Update: 2017-01-14 07:52 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 140203, 170113: Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {} ए e in both Skt and Pali.
There is no Pal-Myan equivalent for Skt-Dev ऐ ai
See TIL HD-PDF-Library and as backup in SD-PDF-Library p152-157 on {}/ {} and p158 for {}.
- FE-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170111)

I have given my TOC in Bur-Myan to help readers of Bur-Myan find the entries. However, in this file and others, I will go by the {} because this glyph is very familiar to our readers.

{} / {}
{-ka.}/ {-ka.}


UKT notes :
Checking nuclear vowel by coda consonant 
The problem of IPA vowel /e/
- this note has sound clips <)) to demonstrate the various pronunciations of /e/ in English.


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{}/ {} /

A word on TOC of {}

-- UKT 140204, 170113:
The presentation of TOC follows the traditional way beginning with p057-2.htm . In the following I have faded out that are not present in Macdonell:
  {-ka.}, {-ka}, {-ki.}, {-ki}, {-ku.}, {-ku}, {-kRi},
  {-k} , {-k:}. {-kau}, {-kn}

See my note on Problem of IPA vowel /e/




ए [ e ]
- prn. root in -ka, e-tad, e-na, e-v, e-vm.

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{-ka.}/ {-ka.}

UKT 140203: {-ka.} is an important prefix which is used without breaking up. As such it can be nasalized with a {::tn} 'dot-above': {-ka.} --> {-kn} .
Note that {::tn} can get mixed up with {auk-mric} 'dot-below'.
Dot-above {::tn} produces an open nasalized sound.
Dot-below {auk-mric} shortens the time-duration of vowel sound from one eye-blink to half eye-blink .

Don't rely on  MLC MED2006-620 for {auk-mric}. MLC uses the term 'checked tone' which implies checking the vowel  by the coda consonant. In a way it is also misleading.



एक e-ka {-ka.}
Skt: - num. one; alone, only; single; one and the same, common;   one of (g., ab., or --); unique; excellent; a certain, some one, (sts.= indefinite article) a, an; with na, none: pl. some, some folks: eka--eka or anya, apara, dvitya, the one--the other; eke--eke, anye or apare, some--others; m. N. of a teacher; , f. ep. of Durg; n. unit (-- =one). - Mac057-2

एक e-ka {-ka.}
Skt: - num. one; alone, only; single; one and the same, common; ... - Mac057-2
Bur: {-ka.} - n. acre (frm Eng) -- MED2006-613

acre - n. Abbr. A a. A. ac. 1. A unit of area in the U.S. Customary System, used in land and sea floor measurement and equal to 160 square rods, 4,840 square yards, or 43,560 square feet. -- AHTD



एकक [eka-ka] (aka, ika),
- a. single, solitary; -kapala, a. (-) contained in a single bowl; -karman, a. having the same business as (in); -karya, (fp.)n. one and the same business; a. having one and the same purpose: -tva, n. abst. N.; -kala, a. simultaneous: -m, ad. only once a day: -ta, f., -tva, n. simultaneousness; -kalikam, ad. only once a day; -kriya, a. having one and the same business; -khura, a. single-hoofed; m. animal with uncloven hoofs; -gramina, a. dwelling in the same village.


{-kn} --> एकं
Skt: एकं  ekaṃ - one , single -- UKT derived from SpkSkt sentences given below.
Pal: {-kn}
- - UHS-PMD0251
  UKT from UHS: single stroke, taken together

UKT 140202: SpkSkt gives the following sentences:
एकं आसन्दं आनयतु ekaṃ āsandaṃ ānayatu - Bring me a chair.
एकं अपि यानं न आगतम् ekaṃ api yānaṃ na āgatam - Not a single bus has come.


- n. of a Bodhisattava: - FE-BHS152c1


- adj. (= Pali id.), in one mass, entire, said of a Tathāgata's body that is not divided into separate relics; SP 240.11 ... - FE-BHS152c1




एकचक्र [ eka-kakra ]
- a. one-wheeled: -vart-in, a. moving on one wheel; m. sole monarch: -i-t, f. abst. ɴ.; -kakshus, a. one-eyed (also of a needle); -kar, a. living alone; solitary; m. N. of Siva; -krin, f. faithful wife or mistress (devoted to a single man); -kitta, n. one and the same thought, unanimity; thought directed to one and the same object; a. of one mind; thinking of one object only, absorbed; thinking only of (--): -t, f. unanimity; intentness on one object only, --bh, become unanimous; -kkhattra, a. having only one royal umbrella, ruled by a single king; -gta, pp. begotten by the same father or parents; of equal birth; -gti, a. having but one birth; m. Sdra.

एकचक्षुस्  ekacakṣus
Skt: -kakshus, a. one-eyed (also of a needle) -- Mac057c1
Skt: एकचक्षुस्  ekacakṣus - adj. one-eyed - SpkSkt
Pal: {-ka.sak~hku.}
- UHS-PMD0252
  UKT from UHS: mfn. having one eye only.


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एकतत्पर [ eka-tatpara ]
- a. solely intent on; -tam (or -), spv. one among many; -tara, a. cpv. one of two (sts.= eka-tama); -tas, ad. = ab. of eka; from or on one side; ekatas-ekatas or anyatas, on the one side--on the other; here--there; ()-t, f. unity, union, identity: -m api-y, be united with (in.); -tna, a. intent on one object only (often --): -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -tla, a. having but one fan-palm; -trthin, a. inhabiting the same hermitage; -to-dant, a. having teeth in one jaw only; -tra = lc. of eka, one; in one place, together; -trims, a. thirty-first; -trimsat, f. (-) thirty-one; -tva, n. unity; union; identity; singular (gr.); -m gam, be united with (in.); -d, ad. simultaneously; some times; once upon a time, one day; -duhkha, a. having the same pains; -drisya, fp. alone worthy to be seen; -drishti, f. gaze directed to a single object, unaverted gaze; -devaty, a. sacred to a single deity; -desa, m. some place; part; identical spot; -dhana, . n. one part of the property; . m. pitcher with which water is drawn for a certain rite; , f. pl. (sc. pas) the water drawn with it; . a. having as the single, i.e. highest treasure, quite filled with (--); -dharma, a. homogeneous; -dharmin, a. id.; -dh, ad. singly, simply; at once, together; continuously; -nakshatr, n. lunar mansion consisting of a single star, whose name occurs simply (without prva or uttara); -nardhipa, m. emperor.


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एकपतिका eka-pati-ka
- a. having the same husband; -patni-t, f. having one wife in common; -patn, f. (-) wife of any one man, faithful spouse; a. pl. having one and the same husband; -pd (or -), strong base -pd, f. -pad, a. one-footed; -pada, n. one and the same spot: -m, lc. at once, suddenly, in a trice; a. (-) one-footed; only one step long: -m, ad. in short; -pad, f. verse consisting of one pda; -pad, f. foot-path; -par, a. marked with one point (die); -pna, m. single wager or stake; -ptin, a. isolated, separate; connected: pl. taken together; -pda, m. one foot; a. (-) one-footed; -prthiva, m. sole monarch; -piṅga, m. (quite brown) ep. of Kubera: -la, m. id.: -‿akala, m. Kubera's mountain, i. e. the Himavat; -pta, a. quite yellow; -prakhya, a. homogeneous; uniform; -phala, a. bearing the same fruit as (--); -buddhi, a. unanimous; simple-minded; m. N. of a fish; f. simple conception (ph.); -bhakta, pp. serving or kept by one master; n. eating one meal a day; -bhakti-ka, a. taking only one meal a day; -bhaksha, m. sole food; -bhva, m. simplicity, straightforwardness, sincerity; a. having one and the same nature; honest, sincere; behaving uprightly towards (g.); -bhvin, a. becoming one, coalescing; -bh- ta, ( p057c3end-p058c1begin) pp. undivided; closely attentive; -bh mi‿svara, m. sole ruler of earth; -bhogin, a. eating only once a day; -mati, f. unanimity; concentration of mind; a. unanimous; -manas, a. having the mind fixed on one object, attentive (sts. --); unanimous; -maya, a. () consisting exclusively of, quite filled with (--); -mukha, a. superintended by one; -mrti, f. one person; -mla, a. having a single root.

एकपद  ekapada
Skt: -pada, n. one and the same spot -- Mac057c2
Skt: एकपद  ekapada - adj. occupying only one panel, consiting of a single word, named with a single word, taking one step -- SpkSkt
Pal: {-ka.pa.da.} - UHS-PMD0254
  UKT from UHS: n. single {poad}, single purpose
{poad} - n. . word. . orth. punctuation mark. part numerical classifier for counting pieces of writing such as articles, verse, songs, etc. [Pal [pa.da.}] -- MLC MED2006-274


एकपदा ekapadā
Skt: -pad - f. verse consisting of one pda -- Mac057c2
Skt: एकपदा  ekapadā - f. verse consisting of only one pAda or quarter stanza -- SpkSkt 



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UKT notes

Checking nuclear-vowel by coda consonant

- UKT 150625

This is the first time we are meeting Middle or Mid-vowel, and the problems are many, the chief being with English (Eng-Lat).

See English pronunciation guide - EPG-indx.htm (link chk 150625)
and proceed to Vowels - EPG-vow.htm (link chk 150625)
The following is an edited excerpt from DJPD16-168 on English letter E .

The letter <e> at the end of an English word frequently has no pronunciation at all. It is then called Silent E. Children are taught that it is also the Magic E, because adding it to a word at the end can change the word like <tap> instantly into <tape>.

The vowel letter [e] has two main strong pronunciations linked to spelling: a 'short' pronunciation /e/ and a 'long' pronunciation /iː/. However, the situation is not clear cut and other pronunciations are available.

The 'short' pronunciation always occurs when the [e] is followed by a consonant which closes the syllable, or a double consonant before another vowel, e.g.:

<bed>  /bed/
<bedding>  /ˈbed.ɪŋ/

Leaving aside the double letters such as <dd>, if we concentrate on the single end consonant aka coda, we notice that it has an effect on the preceding vowel. For example, a nasal consonant has an effect differently than that of a non-nasal, especially on voice quality. Thus:
nasal ending: <ben>  /ben/ - can have three pitch-registers also mistakenly called "tones", with vowel duration of 1/2 eye-blk, 1 eye-blk, and 2 eye-blk. Bur-Myan needs another, called "emphatic" with duration 2 eye-blk and pronounced with emphasis.
non-nasal: <bed> /bed/ - can have only one register or tone.

You should read everything in section on English letter E .

English and Pali have only one mid-vowel /e/, whereas Burmese and Sanskrit have two, {} /e/ & {} /ɛ/.

Checking the vowel {} /e/ with killed consonants is not very common in Bur-Myan. We have only a few cases, e.g.

{hk} + {t} -->  {hkt}
{} + {t} --> {t} as found in {t~ta} 'box'

Instead of checking the vowel {} /e/ with {t} /t/ results in pronunciation /ɪt/ (notice the small-cap /ɪ/). The syllable {t} has the same pronunciation as {ic} 'wood or timber', but still the correct spelling is {t~ta} 'box'.

In representing Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan syllables with English letters, you must not rely too much on English phonology. Remember, Burmese and Pali as spoken in Myanmarpr are Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) languages and English is IE (Indo-European). Moreover, Bur-Myan as a Tib-Bur language does not belong to Sino-Tibetan languages. I cannot agree with the recent grouping of Burmese under Sino-Tibetan languages. Remember also that Pali as spoken in Myanmarpr is different from Pali as spoken in Sri Lanka. Pali as spoken in Myanmarpr is derived from Ancient Magadhi (via northern mountain routes taken by King Abhiraja long before the time of the Gautama Buddha.). Pali, Lankan-Pali and International Pali are the result of mixing of Magadhi and southern Indian languages.

Go back checking-vow-note-b

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The Problem of IPA vowel /e/

UKT140126, 170113:

The glyph {} is pronounced in Bur-Myan either as {} (2 eye-blink) or  {:} (2 blnk+emphasis). It is never pronounced as {:.} (1/2 blnk) though the phoneme is present in Bur-Myan.

The glyph {}, known as the vowel-letter-,  is one of the most easily recognized by lay Bur-Myan.

However, short vowel-letter-I,  {I.} (1 blnk), is the least known even among most of the modern "educated" Bur-Myan. They usually describe it as the conjunct of {ka.}-over- {ku.}. By "they" I mean most of the students, children and adults alike, not only from Yangon. but from all over the country including the minorities - Chin, Kachin, Karen, Mon, Shan, etc.) whom I came to meet at TIL Research station at 35 Thantada Lan, Sanchaung, Yangon.

It is interesting to note that the long vowel-letter-I (2 blnk), do not have the same glyph in Bur-Myan, , and Mon-Myan .

Listen to how Mon-Myan speakers sing their vowels:
- row#1vow<))
- row #2vow<))

Remember, Romabama is based on Bur-Myan phonology and is not applicable to Mon-Myan, in spite of the glyphs being almost the same. However, in pronouncing Pali words, the two ethnic groups pronounce almost the same and is recognizable in Romabama. This is because my transcription in Romabama relies only on broad transcription (phonemics) rather than on narrow transcription (phonetics).

First let us listen to the sounds of English, our transcripting language, in which the vowel /e/ is checked, remembering that English is notoriously non-phonetic whereas Burmese is phonetic and the spelling closely follows the pronunciation. The following are in English Pronunciation Guide, Vowels - EPG-vow.htm (link chk 170113)

English word - IPA transcription - sound sample to click on
<end>      - /end/ (/e/ checked by /nd/) - <))
<bell>       - /bel/ (/e/ checked by /l/      - <))
<pen>      - /pen/ (/e/ checked by /n/    - <))
<check>  - /tʃek/ (/e/ checked by /k/     - <))

These are just what I have at present. Find others what you think would "rhyme" with the Bur-Myan sounds where the vowel /e/ is checked:

{mt~ta} 'love'
{t~ta} 'box'
{hkt} 'Times' - as in the name of a Burmese newspaper {ba.ma.hkt} 'Burma Times'

{ba.ma.hkt} was a popular newspaper particularly among the young readership because of spicy stories and shapely female legs. On the other hand, the prime minister U Nu was a devout Theravada Buddhist who like the older generation look down on such display of sexy things in public. They surely would like to punish the upstart newspaper for such behaviour. Yet, because of the right of freedom of speech they could not do anything. Again and again, the paper was a pain-in-neck for U Nu's government. It was giving hell to all the government departments, and the education departments were not excepted. In:
1948 - when it printed the whole set of Matriculation Exam Questions which had been leaked and was available in Rangoon "ostensibly" for candidates in the district. The Matriculation Exam Board had only a few days to reset the whole of set of questions and sent them out in time to the various exam centres in the districts.
March 1956 - the Seventh Standard Exam Questions were reported leaked. The student unions of the high schools led the student union of the Rangoon University (in the hands of the leftist-leaning students dubbed by the government as Communists and Red-Socialists) marched to the newspaper buildings situated at the corner of Ko-Min-Ko-Chin Lan (old Churchill Rd), and Boundary Road in Bahan township, to destroy the offending newspaper. The police were called in and they did NOT shoot at the students. Their rifles clearly shot into air - aimed over the heads of the marching students. Unfortunately a Chinese student, Harry Tan by name, who was watching the event from the top of opposite hill was hit and killed. The Prime Minister U Nu ordered that every candidate be given a pass. At that time U Nu's democratically elected government was facing Communist rebellions by Red Flags led by Thakhin Soe and White Flags led by Thakin Than Tun. It was also facing a civil disobedience movement by Red-Socialists in Rangoon and major towns.
- I am a witness to both events. In 1956 I was already working as an Assistant Lecturer in the Chemistry Dept. of Rangoon University.

Since none of what I have given above where English <e> is checked would "rhyme" with the above Bur-Myan sounds, I have to look again. Now we must remember that /e/ and Bur-Myan {} are close-mid front vowels, and so the candidate must also be close and front, which is /ɪ/ - the IPA "small-capital I".

English word - IPA transcription - sound sample to click on
<it> - /ɪt/ (/ɪ/ checked by /t/) - <)) : those of you who speak and write Bur-Myan will note that this
<hill> - /hɪl/ (/ɪ/ checked by /l/) - <))
<sit> - /sɪt/ (/ɪ/ checked by /t/) - <))
<chick> - /ʧɪk/ (/ɪ/ checked by /k/) - <))

<fill> - /fɪl/ (/ɪ/ checked by /l/) - <))
<build> - /bɪld/ (/ɪ/ checked by /ld/ - <))
<been> - /biːn, bɪn/ (US) /bɪn/ (/ɪ/ checked by /n/ in US & Canadian dialects) <))

Those of you who speak and write Bur-Myan will note that <it> & <sit> rhyme with {hkt} 'Times'. Because of this I have adopted the {t} for this rime: note the diacritic over <i> which even if lost would still give the correct sound. If I had used {it} the pronunciation comes out as:

{ait} rhyming with <wait> - /weɪt/ <)).
UKT 140126: Many years ago, when I had only a bird's eye view of phonetics, I had to choose Romabama transcription for {loan:tn a.t} and {loan:tn hkyan:gnn a.t}. I had chosen
- {ai~} for {loan:tn a.t} , and
- {ei~} for {loan:tn hkyan:gnn a.t}
based on English words such as <wait> - /weɪt/. I should have chosen the other way around based on phonetics. At present Romabama spellings are well set, and I could not change them.

Go back problem-vow-e-note-

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End of TIL file