. The Bur-Myan {On}  derived from the vowel-letter {U.} (the equivalent of उ) can be transcribed grapheme-to-grapheme as: उ + ु + ं , or, अ + ु + ं , both of which are not rendered by Windows. Another sound-variation  commonly met in Myanmar is / {aung}/ derived from open-back vowel-letter {AU:} (= ओ). It seems that the sound is somewhere in the back between {U.} and {AU:} nasalized with a {th:th:ting}: totally free from coda sounds of either /n/ or /m/. The plant associated with this sound is the coconut palm {oan:ping} the young leaflets of which are offered to the Buddha or devas to bring success.
   It is unfortunate that the Wikipedia does not give anything about OM in Bangla-Bengali , a closely related script of Myanmar, except to give a pix as an inset. You'll notice that the Bengali akshara used is vowel-letter ও (U0993 - Bengali Letter O = Myanmar {au:}) not উ (U0989 - Bengali Letter U) = {U.}) -- UKT 100507

Aum is commonly pronounced as a long or over-long nasalized close-mid back rounded vowel, [ːː]) though there are other enunciations pronounced in received traditions. It is placed at the beginning of most Hindu texts as a sacred exclamation to be uttered at the beginning and end of a reading of the Vedas or previously to any prayer or mantra. The Mandukya Upanishad is entirely devoted to the explanation of the syllable. The syllable is taken to consist of three phonemes, a, u and m, variously symbolizing the Three Vedas or the Hindu Trimurti or three stages in life ( birth, life and death ). Though ostensibly in some traditions it is polysyllabic and vocalized as a triphthong, the Omkara is held to move through and contain all vowels possible in human speech. One important version has five components, flowing from h through a, u, oo to m.

The name Omkara, (Skt: the syllable om) is taken as a name of God in the Hindu revivalist Arya Samaj. Similarly, the concept of om, called onkar in Punjabi, is found in Sikh theology as a symbol of God. It invariably emphasizes God's singularity, expressed as Ek Onkar ("One Omkara" or "The Aum is One"), stating that the multiplicity of existence symbolized in the aum syllable is really founded in a singular God.[1]

Nomenclature, orthography and etymology

The Sanskrit name for the syllable is praṇava, from a root nu "to shout, sound, praise", verbal pra-nu- being attested as "to make a humming or droning sound" in the Brahmanas, and taking the specific meaning of "to utter the syllable om" in the Chandogya Upanishad and the Shrauta Sutras. More rarely used terms are akṣara or ekākṣara, and in later times omkāra becomes prevalent.

Phonemically, the syllable is /aum/, which is regularly monophthongized to [ː] in Sanskrit phonology. It is sometimes also written with pluti, as o3m (ओ३म्), notably by Arya Samaj, which is Sanskrit. When occurring within a Sanskrit utterance, the syllable is subject to the normal rules of sandhi in Sanskrit grammar, however with the additional peculiarity that after preceding a or ā, the o of om does not form vriddhi (au) but guna (o) per Pāṇini 6.1.95.

UKT: The above para needs to be further analysed in terms of Bur-Myan because of two closely articulated sounds:
guna (o) ओ (?) and vriddhi (au) औ (?).
   Actually, there are a number of sounds - non-nasalized and nasalized - in this region in Bur-Myan:
{u.} {u} {u:} --> {on.} {on} {on:}
{o.} {o} {o:}
{au.} {au} {au:} --> {aung.} {aung} {aung:}
   Our problem is to see to which Bur-Myan sounds ओ and औ correspond to.

The Aum symbol is a ligature of Devanagari + (oṃ, encoded in Unicode at U+0950 , the Tibetan script variant at U+0F00, and the Chinese 唵 at U+5535 or 吽 at U+543D).

It is thought that "Amen" in Christianity and "Amin" in Islam came from AUM, but lost its original pronunciation through history.[2][3][4]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Buddhist Shakti (non-Theravada)

UKT: Even though I am a Theravada Buddhist, as a scholar and material scientist, I need to know what goes under the rubric "Buddhism" - i.e. "Buddhism" known to the world at large. However, I admit that I have removed certain passages from the following that would be considered too offensive to a Theravada Buddhist.
From: http://www.khandro.net/dakini_shakti.htm 110617

Dakinis [Skt: डाकिनी ḍākinī; ], goddesses and/or female consorts of deities [UKT: "deities" are "devas" in Theravada tradition - those who are still in the sexual planes of existence.] in Buddhism embody the energy that is called Shakti. (The Sanskrit word, shakti means power.) By the way, it is incorrect to think that there are 3 main gods in the Indian tradition. That was an idea imposed upon the structure of Indian mythology by scholars from the tradition that held to the Trinity paradigm. In Bengal, Bihar and also in Nepal, the divine is understood, worshiped or invoked as a female.

UKT: By "Trinity paradigm", what I understand is: Trinity as we were taught while going to a Christian school in East Rangoon soon after the Second World War. It is the Trinity known as "God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost". It should be noted that the word "Holy Ghost" is now changed to "Holy Spirit". - UKT110618

One way that this confidence is expressed in Tibetan Buddhism is as the cult of Tara. It is not incorrect to view her and any of her manifestations as deity, bodhisattva, dakini and also, shakti. [UKT: From this place, I have removed a line on tantric tradition which has misrepresented Buddha Shakyamuni - the historical Gautama Buddha. - 110618]

In the biography of Ayu Khadro [Tsewang Dorje Paldron 1839-1953], we learn that it was not uncommon for people visiting the Vajrayogini shrine to also go to the Kali temple near it, and vice versa. (The Hindu goddess Kali is a very wrathful manifestation of Parvati, wife of Shiva.) ['Shiva' is {i-wa. nt} to Bur-Buddhists.]

Tibetan Goddesses

S. Karmay enumerates 9 primordial females (srid pa mo dgu) who are sisters:

Ancestress Queen of the Sky, White Menmo of the Sky, Woman Who Does Not Talk, Female Tiger, She Who Develops and Strengthens, Sharp Flaming Point, She Who Rides a Deer, Queen of the Cha, White Goddess.

In transliterated Tibetan, he names these Nine Females of the World:

The Sky Queen is gnam-phyi-gung-rgyal. The second is gNam-sman-dkar-mo, the aunt of Gesar of Ling. The third sister is Mi-mkhan ma-mo who had the 8 offspring that are the progenitors of mankind. The 5th sister is Shed-za na-ma, the goddess of life whose four offspring are: pho-lha, ma-lha, zhang-lha, and sGra-lha. The 7th sister is phyva-tshe rgyal-mo (Queen of Wealth) and the mother of the gods, of horses, the door, and the hearth.


A form of energy, the dakini is Shakti, divine activity. This activity that empowers appears even in mystical Judaism [kabala] where she is Sh[e]kina, the glory of the deity, but she is also the blessing that is the Sabbath Bride.

The shakti of Hindu deity Shiva is the most widely recognized. She has many names, manifesting as do most goddesses, in 3 main forms:

  1. The maiden, virgin or nubile like Parvati, wife of Shiva.

This is the aspect of woman that serves to inspire the young hero on his quest. In folk tales, movies and video games, she is a princess.

2. mature, generous, fiercely protective and motherly Hindu goddess Devi or Uma, or an alternate form, 10-armed Durga (Beyond Reach,) the warrior who vanquished primeval evil in the form of a monstrous water buffalo. See a similar form of the Buddhist deity, Vajravarahi. *Read her hundred names for insight into tantric Buddhist female deities.

This is Isis, deity of ancient Egypt, in search of her lost husband, Osiris. This is also Demeter, Greek goddess of Asia Minor, seeking her daughter Persephone and confronting the Universal Host, Hades, Lord of Death, to bargain for her return.

3. The wrathful crone, Hindu black goddess Kali (remember Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom?) is garlanded with skulls. The Sanskrit word, kali can be understood both as time and as black. She is the avenger of evil, and her sixteen hands hold various weapons symbolic of forms of destruction. She is surrounded by a ring of flames, and from her fanged maw protrudes her red tongue.

At her death, once every god-year [365 of ours], Shiva collects one of her bones to add to his mala which currently comprises only 21 bones. Animals (usually black goats) still are sacrificed at her temples like Kalighat, in Calcutta and therefore she is not a suitable object of Buddhist devotion. It was only in 1780 that human sacrifice was outlawed, though it had already been restricted as far back as Vedic times.

Kali also manifests as Chinnamasta, who bears her own severed head. There is a similar form in Tibetan Buddhism. (The motif in its male, Celtic version appears in the old poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. )

In many mythologies, the goddess disguises herself as an old woman and, in this manner, gets invited into the palace. There she performs helpful deeds that appear horrifying at first glance, for example, Greek goddess Demeter's attempt to bless the son of Metaneira by "burning away his mortality" in the hearth fire.


Her name is Sanskrit for Power of the Sun and Moon. She was a wisdom dakini that initiated Padmasambhava, and we read in the Nyingma text, Padma Kathang, that he prostrates to the enthroned dakini begging her for teachings: outer, inner and secret. She is called Laygyi Wangmo or "Queen of Action," for she transmutes her new acolyte by turning him into the sacred syllable HUM, swallowing him up and passing him through her body. In that way, he is initiated into her teachings, obtaining her own magical power or shakti energy before being ejected through her "secret lotus", so that he is completely purified and transformed.

Even her handmaid or Kumari (Skt: princess, maiden) was a sorceress. She cut open her own breast with a crystal dagger and displayed a glowing mandala of deities within her. The two dakinis lived in the Castle of Skulls.

Shacha Dema (Belmo, Sakya Devi) is the name of the Bhutanese girl who was a consort of Guru Rinpoche's and is thought of as an emanation of Vajravarahi. She is depicted as the tigress in tangkas of his wrathful form as Dorje Drolo.


Niguma and Nairatmya are both legendary yoginis (female adepts) embodying that extraordinary shakti energy. The first one is a lineage guru (11th century) in her own right, a mahasiddha and companion of Naropa. She taught what is known as The Six Yogas of Niguma which includes abilities such as tummo, the practice of generating heat.

The second whose Sanskrit name describes her as Absolutely-No-Self, is the consort of Marpa, his moderating influence and the mentor of Milarepa.

UKT: Many years ago, one of the brothers (Drs.) OhnGyaw and NyuntWin of Rangoon University, Chemistry Dept., lent me a book on Milarepa. It was my first introduction to the non-Theravada Buddhism. - UKT110618

   Jetsun Milarepa (Tibetan: རྗེ་བཙུན་མི་ལ་རས་པ; Wylie: Rje-btsun Mi-la-ras-pa), (c. 1052c. 1135 CE) [UKT: timeline: Pagan period in Myanmar] is generally considered one of Tibet's most famous yogis and poets. He was a student of Marpa Lotsawa, and a major figure in the history of the Kagyu (Bka'-brgyud) school of Tibetan Buddhism. -- Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milarepa 110618

The Triple Goddess

The dakini's triple nature is manifest in the Buddhist deity, Vajrayogini.

It was not by chance that Shakespeare used 3 witches or 'the three wyrd sisters' in his Scottish play, Macbeth. In European mythology, this three-fold nature appears as the three Norns or Fates who spin, measure and then clip the thread of life. Contemporary pagans or Wiccans also know her as the Triple Goddess, ruler of the three times [past, present and future] and the three worlds [heaven, earth, underworld].

*It is well-known that the Celts [pron.: kelts] were members of the same ancient cultural group as some of the ancient migrants to India. The cauldron of Celtic myth and folklore (the pot at the end of the rainbow) is the equivalent of the dakini's skull-cup vessel, but in the European tradition it may be supported on a tripod, in which all substances, pure and impure, are mixed and transformed into bliss-ambrosia. It performs the same function as the bowl the dakini lifts to her lips or offers to others.

Trickster Energy

The Rom people (Gitanos, Gypsies) acknowledge the Trickster aspect of shakti when they speak of duende, a spirit or force which enters through the feet causing a person to dance fiercely, or to be driven to extremes of behaviour, even madness. And this is not surprising, since it is thought that Gypsies originated in the central regions of India, today called Rajasthan.

UKT: More in the website.

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From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shudra 110617

Shudra (Skt: शूद्र Śūdra, normally now spelled Sudra or Sdra in English, which has produced a spelling pronunciation[1]) is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in the caste system. Their assigned and expected role in post-Vedic India was that of servants and laborers. The four Varnas are Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. The Shudras form about 75 to 80 per cent of the population of Hindus.[2]

UKT: According to Monier-Williams read together with MED2010, the Skt aum or {AUng:} is the sacred syllable of the Śūdras . Then my question is who were the ancient Shudra, especially of those areas extending from the foothills of the Himalayas to Assam and Manipur on the border between the present day India and Myanmar. And what was their language? Was their language(s) Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur) or Indo-European (IE). I need to know the answer to this question because Gautama Buddha was born and died in the area of the present day Nepal the population of which even today speak Tib-Myan languages similar to Burmese-Myanmar (Bur-Myan). It was to those people, not necessarily the Brahmins who spoke "Sanskrit", that the Buddha had spoken. If those people - the audience - had spoken a Tib-Bur language, then the Buddha would have spoken in a Tib-Myan language. Let's call it Magadhi (not Pali) - the language of Magadhi. Of course it was not Burmese-Myanmar, but still the sounds of vowels and consonants would have been the same, i.e. with thibilant sounds and NOT the sibilant sounds of Sanskrit. These thibilant sounds, together with the {la.}-sounds, but very little highly rhotic sounds are still in Bur-Myan.
   So Pal {AUng:} or Bur {aung} had been in the Bur-Myan language (if there had been one) even from the time of the Vedas. So my far fetched conclusion is: the Bur-Myan language could be traced even to the Vedic - the language of the Vedas which had preceded the classical Sanskrit of Panini. Then my final questions: from where did the word {OM} come in, and what was the origin of the "circle", the basis, of Myanmar akshara? My tentative answers: {OM} was introduced by the Hindu-Brahmins, and the "circle" meaning 'whole' depicts the secret writing, or {ing:} such as {sa.Da.ba.wa. ing:} the most popular rune in the present day Myanmar. - UKT110618


Whilst the origins of the other varnas can be traced to Vedic words, the word varna is translated as the Sanskrit word for color. In the Shanti Parva of Mahabharata, it is said that there was only one Varna Brahmana in the beginning. The other varnas were formed depending on the dominance of the three Gunas Sattwa, Rajah and Tamah in one's self. The varnas were mere socio-economical roles that people take in a society. It is also mentioned in the purusha-sukta of Rigveda where shudras are said to have emanated from the feet of the Virat Purush (पद्भ्याम् शूद्र् अजायत padbhyām śūdro ajāyata).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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