Update: 2020-05-09 06:28 PM -0400


Vowels and Consonants
of BEPS languages


by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

Addenda to edited version of A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed. (reprint of 1914ed.), 1st in 2006, 2012.

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

• Vowels in general - Human Voice - MC-acoustics.htm - update 2020May 
  See also Section 1 Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology - HV-indx.htm (link chk 150906)
• Ancient Langauages: BEPS & Georgian - MC-anci-lang.htm - update 150930
• Script to Sound - MC-in-vow.htm - update 150930
• Syllable and its nuclear vowel and the effect of coda on nuclear vowel - MC-syllab.htm - update 160331
• Comparison of Skt-Dev, Eng-IPALatin, and Bur-Myan vowels - MC-BEPS-vow.htm - update 150930
• Comparison of Skt-Dev, Eng-IPALatin, and Bur-Myan consonants - MC-BEPS-con.htm - future upload


UKT notes :
Inherent vowel and its pronunciation


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UKT 150924 :

I hope my reader is familiar with Bur-Myan speech to some extent. My grandsons, Maung Kan Tun and Maung Thit Tun, both born outside Myanmarpré and now residing in Canada can speak Bur-Myan, but are ignorant of the Bur-Myan akshara form of writing. They can read Romabama to some extent. Yet they and most of us, both inside and outside our mother-land are ignorant of Mon-Myan. To put Romabama to a severe test, I am including the sounds of Mon-Myan speech. In the above files you will hear a lot of Mon-Myan speech, and see Mon-Myan script. Whether you write Burmese or Mon, we use the same Myanmar akshara with very few variations. Since most of us are of Theravada Buddhist faith, through Pal-Myan words we can understand some if we see the script. If you care to learn some Mon-Myan, look into
¤ Mon-Myan Speech (MonSPK) - speak-all-indx.htm (link chk 150924)


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UKT notes

Inherent vowel and its pronunciation

- UKT 150907, 180722

What is the inherent vowel intrinsic vowel present in a consonantal character in Abugida-Akshara system? What is its pronunciation in different languages of BEPS? How is it to be represented in transliteration and transcription?

From Principles of Script, Ch 9.1 Devanagari, The Unicode Standard 4.0 , 2003

Consonant Letters. Each consonant letter represents a single consonantal sound but also has the peculiarity of having an inherent vowel, generally the short vowel /a/ in Devanagari and the other Indic scripts. Thus U+0915 DEVANAGARI LETTER KA  represents not just /k/ but also /ka/. In the presence of a dependent vowel, however, the inherent vowel associated with a consonant letter is overridden by the dependent vowel.

Virama (Halant). Devanagari employs a sign known in Sanskrit as the virama [which I commonly shorten to viram ] or vowel omission sign. In Hindi it is called hal or halant, and that term is used in referring to the virama or to a consonant with its vowel suppressed by the virama; the terms are used interchangeably in this section.

The virama sign, U+094D DEVANAGARI SIGN VIRAMA , nominally serves to cancel (or kill) the inherent vowel of the consonant to which it is applied. When a consonant has lost its inherent vowel by the application of virama, it is known as a dead consonant; in contrast, a live consonant is one that retains its inherent vowel or is written with an explicit dependent vowel sign. In the Unicode Standard, a dead consonant is defined as a sequence consisting of a consonant letter followed by a virama. The default rendering for a dead consonant is to position the virama as a combining mark bound to the consonant letterform.

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End of TIL file