Update: 2017-01-20 04:45 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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There is no Pal-Myan equivalent for Skt-Dev औ «au». Look for Pal-Myan equivalents
in Skt-Dev words spelled with {AU} or {U.}, e.g. Pal: {AU-Ga.} for Skt: औघ «augha» [ aughá ] Pal: {U.doam~ba.ra.} for Skt: औदुम्बर «audumbara»

{au-ka.} {auk~Sa.} (Pseudo Kha) 
{au-ga.} {au-Ga.}
{au-sa.} {au-za.}
{au-đa.} {au-Na.}
{au-ta.} {au-da.}
{au-pa.} {au-ma.}

• Ten Great Jataka stories: 
01. Temiya, 02. Mahajanaka, 03. Sama, 04. Nimi, 05. Mahosadha
06. Bhuridatta, 07. Canda-Kumara, 08. Narada, 09. Vidhura, 10. Vessantara
- http://www.buddha-images.com/ 150724


UKT notes :
Aurasa child /
Decline of Buddhism in India
First Connection between Sanskrit and Pali
Uddhava : - Krishna's friend and counsellor in Uddhava Gita

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• औकार [ au-kâra ]
- m. the sound or letter au.

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{auk~Sa.} : Pseudo Kha


• औक्ष [ aukshá ]
= औ क ् ष
Skt: औक्ष [ aukshá ] - a. (î) coming from a bull. - Mac060c1
Pal: {U.ţa.Ba.} - UHS-PMD0846
  UKT from UHS: m. ox, bull 



• औक्षक [ auksha-ka ]
- n. a number of bulls.



• [aukshana] (or á)
-- coming from a bull


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• औग्र्य [ augr-ya ]
= औ ग ् र ् य
- n. formidableness.


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• औघ [ aughá ]
Skt: औघ [ aughá ] - m. flood. - Mac060c1 
Skt: औघ «augha» - m. flood - SpkSkt
Pal: {AU-Ga.} - UHS PMD0262
  UKT from UHS: m. flood, actions leading to drowning in Suffering (with ref. to the Principle of Suffering, the First Noble Truth of Buddhism.)

See my note on First Connection between Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan


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• औचिती [ aukit-î ]
- f. suitableness, propriety; -ya, n. id.; experience; habituation to (--°).



• [aukhaih-sravasa]
Skt: [aukhaih-sravasa] - m. N. of Indras' horse - Mac060c1
Skt: औच्चैःश्रवस «auccaiḥśravasa» - m. horse - SpkSkt
Skt: उच्चैःश्रवा  «uccaiḥśravā» - Wikipedia (see note*)
Pal: {ćţ~ţa.} - UHS PMD0150
  UKT from UHS: m. horse (150724: unable to find the name of the Sakka's horse, I have given the general term for horse.)

UKT 150724 *: In Hindu mythology, Uchchaihshravas  उच्चैःश्रवस्  "long-ears" or "neighing aloud",[1] Uccaiḥśravas or उच्चैःश्रवा  «uccaiḥśravā» is a seven-headed flying horse, that was obtained during the churning of the milk ocean Samudra manthan . It is considered the best of horses, prototype and king of horses.[1] Uchchaihshravas is often described as a vahana वाहन «vāhana» "vehicle" of Indra - the god-king of heaven, but is also recorded to be the horse of Bali, the king of demons. Uchchaihshravas is said to be snow white in colour.
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uchchaihshravas 150724


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• औज्ज्वल्य [ auggval-ya ]
= औ ज ् ज ् व ल ् य
- n. brilliance, splendour.

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• औडव [ audava ]
- a. (î) stellar.


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• औणादिक [ aunâdi-ka ]
- a. belonging to the Unâdi-sűtras.

UKT 150724: Unâdi-sűtras are Mahayana-Buddhist sutras, and my search on them has landed me on:
Buddhist Mahâyâna Texts ,  translated by E. B. Cowell, F. Max Müller and J. Takakusu, Oxford, the Clarendon Press, 1894, vol. XLIX of the Sacred Books of the East.
   {p. vi} - "THE Sanskrit text of the Buddha-karita was published at the beginning of last year in the 'Anecdota Oxoniensia,' and the following English translation is now included in the series of 'Sacred Books of the East.' It is an early Sanskrit poem written in India on the legendary history of Buddha, and therefore contains much that is of interest for the history of Buddhism, beside its special importance as illustrating the early history of classical Sanskrit literature."
  I have downloaded (150724) a few pages and you can see them in TIL library: html<Ô>


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• औत्कण्ठ्य autkanth-ya, औत्क्य [ autk-ya ]
= औ त ् क ण ् ठ ् य
- n. yearning.



• [auttam-i]
-- m. pat. of the third Manu



• औत्तराधर्य [ auttara‿adhar-ya ]
- n. being above and below, promiscuousness.



• औत्पत्तिक [ autpatti-ka ]
- a. (î) original, innate, natural.



• औत्पातिक [ autpât-ika ]
- a. (î) extraordinary, prodigious, portentous.



• औत्सुक्य [ autsuk-ya ]
- n. yearning, desire; impatience; zeal.


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• औदक [ audaka ]
- a. (î) aquatic; relating to or growing in water.



• औदरिक [ audar-ika ]
- a. gluttonous; m. glutton.



• औदर्चिष [ audarkish-a ]
- a. directed to Agni.



• औदात्त्य [ audâtt-ya ]
- n. acute accentuation.



• औदार्य [ audâr-ya ]
- n. dignity, nobility; generosity: -tâ, f. generosity.



• औदासीन्य [ audâsîn-ya ]
- n. indifference, apathy.



• औदुम्बर [ aúdumbara ]
Skt: औदुम्बर [ aúdumbara ]- a. (î) belonging to the Udumbara tree;
  made of Udumbara wood. - Mac060c1
Skt: औदुम्बर «audumbara» - adj. coming from the tree of udumbara, Ficus racemosa  - SpkSkt
Pal: {U.doam~ba.ra.}
- UHS-PMD0215
  UKT from UHS: m. Ficus glomerata syn. Ficus racemosa .
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficus_racemosa 150724

UKT 150724: As a candidate for Matriculation Exam (1950) at University of Rangoon, I came across the story of {U.doam~ba.ra.}-dévi in Mahosadha Jataka. You can read the full text of Mahosadha in my downloaded collection in TIL library: html<Ô> .

UKT 150724: Ten Great Jātakas tales or Birth-stories:
01. Temiya, 02. Mahajanaka, 03. Sama, 04. Nimi, 05. Mahosadha
06. Bhuridatta, 07. Canda-Kumara, 08. Narada, 09. Vidhura, 10. Vessantara
- http://www.buddha-images.com/ 150724


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• औद्धत्य [ auddhat-ya ]
= औ द ् ध त ् य
- n. arrogance; superciliousness.



• औद्धव्य [ auddhav-ya ]
- a. coming fr. Uddhava.

Uddhava (also known as Pavanayadhi) is a character from the Puranic texts of [ Vaishnavism ] Hinduism, who is the friend and counsellor of Krishna the Avatar. He plays a significant role in the Bhagavata Purana, being taught the processes of yoga and bhakti directly by Krishna. The principle of these discussions is often referred to as the Uddhava Gita, [aka Hamsa Gita ] similarly to the Bhagavad Gita wherein Krishna instructs Arjuna. According to some texts Uddhava was also Krishna's cousin, being the son of Devabhaga, who was the brother of Vasudeva, Krishna's father. His physical appearance was so like that of Krishna's that in some instances he is temporarily mistaken for the latter. -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uddhava 150724

See my note below on Decline of Buddhism in India



• औद्धारिक [ auddhâr-ika ]
- a. belonging to the share deducted.



• औद्वाहिक [ audvâh-ika ]
- a. relating to or presented at marriage.


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• [aupakkhandas-ika]
-- n. a metre



• औपधर्म्य [ aupadharm-ya ]
- n. false doctrine, heresy.



• औपधिक [ aupadh-ika ]
- a. fraudulent; m. cheat, extortioner.



• औपनायनिक [ aupanâyan-ika ]
- a. relating to or appointed for initiation.



• औपनिधिक [ aupanidhi-ka ]
- a. being a deposit.



• औपनिषद [ aupanishadá ]
- a. (î) contained or taught in an Upanishad.



• औपनीविक [ aupanîvika ]
- a. being on the apron.



• औपमित [ aupamita ]
- a. equalled.



• औपम्य [ aupam-ya ]
- n. resemblance, comparison.



• औपयिक [ aupay-ika ]
- a. (î) suitable, proper.



• औपल [ aupala ]
- a. made of stone.



• औपवस्त aupavasta, ˚क [ -ka ]
- n. preliminary fast on the eve of a celebration.



• औपवाह्य [ aupavâh-ya ]
- a. suitable for riding or driving.



• औपवीतिक [ aupavît-ika ]
- n. investiture with the sacred thread.



• औपहारिक [ aupahâr-ika ]
- n. offering.



• औपाकरण [ aupâkarana ]
- n. commencement of Vedic study.



• औपासन [ aupâsaná ]
- m. domestic sacred fire.



• औपेन्द्र [ aupendra ]
- a. belonging to Vishnu.


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• औम [ auma ]
- a. flaxen; relating to Umâ.

Umâ: (splendor, light; fame, reputation; quiet, tranquility; night). Goddess, one of the eleven wives of S'iva (see 3.12: 13) also called Pârvatî and Durgâ; the name is said to be derived from umâ!, "O don't", the exclamation addressed to Pârvatî by her mother not to practice austerities.
- Name of several women. -- http://bhagavata.org/glossary/u.html 120604

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flax 170119
"Flax (also known as common flax or linseed), Linum usitatissimum, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world. The textiles made from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, and traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. The oil is known as linseed oil. ..."



• औरभ्र [ aurabhr-a ]
- a. belonging to a ram or sheep; -ika, m. shepherd.


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• औरश [ aurasa ]
- m. inhabitant of Urasa.



• औरस auras-a
Skt: औरस [auras-a] - a. (î) proceeding from the chest; innate, natural; begotten of the body; m. lawful son of the body; -ya, a. begotten of one's body.
Pal: {AU:ra.ţa.}
- - UHS-PMD0270

UKT from UHS: mfn. what has come to be in your bosom (meaning a natural child)
See my note on Aurasa child - genetic child



• और्ण [ aurna ]
- a. woollen.



• और्ध्वदेह [ aurdhva-deha ]
- n. future life: i-ka, a. relating to the future life; n. obsequies; gifts distributed at obsequies.

ob·se·quy n. pl. ob·se·quies ą. A funeral rite or ceremony. Often used in the plural. - AHTD



• और्व [ ą. aúrva ]
- m. pat. of various Rishis.



• और्व [ ˛. aurva ]
- m. submarine fire (of Aurva).



• और्व [ ł. aurva ]
- a. (î) belonging to the earth; -ra, a. coming from the earth (dust).



• और्वशेय [ aurvase-ya ]
- a. descended from Urvasî.

UKT: the most beautiful Apsara


• और्वाग्नि [ aurva‿âgni ]
- m. submarine fire; -‿anala, m. id.



• और्वाय [ aurvâya ]
- den. Â. behave like the submarine fire.



• [auvenaka]
-- n. N. of a chant



• औशनस [ ausanasa ]
- a. (î) belonging to Usanas; m., î, f. pat. descendant of Usanas; n. law-book composed by Usanas.



• औशीनर [ ausînara ]
- a. (î) belonging to the people of Usînara; î, f. N. of a wife of Purűravas.

Usinaras (उसीनर) were an ancient people attested to have been living in central Punjab since remote antiquity. They were often associated with Madras, Kekayas, Sibis etc and their territory formed part of Vahika country according to evidence of Pāṇini. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usinaras 120604



• औशीर [ ausîra ]
- a. made of Usîra; n. ointment made of Usîra.

UKT 120604: It may mean 'usira root' - a fragrant root. From Dhammapada Thirst or Craving — CANTO XXIV: http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/dhamma/dham24.htm 120604
   337. This I say unto you! May all of you, who are gathered here, be blessed! May you dig up the root of craving as one who digs up the birana grass for the fragrant usira root. (1) Let not Mara destroy you again and again, even as the current of the river destroys the reeds.



• औषध [ aushadhá ]
-- a. made of herbs; n. herbs (coll.); medicinal herb; remedy, drug, medicine; î-kri, turn into a medicine; -vikrayin, a. vending medicines.

© औषध «auṣadha» [ aushadhá ]
Skt: औषध [ aushadhá ] - a. made of herbs; n. herbs (coll.); medicinal herb; remedy, drug, medicine -- Mac060c3
Skt: औषध «auṣadha» - n. drug, medicine, consisting of herbs, mineral, herbs used in medicine, vessel for herbs, simples, medicament, herbs collectively, medicine in general, herb -- SpkSkt
Pal: {AU-ţa.Da.}
- - UHS-PMD0272
  UKT from UHS: n. herbal root, herbal plant, medicine



• औषस [ aushas-á ]
- a. (î) relating to the morning; î, f. day-break.



• औष्ट्र [ aushtra ]
- a. produced from a buffalo or camel: -ka, n. number of camels.



• औष्ठ [ aushtha ]
- a. lip-shaped.



• औष्ण्य [ aushn-ya ]
- n. heat.


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UKT notes

Aurasa child /

UKT 170120: Bur-Myan speakers in Myanmarpé are not careful about the usage of the adoption terms, especially the kittima adoption. Little do they know that once a child or even a grownup is adopted as a kittima child, the child is considred to be a genetic child. kittima adoption is an irreversible process just as the birth of genetic child.

Excerpt from: Bridewealth and Dowry - by Jack Goody and S. J. Tambiah
http://books.google.ca/books 120525

The rights of the children. While in general bilateral inheritane prevails, there is special place assigned to the orasa son or daughters. The orasa {AU:ra.ţa.} (Skt =aurasa  {AU-ra.ţa.} UHS-PMD0270) mean in its classical sense a true or natural child of the body; but in successive Dhammathat interpretations the meaning has been transformed in Burma to the eldest born child -- male or female -- who is capable of undertaking the responsibilities of a deceased father or mother respectively. The child should have attained majority and should be capable of discharging a dead parent's responsibilities in the control and management of family property and household. Such an orasa child is in Burmese law vested with a right to one-fourth the estate left to the surviving parent by the deceased parent.

... ... ...

Burmese adoption is interesting in comparison with the Indian counterpart. The concepts used are:

(a.) kittima adoption with a view to inheritance, the adopted child given the same rights as a natural child.

(b)  appatittha casual adoption (verging on fosterage) in which that intention is absent and therefore the individual has only a limited right of inheritance.

Keeping these distinctions in mind, let us now bring into view a shift of meanings in some classical Indian concepts when transplanted to Burma. In the Indian literature a set of three concepts are contrasted thus: aurasa as natural born son and heir is contrasted with dattaka a son and heir adopted in the absence of the former. And again a dattaka adoption is contrasted with a kritima adoption : a dattaka adoption usually is of a minor, he undergoes a ceremony of adoption, adopts the new father's name and performs rites for him and his ancestors when he dies and loses property rights in his natal family and gains rights in his adopted parents' property, while a krittima adoption is inferior in that the person adopted is usually an adult whose consent to adoption is required; he undergoes no ceremony, he does not take the name of the adopting parent and he does not lose inheritance rights in his natal family while gaining rights in his new family.

The Burmese set of contrastive terms are orasa, kitima, and appatitha. The Burmese orasa (aurasa) refers not so much to a 'natural' child, but to the eldest child male or female within a set of 'natural' children. In the Burmese context when all children inherit and the Hindu problems of male heir and his religious obligations do not obtain, the borrowed term is used to stress eldest child vis-a-vis the other ... ...

Go back Aurasa-note-b

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Decline of Buddhism in India

UKT 150724:

Whenever you come across the word "Hinduism", you must specify whether it is Vaishnavism or Shaivism (or Saivism ). These two branches had been mortal enemies at one time. At present Shaivism is the dominant religion of India. "Shaivites" - the worshippers of Siva as the Supreme God - had been mostly responsible for decline of Buddhism in India. Muslims were also responsible - it was probably Tantric Buddhism which because of its indulgence in sexual practices that had been their target. Tantric Buddhism was also the target of King Anawrahta's reforms in 11th century in Myanmarpré. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decline_of_Buddhism_in_India 150724

Inset text read:
The image, in the chapter on India in Hutchison's Story of the Nations edited by James Meston, depicts the Turkish general Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji's massacre of Buddhist monks in Bihar. Khaliji destroyed the Nalanda and Vikramshila universities during his raids across North Indian plains, massacring many Buddhist and Brahmin scholars.

Go back Decline-Buddhism-India-note-b

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The First connection between Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan

UKT 110817:

The very first word that I could decipher when I started to learn Pal-Myan is between औघ «augha» and {AU-Ga.}. The meaning is a 'whirlpool' or 'vortex' which is very common at the confluence of large Myanmar rivers. The vortexes are large and powerful enough to sink a fairly sized country boat and drowning the crew.

Having taken extensive boat voyages in my childhood (from a very small one to the largest sailing boat on the Irrawaddy river and its Delta) , I know how dangerous the vortexes are.

Go back First-connect-Skt-and-Pali-note-b





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Uddhava - Krishna's friend and counsellor in Uddhava Gita

-- UKT 140131, 170120

Long before I got myself involved with Skt-Dev, studying it to understand Pal-Myan better, I had thought highly of the Puranas - the Old Texts. My aim was to study Theravada Buddhism from Burmese sources first hand - not as "retold" by the monks.

Now after a decade of study, I am regarding these Old Texts - written and rewritten by Brahmin-Poanna {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} to be nothing more than "propaganda texts" to present their religion and themselves as the primary upholders - in a better, and more better light to the world. However, I am not blaming the Brahmin-Poannas alone.

Other religionists, from the time of Pharaohs of Egypt right down to the present time, are also guilty of this "sin",  thereby becoming the source of innumerable religious conflicts costing human lives and and bringing on untold miseries including disease and starvation.

Now let's see who this Krishna character is. I now quote from Wikipedia which is a good source of information but which should be taken with caution - NOT an authority. The following excerpt is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishnu 140131.

In the Rigveda, Vishnu is mentioned 93 times. He is frequently invoked alongside other deities, especially Indra, whom he helps in killing Vrutra and with whom he drinks Soma. His distinguishing characteristic in the Vedas is his association with light. Two Rigvedic hymns in Mandala 7 are dedicated to Vishnu. In 7.99, Vishnu is addressed as the god who separates heaven and earth, a characteristic he shares with Indra.

The Rigveda describes Vishnu as subordinate to Indra as Vamana. In Vaishnava canon the 'Vishnu' who is subordinate to Indra is identified as Vamana, Avatar of Vishnu, hence referred to as Vishnu by Vaishnavites. [18] [20]

Now on Uddhava aks Pavanayadhi :

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uddhava 110817

Uddhava (also known as Pavanayadhi) is a character from the Puranic texts of Hinduism, who is the friend and counsellor of Krishna the Avatar [of Vishnu]. He plays a significant role in the Bhagavata Purana, being taught the processes of yoga and bhakti directly by Krishna. The principle of these discussions is often referred to as the Uddhava Gita, similarly to the Bhagavad Gita wherein Krishna instructs Arjuna. [UKT ¶ ]

UKT 110817: Though I have read Bhagavad Gita half a century ago, I did not know about Uddhava Gita. It is also known as the Hamsa Gita (Sanskrit) and consists of Krishna's final discourse to Uddhava before Krishna draws his worldly 'descent' (Skt: avatar) and 'pastimes' (Sanskrit: lila) to completion. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uddhava_Gita 110817

According to some texts Uddhava was also Krishna's cousin, being the son of Devabhaga, who was the brother of Vasudeva, Krishna's father. His physical appearance was so like that of Krishna's that in some instances he is temporarily mistaken for the latter.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Uddhava-note-b

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End of TIL file