Update: 2017-01-17 07:39 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{-ka.}/ {-ka.} - cont
{-ka}/ {-ka}
{-k:}/ {-k:}
{-kau:}/ {-kau:}
{-za.}/ {-za.}
{-a.}/ {-a.}
{-Na.}/ {-Na.}
{-ta.}/ {-ta.}
{-da.}/ {-da.}
{-Da.}/ {-Da.}


UKT notes :
Bhilla - Bheels the low people and T'hag - the murderers.
  Gayatri Mantra is also mentioned.
The Imperishable One :
  UKT 140127, 170116: The English word  "imperishable" does NOT mean
  "unchanging" if applied to a "living" entity. However, a convention - a
  definition - such as in Abugida-Akshara system, that there must be a one-to-one
  correspondence between a human voice sound and the glyph to represent it
  must be unchanging.


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{-ka.} / {-ka.} - cont




एकयष्टि eka-yashti*, -˚का [ -k* ]
- f. pearl necklace on a single thread; -yoni, a. born of the same mother; of the same extraction or caste; -rasa, m. the only inclination; a. having only one taste; finding pleasure in one object only; exclusively devoted to (--); unchanging; -rg, -rg, m. monarch; -rtr, m. celebration lasting a night; n. one night (and day); -rtrika, a. sufficing for one night (or day); -rikthin, m. co-heir of one man; -rpa, a. of one colour, form, or appearance; uniform; n. N. of two metres: -t, f. uniformity; invariableness.



एकल [ eka-la ]
- a. one, the one; alone; -lak shya-t, f. being the sole aim; -lavy, f. N. of a town; -vakan, n. singular (gr.); -vat, ad. like one, as if one were concerned; -vadbhva, m. presenting itself as a unity; -varna, a. having one and the same colour; -vasana, a. clothed with but one garment; -vastra, a. id.: -t, f. possession of but one garment, -‿ardha-samvta, pp. clothed in half a single garment; -vram, ad. only once, once more; at once; some time or other; -vsa, a. living in the same place; -vsas, a. wearing but one garment; -vims, a. (&isharp;) 21st; consisting of 21; -vimsaka, a. (ik) 21st; n. 21; -vimsat, f. pl. 21; -vimsati, f. sg. pl. (-) id.: -tama, a. 21st; -vidha, a. (-) simple; identical; -vr, m. incomparable hero; -vriksha, m. isolated tree; one and the same tree; -vrish, m. single bull, sole ruler; -veni, , f. single braid of hair (token of mourning); a. consisting of a single braid; ()-dhar, a. f. wearing a single braid: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -vesmn, n. a single building; -vrata, a. devoted to one only; faithful, obedient.



एकशत [ ka-sata ]
- n. a hundred and one; a. 101st: -tama, a. id.; -sapha, a. (-) one-hoofed, having an uncloven hoof; m. animal with uncloven hoof; n. the genus of solid hoofed animals; -sas, ad. singly; -sesha, m. sole remainder; ellipse by which only one of two or more words remains (e. g. du. or pl.); a. sole remaining, with the sole exception of (--); -sruta-dhara, a. remembering what one has heard once: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -sruti, f. monotony; a. monotonous; -srushti, a. (-) obeying one behest; -shash-t, a. 61st; -shashti, f. 61: -tama, a. 61st.



एकसंश्रय [ eka-samsraya ]
- m. harmony; a. united; -sapta-ta, a. 71st; -saptati, f. 71: -tama, a. 71st; -sarga, a. attending to a single object; -sahasra, n. 1001; a. 1001st; -sra, a. whose sole nature is (--); -srthaprayta, pp. pursuing one and the same object as (saha); -srika, m. jackal; -stambha, a. supported by a single pillar; -sth, a. standing together, united; standing alone; independent; -sthna, n. one and the same place.



एकहायन [ ka-hyana ]
- a. () one year old; , f. one-year-old cow; -hel, f. : in. at one blow, at once.


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{-ka}/ {-ka}


एकांश [ eka ‿ amsa ]
- m. part: -t, f. abst. ɴ.



एकाकिन् [ ekk-n ]
- a. alone, solitary: (i)-kesarin, m. N. of a Bhilla.

UKT 150626: India or Hindostan is described in p278-336, of the Around the World vol01, by Commodore G. C. Read, U.S. Navy, 1840, pp336. See downloaded in TIL HD-PDF Library and its bkp in TIL SD-PDF Library. read: 
- GCRead-AroundWorldVol01<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170115).

The date of publication, 1840, is after the First Anglo-Burmese War (5 March 1824 24 February 1826), and the Governor-General of Bengal becoming the Governor-General of India (The Government of India Act 1833); but before the Second Anglo-Burmese War (5 April 1852  20 January 1853) - source Wikipedia. The book is written from an American point of view, and it is well worth reading.
See my note on Bhilla and Thag - a kind of low people, and Bheel.



एकाक्ष [ eka‿aksha ]
- a. one-eyed; having but one axle; -‿akshar, n. the imperishable One; a single syllable; a. (-) monosyllabic; n. monosyllabic word; the syllable Om.

See my note on the Imperishable One

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एकाग्नि [ eka‿agni ]
- a. maintaining only one fire; -‿agra, a. directed to a single object, attentive, concentrated; absorbed in (--): -m, -tas, ad.; -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.



एकाङ्ग [ eka‿aṅga ]
- n. single member or part; m. pl. body-guard: -rpa-ka, n. incomplete image (rh.).



-- a. having one vowel



एकाञ्जलि [ eka‿agali ]
- m. one handful.



एकातपत्र [ eka‿tapatra ]
- a. being under a single umbrella = a single king.



एकादश [ ekdas- ]
- a. (&isharp;) eleventh; , f. eleventh day in a fortnight; -an, a. (-) eleven; -ma, a. eleventh; -mrik, f. N. (murderess of eleven); -rtra, period of eleven nights (and days); - ‿ rika, a. having eleven verses; -n, a. consisting of eleven: -, f. eleven (hymns).



एकाधिक [ eka ‿ adhika ]
- a. increased by one; -‿adhpa, m. sole sovereign; -‿adhyyin, a. studying alone.



एकानंशा [ eka‿anams ]
- f. ep. of the new moon (the digitless); ep. of Durg.

UKT 140128: What does "digitless" mean? The key word here is अंश  aṃśa 'part or portion' as given by Macdonell and SpkSkt. Astrologically, the fullness of the Moon is given in fraction of number 15. A New Moon is 0/15, and a Full Moon is 15/15. I therefore presume the word "digitless" to mean 0/15.



एकानर्थ [ eka‿anartha ]
- a. having the same sorrows.



एकानुदिष्ट [ eka‿anudishta ]
- (pp.) n. funeral rite in honour of a single ancestor.



एकान्त [ eka‿anta ]
- m. solitary place, solitude; exclusiveness; absolute necessity: -m, -tas, in., ab., --, ad. exclusively; absolutely; perfectly, altogether; lc. aside, secretly: sts. -- = a. perfect, only; a. exclusively devoted to (lc. or --): -t, f. abst. ɴ.



एकान्तकरुण [ eknta-karuna ]
- a. extremely compassionate; -bhru, a. extremely timid.



एकान्तर [ eka‿antara ]
- a. one degree lower.



एकान्तविध्वंसिन् [ eknta-vidhvamsin ]
- a. necessarily perishing; -vihrin, m. solitary wanderer; -sla, a. retiring into solitude; -hita, pp. thoroughly good.



एकान्नादिन् [ eka‿anna‿din ]
- a. eating the food of one only.



एकान्वय [ eka‿anvaya ]
- a. of the same family as (g.).



एकापचय [ eka‿apakaya ]
- m. diminution by one.



एकापाय [ eka‿apya ]
- m. diminution by one.



एकायन [ eka‿ayan ]
- n. road passable by only one narrow path; meeting-place; absolute oneness; the one right way: -bhva, m. unanimity; -bh, become a centre of union for (g.).



एकार [ e-kra ]
- m. the letter or sound e.



एकाराम [ eka‿rma ]
- a. delighting in one only.



एकार्थ [ eka ‿ artha ]
- m. one and the same object; a. having the same aim or meaning: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -samupeta, pp. inspired by the same purpose.



एकावलि eka̮âvali, ˚ली [ -l ]
- f. one-stringed pearl necklace.



एकाह [ eka‿ah ]
- m. one day; N. of a Soma sacrifice lasting one day.



एकाहार [ eka‿hra ]
- m. single meal in a day.



-- unite; collect; -bhva , m. becoming one, union; -bh , become one, unite.


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{-k:}/ {-k:}


एकैक [ ka‿eka ]
- a. one each time, each singly, every single (sts. pl.): -m, ad.: -vritti, a. belonging to each single object; -sas, ad. one by one, singly, severally.


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एकैश्वर्य [ eka‿aisvarya ]
- n. sole dominion.

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{-kau:}/ {-kau:}


एकोच्चय [ eka‿ukkaya ]
- m. increase by one.



एकोत्तर [ ka‿uttara ]
- a. more or increasing by one.



एकोदक [ eka‿udaka ]
- a. related in so far as to offer oblations of water to the same ancestor.



[eka‿uddishta ]
-- (pp.) n. = eknu-dishta



एकोन [ eka‿na ] 
- pp. lacking one.



एङ्् [ eṅ ]
- the diphthongs /e/ {} and /o/ {au ?} (gr.).

UKT 140128, 170117: I am of the opinion that there are no diphthongs in Skt-Dev as is in Bur-Myan. The term "diphthong" was used by European linguists thinking that "digraphs" and "diphthongs" were the same. As far as Bur-Myan is concerned, there are definitely no diphthongs as can be attested from the fact that Bur-Myan state-scholars soon after WWII in the United States - I was one of them - could not pronounce common English words such as <oil> and <cow>. We ended up pronouncing <oil> as <wine> {wen}, and <cow> as {kan:} rhyming with <wrong>. We could only pronounce monophthongs.

There is no problem of representation of {}. The problem is the representation of /o/. Keep in mind the Mon-Myan pronunciation:
- row#1vow<))
- row #2vow<))


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{-za.}/ {-za.}


-- i.p. ga , stir, move; quake, tremble. sam , move.


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{-a.}/ {-a.}


एड eda, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. kind of sheep.


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{-Na.}/ {-Na.}


एण [ ena ]
- m. kind of antelope: -gaṅgha, m. N. of a runner; -netr, -‿aksh, f. gazelle eyed woman.



एणतिलक [ ena-tilaka ]
- m. moon.



एणाङ्कमणि [ ena‿aṅka-mani ]
- m. moon-stone.



एणी [ en&isharp; ]
- f. gazelle: -dris, -nayan, f. gazelle eyed woman.


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{-ta.}/ {-ta.}


एत eta [ . -ta ],
-- prn. stem, v. etad



एत [ . ta ]

- a. (n), motley, glittering; m. kind of hart: , f. hind.

hart n. pl. harts or hart 1. A male deer, especially a male red deer over five years old. - AHTD


एत [ . ta ]
- pp. +√i.



एतग्व [ ta-gva ]
- a. motley.



एतत्काल [ etat-kla ]
- m. this time, the present (opp. tat-kla); -para, a. intent on this; -samgaka, a. having this designation; -sama, a. equal to this.



एतद् [ e-t-d ]
- prn. (nm., ac. sg. n.) this here (near the speaker); this (nearly always referring to what precedes, has just happened, or been mentioned); often = here, now: ad. thus, so, therefore, accordingly: lc. etasmin, in this case.



एतदन्त [ etad-anta ]
- a. ending with this or these; -artham, ad. for this purpose, therefore; -avastha, a. being in this condition; being of such a kind; referring thereto; -ya, pos. prn. his, her, their; -yoni, a. having this origin; -vasa, a. dependent on him.



एतन्नामक [ etan-nma-ka ]
- a. having this name; -mya, a. () consisting of this, being of such a kind.



एतर्हि [ et-rhi ]
- ad. now, nowadays; then (corr. yrhi).



एतवे [ tave ]
- V. inf. of √i, to walk.



एतश [ ta-sa (sts. -s) ]
- a. motley, shining; m. dappled horse; sun-horse.



एतादृक्ष etâ-drksha, ˚दृश् -drs (f. id.), ˚दृश [ -drsa ]
- a. () such; of the same kind.



एतावत् [ et-vat ]
- a. so great; so much, of such a kind: lc. at such a distance; n. ad. so much; so far; thus: (n)-mtra, a. of such measure, so great, so much; so little.


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{-da.}/ {-da.}


एद् [ ‿ id ]
- ij. behold! (with ac.)


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{-Da.}/ {-Da.}


-- i. . (p.)  dha , prosper; flourish; grow; pp. -ita , grown up, strengthened; filled with (in.); cs. -aya , cause to prosper; glorify. sam , id.




एध [ dh-a ]
- a. kindling (--); m. sg. pl. fuel: -mat, a. fed with fuel.



एधस् [ . dh-as ] n. fuel (√idh); . edhas, n. prosperity (√edh).



[e-dhi ]
-- 2 sg. impv. √as , be

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UKT notes

Bhilla and Thag - the low people : Gayatri Mantra is also mentioned

- UKT 140203, 170115

It is common for people all over the world to call others bad names. The spellings of Bhilla or Bheels and Bur-Myan {Bi-lu:} are strikingly similar.

While looking for Bhilla, I came to the "T'hags" who are associated with Bhilla. See p323 in the story of T'hags. The T'hags are described from p.318-325. We also read in p319:
The Thags form a perfectly distinct class of persons, who almost subsist entirely upon the produce of the murders they are in the habit of committing. They appear to have derived their denomination from the practice usually adopted by them, of decoying the persons they fix upon to destroy, to join their company ; when they take advantage of the confidence they endeavour to inspire, by strangling their unsuspecting victims. They are also known by the name Phansigars; but in the northeastern part of the Nizams dominions, they are usually called Thags."

UKT 140204: The word "Bheel" may refer to:
Bhil, a tribe from Central India
Bhel (Sindhi tribe), a tribe from Sindh, in present day Pakistan
Beel, [Bengali: বিল ] a type of flood pond in the Lower Ganges Brahmaputra flood plains.
Khadem (tribe), a also bhil tribe from ajmer, rajasthan India
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bheel 140204 UKT 140204: Bengali: বিল = ব ি ল --> {ba.li.} is equivalent to Irrawaddy delta {ing:} a source of fresh water fish. Licensing to fish was auctioned off to the highest bidder by the government - an important source of revenue. The auction day was an colourful occasion at Kungyangoan Township Magistrate office in my childhood days well described in a short story {ing:l-ln} by Minthuwun. Stories about {n:} are very colourful in which you will see the Ma'nes [dead ancestors still attached to a place] known in Bur-Myan as {la.men:} still active in the day-to-day events of the people. I need to check my info which is fading in my memory. See MLC MED2006-425 for definition of {la.meng}.

UKT 170116: On p302-304, we find mention of the Gayatri Mantra:

" ... holiest verse to which I have alluded, called 'the mother of the Vedas.' It occurs often in the shasters addressed to different deities; but that which is addressed to Surya, or the Sun, is considered the most profound. This is translated by Mr. Colebroke, as it stands in Sama Veda thus:

'O splendid sun!
this new and excellent praise to thee, is offered by us!
let us meditate on the adorable light of the divine ruler
-- may it guide our intellects!'


From: http://www.vedabase.com/en/cc/madhya/17/53 170115 (first accessed on 140203)
Online version of the Bhaktivedanta VedaBase. It was made by Prahlāda Nṛsiṁha Dāsa
UKT 170115: I value this website for its Sanskrit language content, with gloss in English. It helps me to increase my Skt-Dev vocabulary. The active links in Synonyms will give you more on a particular word. As an example, press on:  {lau:ka.} loka people . This we would ordinarily translate as "world": "people" is another meaning. 


CC Madhya 17.53

Books Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta Madhya-līlā Madhya 17: The Lord Travels to Vṛndāvana

mathurā yāibāra chale āsena jhārikhaṇḍa
bhilla-prāya loka tāhāṅ parama-pāṣaṇḍa

mathurā to Mathurā;
yāibāra of going;
chale on the pretext;
āsena came;
jhārikhaṇḍa to Jhārikhaṇḍa;
bhilla - prāya like the Bheels, a kind of low people;
loka people;
tāhāṅ there;
parama- pāṣaṇḍa without God consciousness.


When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu came to Jhārikhaṇḍa on His way to Mathurā, He found that the people there were almost uncivilized and were devoid of God consciousness.

UKT 170115: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (18 February 1486 14 June 1534) was a [Bengali] spiritual leader who founded Gaudiya Vaishnavism . He is believed by his devotees to be Krishna himself.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaitanya_Mahaprabhu 170115


The word bhilla refers to a class of men belonging to the Bheels. The Bheels are like Black Africans, and they are lower than śūdras. Such people generally live in the jungle, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had to meet them.

Go back Bhilla-note-b

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The Imperishable One

- UKT 14010, 170115

UKT 140127: The English word  "imperishable" does NOT mean "unchanging". Thus, scientifically improvable YHWH , Creator-God, or Allah may be imperishable, but may still be changeable - such as change in appearance like looking like an old man, or change in mental attitude such as becoming angry and calming down. Varying   "instrictions" thru His-Her-Its innumerable phrophets.

It (His-Her-Its) is an AXIOM which is essential to a discipline as the Geometric Point is to Euclidian geometry. You postulate a Geometric Point, which has no x-, y-, z-dimension, and thus does not occupy space and has no weight. A Geometric Point is an AXIOM on which the Euclidean Geometry is based. Similarly, you postulate a YHWH, God, or Allah as an AXIOM as a basis for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam to explain many things. You, and I, have no right to prove or disprove it scientifically. 

Another idea that must not be proven scientifically right or wrong is a DEFINITION. We define the relationship between a human-articulated sound, a phoneme to its graphical representation as Imperishable and even unchanging. We call it an akshara in Sanskrit and {ak~hka.ra} in Burmese. It is fundamental to Phonetics. It has nothing to do with YHWH, God, or Allah, or the Hindu Trinity which are said be be Maha-dvas.

On the other hand we cannot say that a letter of the alphabet (in English) is imperishable or unchanging. That is why English is Non-Phonetic. But Burmese is Phonetic. And I have set myself to arrive at a inter-transcribable language which I am calling Romabama between English and Burmese.

By common understanding, a phoneme (a human voice sound) is always represented by a singular grapheme (a graphical representation). This is the basis of akshara writing system. The grapheme is represented by different glyphs in different languages. I am using this principle for relating the 4 languages of BEPS.

As an example, the IPA dental nasal phoneme /n/ is represented by the same grapheme in Burmese, Pali, and Sanskrit. This grapheme is written as न na in Skt-Dev, and {na.} in both Pal-Myan & Bur-Myan. However, in Eng-Lat, it is slightly different because the phoneme is not a syllable, but a letter. For it to have the same sound, the vowel /a/ has to be supplied when we get <na> /na/. The akshara cannot be changing - it has nothing to do with the Imperishable One by which we led to believe it is the Creator or God.

Perhaps, it is my scientific training and my Theravada Buddhism, that are giving me a wrong interpretation of Om, YHWH, God, and Allah.

Go back Imperish-One-note-b

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