Update: 2017-01-26 05:56 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{iRi.Na.} cont
  p056-2c3-b11 - moved to p056-2.htm
{iRi.tu.} : same as Pal: {U.tu.}. Look up entries with   {U.} in p044-2.htm to p046.htm


UKT notes :
Mantra & Yantra : of the group of three
  - Tantra 'method', Mantra 'oral recitation describing each step of the method', Yantra 'finished product'
Narada Rishi : {na-ra.da. ra..}
Ribhu : humans who became immortals
Ritusamhara - poems of Seasons by Kalidasa: with Bur-Myan equivalents
Spear, dart, and arrow


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p056-2c3-b11 - moved to p056-2.htm

[ rina-kartri ]
- a. contracting debts; -kheda, m. discharge of a debt; -ta, f. indebtedness; -dasa, m. one who pays his debt by becoming a slave; -ntrmoksha, m. release from an obligation to (g.); -pradatri, m. money-lender; -vat, a. indebted (to, g.) ; -samuddhara, m. discharge of debt.


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ऋणादान [ rina‿dna ]
- n. recovery of debt; (a‿a) non-payment of debt; -‿apanayana, n. discharge of an obligation or debt.



ऋणिक [ rin-ika ]
- m. debtor; -in, a. indebted; m. debtor.



ऋणोद्धार [ rina‿uddhra ]
- m. discharge of a debt.

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ऋत [ ri-t ]
- pp. fitting, right; upright, honest; true; n. established order; sacred ordinance, pious work, sacrifice, rite; divine law; truth, right: -m, ad. rightly, properly: w. i, go the right way (also fig.); w. vad, promise; in. ad. duly; justly; truly; indeed; -gta, pp. duly produced; sacred: -g, a. knowing the divine law, pious; -dyumna, a. delighting in truth; -n, a. guiding rightly; -p, a. maintaining the divine law; ()-pragta, pp. = rita-gta. 



ऋतय [ rita-ya ]
- den. . act rightly.



ऋतया [ rita-y ]
- in. ad. rightly; -yg, a. rightly yoked; well allied; -vat, a. having or speaking truth; -sp, a. practising piety; -stbh, a. rightly praising.



ऋताय [ rit-ya ]
- den.: pt. -yt, following the right way; obedient, pious; -yn, a. regular; just; pious.



ऋतावन् [ rit-van ]
- a. (-var) observing order, regular; pious; just; sacred, holy; -vrdh, a. delighting in the divine law, holy.

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  - same as Pal: {U.tu.} - Look up entries with {U.} in p044-2.htm to p046.htm

UKT 170126: "In Sanskrit the pronunciation [of ऋ ] varies based on the geography and native language of the speakers. ... In Maharashtra and Karnataka, the letter ऋ is pronounced 'Ru', whereas it is pronounced 'Ri' by speakers of Hindi. The Hindi script is identical to the Sanskrit script. " -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richa 170126
It means that the letter ऋ can also be a back-vowel. It shows why {iRi.tu.} can also be pronounced as {uRu.tu.} from which we get the Pali equivalent {U.tu.}. See below in UHS-PMD0208

ऋतु rtu [ ri-t ]
Skt: ऋतु [ ri-t ]- m. fixed time, right time for sacrifice; period, season; the menses, esp. the days immediately following and suitable for conception; sexual intercourse at such time; settled sequence; order; rule: in. sg. & pl. at the right time, in due season; lc. at the proper season. -- Mac057c1
Pal: {U.tu.}
- - UHS-PMD0208

UKT from UHS: m. season of the year marked by low and high temperature, menstrual blood

UKT 150622: When we go from Sanskrit to Pali, we expect to find {iRi.tu.} --> {I.tu.}. Instead we find {U.tu.} - not only a change of rhotic to non-rhotic, but becoming more "open".


ऋतु [ ri-t ]
- m. fixed time, right time for sacrifice; period, season; the menses, esp. the days immediately following and suitable for conception; sexual intercourse at such time; settled sequence; order; rule: in. sg. & pl. at the right time, in due season; lc. at the proper season.

ऋतु [ ri-t ]
Skt: ऋतु [ ri-t ] - m. season; the menses - Mac057c1
Skt: ऋतु ṛtu - m. season, menses - SpkSkt
Pal: {U.tu.} - UHS-PMD0206
  UKT from UHS: m. meteorology   season, physiology  menses


BHS: ṛtuka - adj. (ifc.) and subst. nt. (Pali -utuka, in sabbotuka), (1), of, belonging to, a season : Divy 167.8 ... - FE-BHS151c2.




ऋतुकाल [ ritu-kla ]
- m. proper season; period of the menses; the days immediately following suitable for conception; -gush, a. f. being in the days favourable for conception; -th, ad. regularly; -pti, m. lord of seasons; duly; exactly; -parna, m. N. of a king of Ayodhy; -mt, a. observing regular seasons: -, f. marriageable; being at the period suitable for conception; -rga, m. spring; -liṅga, n. characteristic mark of a season; -ss, ad. duly; -samhra, m. collection of the seasons: T. of a poem by Klidsa; -samaya, m. time favourable for conception; -snt, pp. f. having bathed after menstruation, prepared for sexual intercourse.

ऋतुसंहार ṛtusaṃhāra
Skt: -samhra, m. collection of the seasons: T. of a poem by Klidsa - Mac057c1
Pal: {n-ha-ra.} - UHS-PMD0935
  UKT from UHS: m. carried well, collection, summarizing

UKT 150623: From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%B9%9Atusa%E1%B9%83h%C4%81ra 150623
"Ṛtusaṃhāra often written Ritusamhara, ऋतुसंहार = ऋतु ṛtu 'season' + संहार saṃhāra 'compilation' is a long poem or mini-epic in Sanskrit by Kalidasa. The poem has six cantos for the six Indian seasons - grīṣma 'summer', varṣā 'monsoon/rains', śarat 'autumn', hemanta 'cool', śiśira 'winter', and vasanta 'spring'. It is generally considered to be Kaldiasa's earliest work."

See my note on Ritusamhara - a collection of poems by Kalidasa :
I've given the Bur-Myan equivalents of Indian seasons.


BHS ṛddhi - f. (= Skt. id., Pali iddhi ), supernatural or magic power, hardly significantly different from its Skt. use; ... - FE-BHS151c2
Pal: {AId~Di} - UHS-PMD0194c1
  UKT from UHS: f. accomplishment, supernatural power, supernatural power of mortals, a medicinal plant.


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ऋते [ ri-t ]
- (pp. lc.) prp. apart from, without, except; when there is no - (ac., ab.).



ऋतेजा [ rite-g ]
- a. living in or faithful to the law.



ऋतेरक्षस् [ rite-rakshas ]
- a. excluding the evil spirits.





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ऋतोक्ति [ rita‿ukti ]
- f. truthful declaration.



ऋत्वन्त [ ritu‿anta ]
- m. end of the seasons; a. ending a season.



- a. sacrificing regularly; m. priest



ऋत्विय [ ritu‿ya ]
- a. according to rule, regular; knowing the ritual.


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ऋद् [ rid ]
- i. p. rda (V. also rida), disperse (int.); agitate, torment; cs. ... ...


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ऋद्धि [ rd-dhi ]
- f. prosperity, welfare, fortune; wealth; -mat, a. prosperous, wealthy; rich in (--).

ऋद्धि [ rd-dhi ] --> {RAId~Di.}
Skt: ऋद्धि [ rd-dhi ] - f. prosperity, welfare, fortune; wealth; - Mac057c2
Pal: {AId~Di.} - UHS PMD0194
  UKT from UHS: f. prosperity, supernatural power, supernatural power acquired by human, a medicine


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{ RI.Da.}/{iRi.Da.}


ऋध् [ ridh ], iv. p. ridhya; v.p. ridh-nti; v. also vii. ri-n-dh, thrive, prosper; further; accomplish; ps. ridhya, thrive; be brought about: pp. riddha, ...


ऋध्यति { ऋध् } ṛdhyati { ṛdh }
= ऋ ध ् य त ि
- v. p.   make prosperous, grow, accomplish, promote, succeed, increase - SpkSkt

समृध samṛdha
= स म ृ ध
Skt: [sm-riddha ] - fulfilled; perfect; rich, wealthy; plenteous, abundant, much; supplied or furnished with (in., ab., -); cs. fulfil; supply with (in.) - Mac057c2
Skt: समृध samṛdha - adj. complete, perfect, full - SpkSkt

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ऋधक् [ rdh-ak (or-k) ]
- ad. apart; separately, singly.

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ऋबीस [ rib&isharp;sa ]
- n. crack in the earth, chasm.

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ऋभु [ ribh- ]
- a. [√rabh] skilful, clever, expert; m. artificer; N. of three divine artificers; -kshn, -ksh, m. N. of the first Ribhu; ep. of Indra and of the Maruts; -mat, a. accompanied by the Ribhus.

See my note on Ribhus ऋभु ṛbhu - the first three clever humans who became equal to gods


ऋभ्वन् [ rbhu‿an ]
= ऋ भ ् व न ्
- a. dexterous.

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ऋश्य [ rsya ]
= ऋ श ् य --> {RAIsh~ya.}
- m. the male of a kind of antelope; -d (√d, bind), pit for catching antelopes; -sriṅga, m. N.

ऋश्य [ rsya ]
Skt: ऋश्य [ rsya ] - m. the male of a kind of antelope; - Mac057c3
Pal: {AI~a.} - UHS PMD0196
  UKT from UHS: m. "flying deer" [presumably because of its swiftness]


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- . i.p. rsha , flow, glide. abhi , flow towards (ac.)



ऋष् [rish]
Skt: - . vi. p. rish , pierce, push, thrust. ni , put in; conceal; fill; pp. nyrishta , filled or abounding with (in.) -- Mac057c3
Skt: अर्षति { ऋष् } arṣati { ṛṣ } - verb 1 spear, perforate, pierce -- SpkSkt



ऋषभ [ risha-bh ]
- m. bull; male (--); best, noblest among (g., --); N. of a king; N. of a mountain: -ka, m. N. of a king.



ऋषि rsi [ rsh-i ]
--> {iRi.Si.}/ {yRi.Si}
-- m. bard or author of sacred hymns [UKT: mantra], poet, priestly singer; saint or sage of the olden time; a special class of revered beings, whose number is often limited to seven; C. person renowned for wisdom and piety, esp. an anchorite: pl. the seven stars of the great Bear; -kumra, m. anchorite boy; -tva, n. state of a Rishi; -putra, m. son of a Rishi; -yaga, m. sacrifice to the Rishis = Vedic study; -vat, ad. like a Rishi.
Skt: ऋषि ṛṣi - m. seven RSis -- SpkSkt
*Skt:  सर्प ऋषि sarpa ṛṣi m. serpent RSi -- SpkSkt

ऋषि rsi [ rsh-i ]
--> {iRi.Si.}/ {yRi.Si}
Skt: ऋषि [ rsh-i ] -- m. bard or author of sacred hymns mantra [UKT: mantra is a yogic spell to be recited over a yantra or instrument], poet, priestly singer; saint or sage of the olden time; a special class of revered beings, whose number is often limited to seven; C. person renowned for wisdom and piety, esp. an anchorite: pl. the seven stars of the great Bear; -- Mac057-1c3
Pal: {I.i.} - spelled with vowel letter. Trivially, but erroneously, may be written as {i.i.}
- UHS-PMD0194

UKT from UHS: m. rishi, an honest and pure (in conduct and mentality) person such as a Buddha.
I avoid using the word "holy" because the world is full of "holy thugs" in the guise of religious garb.


ऋषि [ rsh-i ]
Skt: ऋषि [ rsh-i ] - m. ...; saint or sage of the olden time; ... - Mac057c3
Pal: {I.i.} - UHS-PMD0195
  UKT from UHS: m. {ra.}

UKT 150625: Compare Buddhist Narada Rishi to his Hindu counterpart.

Ṛṣipatana (in mss. also paṭana, paṭṭana, pattana, bhavana), or Ṛṣivadana, nt. or (LV) m.,
- n. of the deer-park at Banares where Buddha preached his first sermon. ... FE-BHS152c2






- (only g. pl) heat, flame



ऋष्टि [ rish-t ]
= ऋ ष ् ट ि --> {RI.S~TI.}
Skt: ऋष्टि [ rish-t ] - f. spear. - Mac057c3
Pal: {I.u.} - UHS-PMD0196
  UKT from UHS: - arrow

UKT 150624: Since both spear and arrow are projectiles, the spellings for them should be similar. See my note on spear, dart, and arrow .


ऋष्यमूक [ rishya-mka ]
- m. N. of a mountain; -sriṅga, m.= risya-sriṅga.



ऋष्व [ rish-v ]
- a. high, lofty; sublime.

( end of p057-1.htm )

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UKT notes

Mantra and Yantra

-- UKT 140403, 170108 : 
  Tantra 'method', Mantra 'oral recitation describing each step of the method', and Yantra 'finished product', must be explained together:

See also:
Tantric Buddhism by N Dutt, 1964, downloaded in TIL HD-PDF Library and backup in TIL SD-PDF Library
  - NDutt-TantricBuddhism<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170113)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantra 140403
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yantra 140403

Mantra मन्त्र = म न ् त ् र  [Bur-Myan {mn~ta.ra:} aka {mn~tn} ] means a sacred utterance, numinous sound, or a syllable, word, phonemes, or group of words believed by some to have psychological and spiritual power.

The Sanskrit word Yantra यन्त्र = य न ् त ् र [Bur-Myan {yn~ta.ra.}] means an "instrument" or "machine". Much like the word "instrument" itself, it can stand for symbols, processes, automata, machinery or anything that has structure and organization, depending on context. What I have in mind here is a "magic square" {in:}.

I became familiar with both the mantra and the {in:} since early teens. Ordinary Bur-Myan like my mother believes in the potency of such things : my father had warned me not to offend the believers but to show them every respect for what they truly believed. People like my mother would employ the services of an astrologer whenever she felt she needed the help of the esoteric sciences when confronted by difficulties in life. It was one of my maternal grand uncles, U Po Yin, a retired police officer who introduced one such astrologer-cum-esoterist U Khin Maung Thein of Syriam in the late 1940's extending into the 1950s. It the time of uncertainties and sudden destruction and death (the cost of a human life was the worth of a rifle bullet - probably a dime in US currency thanks to the generosities of the  Western "pacifists" headed by the Americans.) It was the period of rebellions, political assassinations, and open robbery in the whole country including Rangoon itself. My father had to travel wide throughout the country as the head of a mobile public health team and my mother was concerned for his safety.

I remember Saya U Khin Maung Thein construct an {in:} as a demonstration reciting a mantra. For the real work he had to observe the Eight Silas for a number of days, and at the astrologically correct time construct the {in:} while reciting the appropriate mantra in absolute quietness to be fully focused on every akshara or number he entered into the boundaries of the {in:}.

My father who never believed in such things would just smile, and would show every respect for the persons involved. He warned me not to offend them, because he had seen many things in his life which could not be explained by science. With such things he recommended that I neither believe nor disbelieve, but as a scientist to have an open mind.

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Narada Rishi : {na-ra.da. ra..}

UKT 150624:

A Rishi or {ra.} is celibate holy man ( {ra.}) or woman ( {ra..ma.}) of Vedic age - before the incursion of IE speakers into India. We, as Buddhists to whom celibacy and abstinence from killing a living being, are of prime importance, we could not imagine that a rhisi could have families, and could be engaged in fighting wars. Reading about the Christian Popes, and the Hindu Rishis are eye-openers.

To the Burmese Buddhists, a {ra.} is similar to the Buddha and his {ra.hn:}. There are still {ra.} in Myanmarpr. The Buddhist idea of Rishi is quite different from that of Hinduism. A glaring example is found in the case of Narada Rishi, an embryo-Buddha or a pre-Buddha. Narada Rishi {na-ra.da. ra..} - Buddha in a previous existence told in Ten Major Birth Stories.

There are 10 embryo-Buddhas as told in Ten Major Jataka stories, preceding the Gautama Buddha (the spelling "Gaudama" is wrong): starting with #01 {t-mi.ya.}-jataka, and ending in #10 {wu~n-ta.ra}-jataka. Narada Rishi {na-ra.da. ra..} is #08.

UKT150625: We remember the order of the Ten Major Jataka stories with the mnemonic :

{t za. / u. n ma. / Bu sn na / wi. w // }
See Buddhist Index by Sein'da'ma'ni U Chit Maung, (in Bur-Myan), 1976, Thudamma Wati Publishing House, Rangoon, p.145

Each story teaches a moral accomplishment of a human being. The stories were of prime importance in educating our young in days when politicians with ulterior religious motives had not interfered with our education. Each can be told without any religious implications. The stories are no longer seriously taught in Myanmarpr which is shaking the very foundations of our culture.

The spelling {w} is derived by killing the vowel in {w} with coda {}. The syllable {w} rhymes with {hkt} 'age or times'. The word {w~n-ta.ra} is easily mis-spelled and mis-pronounced.

In Hinduism, Narada Rishi नारद, nārada is reduced to the status of singer singing praises to Vishnu.

" Narada नारद nārada, ... is a Vedic sage who plays a prominent role in a number of Hindu texts, notably the Ramayana and the Bhagavata Purana. Narada is arguably ancient India's most travelled sage" - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narada 150625

In comparing personalities take care they are the same person: there can be others with the same name. For example, there are Narada Buddha, and Narada Rishi.

In books by Rhys Davids, we find the Narada Buddha. e.g.,
- Buddhist Birth Stories , 278 pdf-pages, Birth-stories-pdf<> (link chk 150625)
- Jataka Tales , 473 pdf-pages, Jataka-tales-pdf<> (link chk 150625)
Both are in TIL library, and the above links will not work on Internet. Unless the TIL library is on your hard disk, they will not work on your computer.

From Jataka Tales  Jataka-tales-pdf<>
After a very lengthy Introduction, we read on pdf-161 (regular txt p040) we read:

[ vv. 1-11.] The Apannaka and other Births which in times gone by were recounted on various occasions by the great illustrious Sage, and in which during a long period our Teacher and Leader, desirous of the salvation of mankind, fulfilled the vast conditions of Buddhahood [fn1], were all collected together and added to the canon of Scripture by those who made the recension of the Scriptures, and rehearsed by them under the name of THE JĀTAKA. ...

fn1 . Lit. perfected the vast constituents of Buddhahood, the Pāramitās are meant.

(regular txt p040, pdf p161)

228. After Revata came the Leader named Sobhita,
       Subdued and mild, unequal and unrivalled.

229. After Sobhita came the perfect Buddha - the best of men -
      Anomadassin, of infinite fame, glorious, difficult to surpass,

230. After Anomadassin came the perfect Buddha, the best of men,
     Paduma by name, unequalled, and without a rival.

230. After Paduma came the perfect Buddha, the best of men,
    Nārada by name, unequalled, and without a rival

(regular txt p042, pdf p163 end)

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Ribhus : humans who became immortals

- UKT 150623, 170110

The word Ribhus ऋभु ṛbhu is a compound word of ऋ and भु .

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribhus 150623, 170111

The Ribhus ऋभु, ṛbhu are three at first mortal beings who according to Sayana attained godhood by austerities. [1] [UKT ]

Ribhus ऋभु ṛbhu, (aka Arbhu, Rbhus, Ribhuksan) is an ancient word whose meaning evolved over time. [1] In early layers of the Vedic literature, it referred to a sun deity. [1] It evolved to being a wind deity, thereafter referred to three artisan elf men whose abilities and austerities make them into divinities in later Vedic texts. [1] [2] Their individual names were Ribhu (or Rhibhu), Vaja and Vibhvan (also called Vibhu), but they were collectively called Rhibhus or Ribhus (ṛbh-, pl. ṛbhava, also called Ribhuksan). Their name's meaning is "clever, skillful, inventive, prudent", cognate to Latin: labor and Gothic: arb-ais "labour, toil", and perhaps to English elf. [3]

Ribhus are depicted in some legends of the Vedic literature as three sons of the goddess of morning light named Saranyu and Hindu god Indra. [1] In other legends, such as in the Atharvaveda, they are sons of Sudhanvan, which means good archer. [1] [4] In either legends, they are famous for their creative abilities, innovation and they design chariots, the magic cow of plenty, channels for rivers, and tools for Indra and other gods, which makes many envious. [1] [5] In later Hindu mythology, the Ribhus are born in human form, who then bring their innovation to earth, remain humble and kind. [1] This makes some gods angry, and the Ribhus are refused entry back to heaven. [1] Other gods intervene, and make the inventive Ribhus immortal. They are revered in ancient Hindu texts as sages, as stars or rays of the sun. [1] [4]

UKT 150624: Sayana {a-ya.Na.} सायण sāyaṇa (d.1387 AD). He lived during the time of Vijayanagar Empire of South India. Timeline in Myanmarpr: Myinsaing and Pinya Period 1297 AD 1364 AD. -
See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sayana 150624
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Burma 150624

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-- UKT 140124, 170110 

I have heard the name of Kalidasa since childhood as told by my mother. A serious student of Sanskrit and Bur-Myan literatures would inevitably come across the name and works of this genius one time or another.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%B9%9Atusa%E1%B9%83h%C4%81ra 140124

Ṛtusaṃhāra often written Ritusamhara, [1] [2] ऋतुसंहार; ऋतु ṛtu, "season"; संहार saṃhāra, "compilation") is a long poem or mini-epic in Sanskrit by Kalidasa (fl. 5th century A.D.). The poem has six cantos for the six Indian seasons - grīṣma 'summer' , varṣā 'monsoon/rains', śarat 'autumn', hemanta 'cool', śiśira 'winter', and vasanta (spring). It is generally considered to be Kaldiasa's earliest work.

UKT 170110: Note dry and wet months in north-eastern and southern India are quite different, making the harvest season ocurring in different times of the solar year. Note also: Email in Romabama style doesn't differentiate English and Myanmar words with brackets such as <...> {...}. See Wikipedia on six Indian seasons of Magadha region with translations of UKT from UHS:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_India 170110
{gi.mha.} - UHS PMD0365 - m. summer U.tu., summer rasi, summer month, duration of two months: {na.yoan} and {wa-hso}
{w~a.} -UHS PMD0857c2/ {w~n~ta.} -UHS PMD0858c1/ {w~a-na.} -UHS PMD0858c2 - rain [could be shower of rain], rain U.tu. [wet season], duration of two months: {wa-hkan} and {tau-a.ln:}
{a.ra.da.} - UHS PMD1010 - mn. duration of two months: {i-tn:kywut} and {tn-hsan-moan:}, a.ra.da. U.tu.
{h-mn~ta.} - UHS PMD1087 - m. winter U.tu., duration of two months: {nt-tau} and {pra-o}
{i.i.ra.} - UHS PMD1039 - mfn. cold, m. i.i.ra. U.tu., duration of two months: {ta.po.tw:} and {ta.pan:}
  Note: It is my experience that {ta.po.tw:} is the coldest month in Kungyangon (now a part of greater Yangon) and in Mandalay it is colder with the thermometer going below 50deg.F. = 10deg.C. and sometimes we see frost.
{wa.n~ta.} -UHS PMD0856c2 - m. beginning of summer [dry season], wa.n-ta. U.tu., duration of two months {ta-ku:} [beginning of Bur-Myan solar year with water festival occurs lunar month of {ta-ku:}] in and {ka.hsoan}

The word saṃhāra is used here in the sense of "coming together" or "group". [3] It is often translated as Medley of Seasons or Garland of Seasons, but also mistranslated as "birth and death" of seasons, which arises from the alternate meaning of samhāra as destruction.

The changing seasons are depicted against the thematic backdrop of how lovers react to the landscape. This imbues the poem with a strong strand of erotic love (shringara) rasa. The predominant emphasis on a single rasa has been criticized as not living up to the standards of Kalidasa as mahākavi (great poet), with these "lapses" being attributed to the poet's immaturity. Sometimes even his authorship has been challenged on the grounds of weak poetic imagination.

As an example, here is verse 1.4 of Grishma, where the lovers are struggling against the heat:

To relieve their lovers of heat,
Women make them lie
On their girdled, round hips covered with silken robes, or
On their sandal anointed breasts
Heavy with ornaments.
They seek help from fragrant flowers
Set in coiffures after a bath,
To intoxicate and delight their lovers. [2]

Of these verses (4-9 of Grishma canto) the Mysore scholar K. Krishnamurthy says:

The sensuality and cloying love depicted in these verses is such that it cannot bring fame to any poet. [4]

However, others have cited the primacy of shringara rasa (considered as a primeval source for other rasas), and also the balance the poet seeks to achieve by setting the lovers against the background of nature, as redeeming features of the work.

UKT 140124: For more serious work you can go to http://www.sanskritdocuments.org/sites/giirvaani/giirvaani/rs/rs_1.htm 140124
An example is shown below:

प्रचण्डसूर्यः स्पृहणीयचन्द्रमाः सदावगाहक्षतवारिसञ्चयः।
दिनान्तरम्योऽभुय्पशान्तमन्मथो निदाघकालोऽयम् उपागत ॥१-१

pracaṇḍasūryaḥ spṛhaṇīyacandramāḥ
sadāvagāhakṣatavārisacayaḥ |
nidāghakālo'yam upāgataḥ || 1-1

1-1. priye = oh, dear;
ayam =
this [season];
ni daagha kaalaH =
utterly, sweltering, time [season];
pra caNDa suuryaH =
highly, rampant, of sun;
upa aagataH =
nearby, came [drawing nigh]; s
adaa =
always [in daytime];
avagaaha =
to take [daytime] baths;
kshama =
acceptable [good enough;
other mms kshata = waters depleted by sun];
vaari =
samcayaH =
heaps [plenteous waters in lakes and rivers];
dina anta =
day, at end of [at nightfall];
spR^ihaNiiya =
candramaa =
ramyaH =
pleasant [will be the nights];
manmathaH = Manmatha
, the Love-god;
[abhi upa shaanta] = [somehow] almost, be mollified

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Spear, dart, and arrow

- UKT 150625

As young boys we used to play soldiers, and we had been interested in bows and arrows. With a pliable material like the bamboo, we could easily make a simple bow with split bamboo. I had never imagined how boys could have made bows when bamboo is not available: I had not heard of the compound bow. Soon we learned to make cross-bows. Arrows can be made out of any straight part of a plant. We learned that an effective arrow must have a heavy "head", and "feathers" at the end to help it go straight.

During play we are discovering how these weapons had been developed by primitive man. Never had I imagine that I had been studying anthropology.

From: http://anthropology.umn.edu/labs/wlnaa/points/guide/sda.html 150624

"When examining stone projectile points, it is helpful to remember that they were once part of a multiple-part weapons system. Among missing parts that have long since rotted away are spear shafts, foreshafts, throwing sticks, bows, bowstrings, and binding or an adhesive. Archaeologists agree that in North America these parts were assembled into three weapons systems: the spear, the throwing stick (or atlatl), and the bow and arrow. Spears are propelled or thrust by hand. Historic hunters used them primarily to dispatch, at close range, large-bodied animals that yielded a high return for the hunting effort. They were also efficient in dispatching enemies, either animal or human.

"Darts and arrows are more general-purpose hunting weapons that were used to hunt a wider diversity of smaller animals. Other instruments also propelled both. A throwing stick, or atlatl, that extended the length and velocity of the tossing snap, propelled the dart. Historic descriptions of atlatl hunting indicate that this weapon system was most often employed with an ambush technique at very close range. Atlatls can be very accurate and deadly at medium range, too, when used by an experienced hunter.

"The bow and arrow are considered superior to the atlatl for a variety of reasons. Among these reasons are: greater mechanical efficiency (e.g., an arrow has a flatter trajectory and a higher velocity over a longer range); increased range and accuracy; arrows can be shot at a faster rate; the bow is easier to use in wooded areas and in close quarters; the bow requires less physical movement in use and is back sighted; arrows are made relatively easily and require little raw material. For these reasons, the bow when available was used throughout the world in a greater variety of hunting situations than was the atlatl. Still, the atlatl weapon system has its advantages. The system is easier to maintain in working order, it requires only one hand to launch (an advantage in a boat), it requires fewer shafts (but many foreshafts), it does not rely on strings that moisture can affect, and the dart carries greater force over short distances than an arrow. In many situations, then, the bow and arrow may not have been more efficient for hunting than the atlatl.

"Archaeologists debate the significance of the transition from spear/dart weapon systems to the bow and arrow. Some believe that the transition had profound economic consequences, and others that it escalated intergroup conflict because of its competitive advantage over other weapon systems. As a result, the dating of the appearance of the bow and arrow in Minnesota and other areas may be very important. Determining whether a stone projectile point was a spearhead, a dart, or an arrow is important, too, because each system seems to have been most effectively used in different situations."

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