Update: 2019-06-26 12:05 AM -0400

TIL

Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus

p000.htm

A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

 

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{au}

There is no Pal-Myan equivalent for Skt-Dev औ au. Look for Pal-Myan equivalents
in Skt-Dev words spelled with {AU} or {U.}, e.g. Pal: {AU-Ga.} for Skt: औघ augha [ augh ] Pal: {U.doam~ba.ra.} for Skt: औदुम्बर audumbara

  p060-2c1
{au-ka.} {auk~Sa.} (Pseudo Kha) 
{au-ga.} {au-Ga.}
{au-sa.} {au-za.}
{au-a.} {au-Na.}
{au-ta.} {au-da.}
  p060-2c2
{au-pa.} {au-ma.}
  p060-2c3

Ten Great Jataka stories: 
01. Temiya, 02. Mahajanaka, 03. Sama, 04. Nimi, 05. Mahosadha
06. Bhuridatta, 07. Canda-Kumara, 08. Narada, 09. Vidhura, 10. Vessantara
- http://www.buddha-images.com/ 150724

Orphans:
 

  कंस   kams goblet; m. n. brass; m. N. of a king slain by Krishna; -krish, -satru, -nishdana, -̮ari, m. ep. of Krishna.
      2. k (Who?) ep. of Pragpati or Brahman; n. bliss; water; head.
      1. k kd; C. km) who? what? which? with iva, u, nma, who indeed? often used in a depreciating sense= as good as none, no one or nothing: k̮esha kath? that is out of the question; kim with in. or gd.=what does -- matter? what is the use of -- to (g.)? with nu, who pray? with v, who possibly? with svid, who or what, I wonder? Indef. prn. 1. with neg. any, any one; 2. with preceding ya and following ka, whosoever, whichever; anysoever, every; with preceding ya and following v, anysoever; 3. with kan, none whatever (often strengthened by negatives); 4. with kana, kid, or api, some, any, a certain (a. or n.): pl. some; kaskid kaskid, the one--the other: pl. some--others.
  
   कक्ष   kksha hiding-place, lair; thicket; m., , f. arm-pit; girth, girdle, cincture; balance (generally f.); , f. circular wall, enclosure; orbit of a planet; equality; emulation: ()-pata, m. loin-cloth.
   कक्कोल   kakkola -ka, n. id.
   ककुम्मुख   kakum-mukha point of the compass.
   ककुभ   kakubh prominent; m. kind of musical mode; a tree; -surabhi, a. fragrant with Kakubha flowers.
   ककुभ्   kakbh summit; point of the compass; a metre.
   ककुब्जय   kakub-gaya conquest of the world.
   ककुन्दर   kakundara cavity of the loins.
   ककुद्््मिन्   kakud-min having a hump; m. buffalo with a hump; -mi-kany, f. pat. of the Revat.
   ककुद्््मत््   kakd-mat having a hump; m. mountain; buffalo with a hump.
   ककुद्   kakd summit, peak; tip; hump; ensign of royalty; chief of (g.).
   ककार   ka-kra the sound or letter k.

 

UKT notes :
Aurasa child /
Decline of Buddhism in India
First Connection between Sanskrit and Pali
Uddhava : - Krishna's friend and counsellor in Uddhava Gita

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{au}

p060-2c1

{au-ka.}

p060-2c1-b00/ p049  

औकार [ au-kra ]
- m. the sound or letter au.
 औकार   au-kra the sound or letter au.

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{auk~Sa.} : Pseudo Kha

p060-2c1-b01/ p049  

औक्ष [ auksh ]
= औ क ् ष
Skt: औक्ष [ auksh ] - a. () coming from a bull. - Mac060c1
 औक्ष   auksh () coming from a bull.
BPal: {U.a.Ba.} - UHS-PMD0846
  UKT from UHS: m. ox, bull 

 

p060-2c1-b02/ p049  

औक्षक [ auksha-ka ]
- n. a number of bulls.
 औक्षक   auksha-ka a number of bulls.

 

p060-2c1-b03

[aukshana] (or )
-- coming from a bull

 

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{au-ga.}

p060-2c1-b04/ p049  

औग्र्य [ augr-ya ]
= औ ग ् र ् य
- n. formidableness.
 औग्र्य   augr-ya formidableness.

 

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{au-Ga.}

p060-2c1-b05/ p049   

औघ [ augh ]
Skt: औघ [ augh ] - m. flood. - Mac060c1
 औघ   augh flood.  
Skt: औघ augha - m. flood - SpkSkt
BPal: {AU-Ga.} - UHS PMD0262
  UKT from UHS: m. flood, actions leading to drowning in Suffering (with ref. to the Principle of Suffering, the First Noble Truth of Buddhism.)

See my note on First Connection between Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan

 

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{au-sa.}

p060-2c1-b06/ p049  

औचिती [ aukit- ]
- f. suitableness, propriety; -ya, n. id.; experience; habituation to (--).
 औचिती   aukit- suitableness, propriety; -ya, n. id.; experience; habituation to (--).

 

p060-2c1-b07

[aukhaih-sravasa]
Skt: [aukhaih-sravasa] - m. N. of Indras' horse - Mac060c1
Skt: औच्चैःश्रवस auccaiḥśravasa - m. horse - SpkSkt
Skt: उच्चैःश्रवा  uccaiḥśravā - Wikipedia (see note*)
BPal: {~a.} - UHS PMD0150
  UKT from UHS: m. horse (150724: unable to find the name of the Sakka's horse, I have given the general term for horse.)

UKT 150724 *: In Hindu mythology, Uchchaihshravas  उच्चैःश्रवस्  "long-ears" or "neighing aloud",[1] Uccaiḥśravas or उच्चैःश्रवा  uccaiḥśravā is a seven-headed flying horse, that was obtained during the churning of the milk ocean Samudra manthan . It is considered the best of horses, prototype and king of horses.[1] Uchchaihshravas is often described as a vahana वाहन vāhana "vehicle" of Indra - the god-king of heaven, but is also recorded to be the horse of Bali, the king of demons. Uchchaihshravas is said to be snow white in colour.
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uchchaihshravas 150724

 

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{au-za.}

p060-2c1-b08/ p049  

औज्ज्वल्य [ auggval-ya ]
= औ ज ् ज ् व ल ् य
- n. brilliance, splendour.
 औज्ज्वल्य   auggval-ya brilliance, splendour.

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{au-a.}

p060-2c1-b09/ p049  

औडव [ audava ]
- a. () stellar.
 औडव   audava () stellar.

 

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{au-Na.}

p060-2c1-b10/ p049  

औणादिक [ aundi-ka ]
- a. belonging to the Undi-stras.
औणादिक   aundi-ka belonging to the Undi-stras.

UKT 150724: Undi-stras are Mahayana-Buddhist sutras, and my search on them has landed me on:
Buddhist Mahyna Texts ,  translated by E. B. Cowell, F. Max Mller and J. Takakusu, Oxford, the Clarendon Press, 1894, vol. XLIX of the Sacred Books of the East.
   {p. vi} - "THE Sanskrit text of the Buddha-karita was published at the beginning of last year in the 'Anecdota Oxoniensia,' and the following English translation is now included in the series of 'Sacred Books of the East.' It is an early Sanskrit poem written in India on the legendary history of Buddha, and therefore contains much that is of interest for the history of Buddhism, beside its special importance as illustrating the early history of classical Sanskrit literature."
  I have downloaded (150724) a few pages and you can see them in TIL library: html<>

 

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{au-ta.}

p060-2c1-b11/ p049  

औत्कण्ठ्य autkanth-ya, औत्क्य [ autk-ya ]
= औ त ् क ण ् ठ ् य
- n. yearning.
 औत्कण्ठ्य   autk-ya yearning.

 

p060-2c1-b12

[auttam-i]
-- m. pat. of the third Manu

 

p060-2c1-b13/ p049  

औत्तराधर्य [ auttara‿adhar-ya ]
- n. being above and below, promiscuousness.
 औत्तराधर्य   auttara̮adhar-ya being above and below, promiscuousness. 

 

p060-2c1-b14/ p049  

औत्पत्तिक [ autpatti-ka ]
- a. () original, innate, natural.
 औत्पत्तिक   autpatti-ka () original, innate, natural. 

 

p060-2c1-b15/ p049  

औत्पातिक [ autpt-ika ]
- a. () extraordinary, prodigious, portentous.
 औत्पातिक   autpt-ika () extraordinary, prodigious, portentous.

 

p060-2c1-b16/ p049 

औत्सुक्य [ autsuk-ya ]
- n. yearning, desire; impatience; zeal.
औत्सुक्य   autsuk-ya yearning, desire; impatience; zeal. 

 

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{au-da.}

p060-2c1-b17/ p049  

औदक [ audaka ]
- a. () aquatic; relating to or growing in water.
 औदक   audaka () aquatic; relating to or growing in water.

 

p060-2c1-b18/ p049  

औदरिक [ audar-ika ]
- a. gluttonous; m. glutton.
 औदरिक   audar-ika gluttonous; m. glutton.

 

p060-2c1-b19/ p049  

औदर्चिष [ audarkish-a ]
- a. directed to Agni.
 औदर्चिष   audarkish-a directed to Agni. 

 

p060-2c1-b20/ p049  

औदात्त्य [ audtt-ya ]
- n. acute accentuation.
 औदात्त्य   audtt-ya acute accentuation.

 

p060-2c1-b21/ p049  

औदार्य [ audr-ya ]
- n. dignity, nobility; generosity: -t, f. generosity.
 औदार्य   audr-ya dignity, nobility; generosity: -t, f. generosity. 

 

p060-2c1-b22/ p049  

औदासीन्य [ audsn-ya ]
- n. indifference, apathy.
 औदासीन्य   audsn-ya indifference, apathy.
158) औदासीन्य (p. 49) audsn-ya indifference, apathy.

 

p060-2c1-b23/ p049  

औदुम्बर [ adumbara ]
Skt: औदुम्बर [ adumbara ]- a. () belonging to the Udumbara tree;
  made of Udumbara wood. - Mac060c1
औदुम्बर   adumbara () belonging to the Udumbara tree; made of Udumbara wood. 
Skt: औदुम्बर audumbara - adj. coming from the tree of udumbara, Ficus racemosa  - SpkSkt
BPal: {U.doam~ba.ra.}
- UHS-PMD0215
  UKT from UHS: m. Ficus glomerata syn. Ficus racemosa .
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficus_racemosa 150724

UKT 150724: As a candidate for Matriculation Exam (1950) at University of Rangoon, I came across the story of {U.doam~ba.ra.}-dvi in Mahosadha Jataka. You can read the full text of Mahosadha in my downloaded collection in TIL library: html<> .

UKT 150724: Ten Great Jātakas tales or Birth-stories:
01. Temiya, 02. Mahajanaka, 03. Sama, 04. Nimi, 05. Mahosadha
06. Bhuridatta, 07. Canda-Kumara, 08. Narada, 09. Vidhura, 10. Vessantara
- http://www.buddha-images.com/ 150724

 

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p060-2c2

p060-2c2-b00/ p049  

औद्धत्य [ auddhat-ya ]
= औ द ् ध त ् य
- n. arrogance; superciliousness.
 औद्धत्य   auddhat-ya arrogance; superciliousness.

 

p060-2c2-b01/ p049  

औद्धव्य [ auddhav-ya ]
- a. coming fr. Uddhava.
 औद्धव्य   auddhav-ya coming fr. Uddhava. 

Uddhava (also known as Pavanayadhi) is a character from the Puranic texts of [ Vaishnavism ] Hinduism, who is the friend and counsellor of Krishna the Avatar. He plays a significant role in the Bhagavata Purana, being taught the processes of yoga and bhakti directly by Krishna. The principle of these discussions is often referred to as the Uddhava Gita, [aka Hamsa Gita ] similarly to the Bhagavad Gita wherein Krishna instructs Arjuna. According to some texts Uddhava was also Krishna's cousin, being the son of Devabhaga, who was the brother of Vasudeva, Krishna's father. His physical appearance was so like that of Krishna's that in some instances he is temporarily mistaken for the latter. -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uddhava 150724

See my note below on Decline of Buddhism in India

 

p060-2c2-b02/ p049  

औद्धारिक [ auddhr-ika ]
- a. belonging to the share deducted.
औद्धारिक   auddhr-ika belonging to the share deducted.

 

p060-2c2-b03/ p049  

औद्वाहिक [ audvh-ika ]
- a. relating to or presented at marriage.
 औद्वाहिक   audvh-ika relating to or presented at marriage. 

 

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{au-pa.}

p060-2c2-b04

[aupakkhandas-ika]
-- n. a metre

 

p060-2c2-b05/ p049  

औपधर्म्य [ aupadharm-ya ]
- n. false doctrine, heresy.
 औपधर्म्य   aupadharm-ya false doctrine, heresy. 

 

p060-2c2-b06/ p049  

औपधिक [ aupadh-ika ]
- a. fraudulent; m. cheat, extortioner.
 औपधिक   aupadh-ika fraudulent; m. cheat, extortioner.

 

p060-2c2-b07/ p049  

औपनायनिक [ aupanyan-ika ]
- a. relating to or appointed for initiation.
 औपनायनिक   aupanyan-ika relating to or appointed for initiation. 

 

p060-2c2-b08/ p049  

औपनिधिक [ aupanidhi-ka ]
- a. being a deposit.
औपनिधिक   aupanidhi-ka being a deposit. 

 

p060-2c2-b09/ p049  

औपनिषद [ aupanishad ]
- a. () contained or taught in an Upanishad.
 औपनिषद   aupanishad () contained or taught in an Upanishad. 

 

p060-2c2-b10/ p049 

औपनीविक [ aupanvika ]
- a. being on the apron.
औपनीविक   aupanvika being on the apron.

 

p060-2c2-b11/ p049 

औपमित [ aupamita ]
- a. equalled.
 औपमित   aupamita equalled.

 

p060-2c2-b12/ p049 

औपम्य [ aupam-ya ]
- n. resemblance, comparison.
 औपम्य   aupam-ya resemblance, comparison.

 

p060-2c2-b13/ p049 

औपयिक [ aupay-ika ]
- a. () suitable, proper.
 औपयिक   aupay-ika () suitable, proper. 

 

p060-2c2-b14/ p049 

औपल [ aupala ]
- a. made of stone.
 औपल   aupala made of stone.

 

p060-2c2-b15/ p049 

औपवस्त aupavasta, ˚क [ -ka ]
- n. preliminary fast on the eve of a celebration.
 औपवस्त   -ka preliminary fast on the eve of a celebration. 

 

p060-2c2-b16/ p049 

औपवाह्य [ aupavh-ya ]
- a. suitable for riding or driving.
 औपवाह्य   aupavh-ya suitable for riding or driving.

 

p060-2c2-b17/ p049 

औपवीतिक [ aupavt-ika ]
- n. investiture with the sacred thread.
 औपवीतिक   aupavt-ika investiture with the sacred thread.

 

p060-2c2-b18/ p049 

औपहारिक [ aupahr-ika ]
- n. offering.
 औपहारिक   aupahr-ika offering.

 

p060-2c2-b19/ p049 

औपाकरण [ aupkarana ]
- n. commencement of Vedic study.
औपाकरण   aupkarana commencement of Vedic study. 

 

p060-2c2-b20/ p049 

औपासन [ aupsan ]
- m. domestic sacred fire.
औपासन   aupsan domestic sacred fire.

 

p060-2c2-b21/ p049 

औपेन्द्र [ aupendra ]
- a. belonging to Vishnu.
 औपेन्द्र   aupendra belonging to Vishnu. 

 

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{au-ma.}

p060-2c2-b22/ p049 

औम [ auma ]
- a. flaxen; relating to Um.
 औम   auma flaxen; relating to Um. 

Um: (splendor, light; fame, reputation; quiet, tranquility; night). Goddess, one of the eleven wives of S'iva (see 3.12: 13) also called Prvat and Durg; the name is said to be derived from um!, "O don't", the exclamation addressed to Prvat by her mother not to practice austerities.
- Name of several women. -- http://bhagavata.org/glossary/u.html 120604

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flax 170119
"Flax (also known as common flax or linseed), Linum usitatissimum, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world. The textiles made from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, and traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. The oil is known as linseed oil. ..."

 

p060-2c2-b23/ p049 

औरभ्र [ aurabhr-a ]
- a. belonging to a ram or sheep; -ika, m. shepherd.
 औरभ्र   aurabhr-a belonging to a ram or sheep; -ika, m. shepherd. 

 

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p060-2c3

p060-2c3-b00/ p049 

औरश [ aurasa ]
- m. inhabitant of Urasa.
 औरश   aurasa inhabitant of Urasa. 

 

p060-2c3-b01/ p049 

औरस auras-a
Skt: औरस [auras-a] - a. () proceeding from the chest; innate, natural; begotten of the body; m. lawful son of the body; -ya, a. begotten of one's body.
  औरस   auras-a () proceeding from the chest; innate, natural; begotten of the body; m. lawful son of the body; -ya, a. begotten of one's body. 
BPal: {AU:ra.a.}
- - UHS-PMD0270

UKT from UHS: mfn. what has come to be in your bosom (meaning a natural child)
See my note on Aurasa child - genetic child

 

p060-2c3-b02/ p049 

और्ण [ aurna ]
- a. woollen.
और्ण   aurna woollen.

 

p060-2c3-b03/ p049 

और्ध्वदेह [ aurdhva-deha ]
- n. future life: i-ka, a. relating to the future life; n. obsequies; gifts distributed at obsequies.
 और्ध्वदेह   aurdhva-deha future life: i-ka, a. relating to the future life; n. obsequies; gifts distributed at obsequies.

obsequy n. pl. obsequies . A funeral rite or ceremony. Often used in the plural. - AHTD

 

p060-2c3-b04/ p049  

और्व [ . arva ]
- m. pat. of various Rishis.
और्व   1. arva Rishis.

 

p060-2c3-b05/ p049 

और्व [ . aurva ]
- m. submarine fire (of Aurva).
और्व   2. aurva submarine fire (of Aurva).

 

p060-2c3-b06/ p049  

और्व [ . aurva ]
- a. () belonging to the earth; -ra, a. coming from the earth (dust).
और्व   3. aurva () belonging to the earth; -ra, a. coming from the earth (dust).

 

p060-2c3-b07/ p049 

और्वशेय [ aurvase-ya ]
- a. descended from Urvas.
 और्वशेय   aurvase-ya descended from Urvas.

UKT: the most beautiful Apsara

p060-2c3-b08/ p049  

और्वाग्नि [ aurva‿gni ]
- m. submarine fire; -‿anala, m. id.
 और्वाग्नि   aurva̮gni submarine fire; -̮anala, m. id.

 

p060-2c3-b09/ p049 

और्वाय [ aurvya ]
- den. . behave like the submarine fire.
 और्वाय   aurvya . behave like the submarine fire. 

 

p060-2c3-b10

[auvenaka]
-- n. N. of a chant

 

p060-2c3-b11/ p049 

औशनस [ ausanasa ]
- a. () belonging to Usanas; m., , f. pat. descendant of Usanas; n. law-book composed by Usanas.
 औशनस   ausanasa () belonging to Usanas; m., , f. pat. descendant of Usanas; n. law-book composed by Usanas.

 

p060-2c3-b12/ p049 

औशीनर [ ausnara ]
- a. () belonging to the people of Usnara; , f. N. of a wife of Purravas.
 औशीनर   ausnara () belonging to the people of Usnara; , f. N. of a wife of Purravas.

Usinaras (उसीनर) were an ancient people attested to have been living in central Punjab since remote antiquity. They were often associated with Madras, Kekayas, Sibis etc and their territory formed part of Vahika country according to evidence of Pāṇini. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usinaras 120604

 

p060-2c3-b13/ p049 

औशीर [ ausra ]
- a. made of Usra; n. ointment made of Usra.
औशीर   ausra made of Usra; n. ointment made of Usra. 

UKT 120604: It may mean 'usira root' - a fragrant root. From Dhammapada Thirst or Craving CANTO XXIV: http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/dhamma/dham24.htm 120604
   337. This I say unto you! May all of you, who are gathered here, be blessed! May you dig up the root of craving as one who digs up the birana grass for the fragrant usira root. (1) Let not Mara destroy you again and again, even as the current of the river destroys the reeds.

 

p060-2c3-b14/ p049 

औषध [ aushadh ]
-- a. made of herbs; n. herbs (coll.); medicinal herb; remedy, drug, medicine; -kri, turn into a medicine; -vikrayin, a. vending medicines.
 औषध   aushadh made of herbs; n. herbs (coll.); medicinal herb; remedy, drug, medicine; -kri, turn into a medicine; -vikrayin, a. vending medicines.

औषध auṣadha [ aushadh ]
Skt: औषध [ aushadh ] - a. made of herbs; n. herbs (coll.); medicinal herb; remedy, drug, medicine -- Mac060c3
Skt: औषध auṣadha - n. drug, medicine, consisting of herbs, mineral, herbs used in medicine, vessel for herbs, simples, medicament, herbs collectively, medicine in general, herb -- SpkSkt
BPal: {AU-a.Da.}
- - UHS-PMD0272
  UKT from UHS: n. herbal root, herbal plant, medicine

 

p060-2c3-b15/ p049 

औषस [ aushas- ]
- a. () relating to the morning; , f. day-break.
 औषस   aushas- () relating to the morning; , f. day-break.

 

p060-2c3-b16/ p049 

औष्ट्र [ aushtra ]
- a. produced from a buffalo or camel: -ka, n. number of camels.
 औष्ट्र   aushtra produced from a buffalo or camel: -ka, n. number of camels.

 

p060-2c3-b17/ p049 

औष्ठ [ aushtha ]
- a. lip-shaped.
 औष्ठ   aushtha lip-shaped.

 

p060-2c3-b18/ p049

औष्ण्य [ aushn-ya ]
- n. heat.
 औष्ण्य   aushn-ya heat.

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-- online : 181004 : p060-2htm - search for औकार

 
  
 
 
  

 

 

 

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UKT notes

Aurasa child /

UKT 170120: Bur-Myan speakers in Myanmarp are not careful about the usage of the adoption terms, especially the kittima adoption. Little do they know that once a child or even a grownup is adopted as a kittima child, the child is considred to be a genetic child. kittima adoption is an irreversible process just as the birth of genetic child.

Excerpt from: Bridewealth and Dowry - by Jack Goody and S. J. Tambiah
http://books.google.ca/books 120525

[p156]
The rights of the children. While in general bilateral inheritane prevails, there is special place assigned to the orasa son or daughters. The orasa {AU:ra.a.} (Skt =aurasa  {AU-ra.a.} UHS-PMD0270) mean in its classical sense a true or natural child of the body; but in successive Dhammathat interpretations the meaning has been transformed in Burma to the eldest born child -- male or female -- who is capable of undertaking the responsibilities of a deceased father or mother respectively. The child should have attained majority and should be capable of discharging a dead parent's responsibilities in the control and management of family property and household. Such an orasa child is in Burmese law vested with a right to one-fourth the estate left to the surviving parent by the deceased parent.

... ... ...

[p157]
Burmese adoption is interesting in comparison with the Indian counterpart. The concepts used are:

(a.) kittima adoption with a view to inheritance, the adopted child given the same rights as a natural child.

(b)  appatittha casual adoption (verging on fosterage) in which that intention is absent and therefore the individual has only a limited right of inheritance.

Keeping these distinctions in mind, let us now bring into view a shift of meanings in some classical Indian concepts when transplanted to Burma. In the Indian literature a set of three concepts are contrasted thus: aurasa as natural born son and heir is contrasted with dattaka a son and heir adopted in the absence of the former. And again a dattaka adoption is contrasted with a kritima adoption : a dattaka adoption usually is of a minor, he undergoes a ceremony of adoption, adopts the new father's name and performs rites for him and his ancestors when he dies and loses property rights in his natal family and gains rights in his adopted parents' property, while a krittima adoption is inferior in that the person adopted is usually an adult whose consent to adoption is required; he undergoes no ceremony, he does not take the name of the adopting parent and he does not lose inheritance rights in his natal family while gaining rights in his new family.

The Burmese set of contrastive terms are orasa, kitima, and appatitha. The Burmese orasa (aurasa) refers not so much to a 'natural' child, but to the eldest child male or female within a set of 'natural' children. In the Burmese context when all children inherit and the Hindu problems of male heir and his religious obligations do not obtain, the borrowed term is used to stress eldest child vis-a-vis the other ... ...

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Decline of Buddhism in India

UKT 150724:

Whenever you come across the word "Hinduism", you must specify whether it is Vaishnavism or Shaivism (or Saivism ). These two branches had been mortal enemies at one time. At present Shaivism is the dominant religion of India. "Shaivites" - the worshippers of Siva as the Supreme God - had been mostly responsible for decline of Buddhism in India. Muslims were also responsible - it was probably Tantric Buddhism which because of its indulgence in sexual practices that had been their target. Tantric Buddhism was also the target of King Anawrahta's reforms in 11th century in Myanmarpr. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decline_of_Buddhism_in_India 150724

Inset text read:
The image, in the chapter on India in Hutchison's Story of the Nations edited by James Meston, depicts the Turkish general Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji's massacre of Buddhist monks in Bihar. Khaliji destroyed the Nalanda and Vikramshila universities during his raids across North Indian plains, massacring many Buddhist and Brahmin scholars.

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The First connection between Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan

UKT 110817:

The very first word that I could decipher when I started to learn Pal-Myan is between औघ augha and {AU-Ga.}. The meaning is a 'whirlpool' or 'vortex' which is very common at the confluence of large Myanmar rivers. The vortexes are large and powerful enough to sink a fairly sized country boat and drowning the crew.

Having taken extensive boat voyages in my childhood (from a very small one to the largest sailing boat on the Irrawaddy river and its Delta) , I know how dangerous the vortexes are.

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Uddhava - Krishna's friend and counsellor in Uddhava Gita

-- UKT 140131, 170120

Long before I got myself involved with Skt-Dev, studying it to understand Pal-Myan better, I had thought highly of the Puranas - the Old Texts. My aim was to study Theravada Buddhism from Burmese sources first hand - not as "retold" by the monks.

Now after a decade of study, I am regarding these Old Texts - written and rewritten by Brahmin-Poanna {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} to be nothing more than "propaganda texts" to present their religion and themselves as the primary upholders - in a better, and more better light to the world. However, I am not blaming the Brahmin-Poannas alone.

Other religionists, from the time of Pharaohs of Egypt right down to the present time, are also guilty of this "sin",  thereby becoming the source of innumerable religious conflicts costing human lives and and bringing on untold miseries including disease and starvation.

Now let's see who this Krishna character is. I now quote from Wikipedia which is a good source of information but which should be taken with caution - NOT an authority. The following excerpt is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishnu 140131.

In the Rigveda, Vishnu is mentioned 93 times. He is frequently invoked alongside other deities, especially Indra, whom he helps in killing Vrutra and with whom he drinks Soma. His distinguishing characteristic in the Vedas is his association with light. Two Rigvedic hymns in Mandala 7 are dedicated to Vishnu. In 7.99, Vishnu is addressed as the god who separates heaven and earth, a characteristic he shares with Indra.

The Rigveda describes Vishnu as subordinate to Indra as Vamana. In Vaishnava canon the 'Vishnu' who is subordinate to Indra is identified as Vamana, Avatar of Vishnu, hence referred to as Vishnu by Vaishnavites. [18] [20]

Now on Uddhava aks Pavanayadhi :

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uddhava 110817

Uddhava (also known as Pavanayadhi) is a character from the Puranic texts of Hinduism, who is the friend and counsellor of Krishna the Avatar [of Vishnu]. He plays a significant role in the Bhagavata Purana, being taught the processes of yoga and bhakti directly by Krishna. The principle of these discussions is often referred to as the Uddhava Gita, similarly to the Bhagavad Gita wherein Krishna instructs Arjuna. [UKT ]

UKT 110817: Though I have read Bhagavad Gita half a century ago, I did not know about Uddhava Gita. It is also known as the Hamsa Gita (Sanskrit) and consists of Krishna's final discourse to Uddhava before Krishna draws his worldly 'descent' (Skt: avatar) and 'pastimes' (Sanskrit: lila) to completion. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uddhava_Gita 110817

According to some texts Uddhava was also Krishna's cousin, being the son of Devabhaga, who was the brother of Vasudeva, Krishna's father. His physical appearance was so like that of Krishna's that in some instances he is temporarily mistaken for the latter.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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